IKEA is a European multinational group that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and home services. Founded in Sweden in 1943 by 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad, IKEA has been the world's largest furniture retailer since 2008. According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, as of January 2018, Kamprad was the eighth richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$58.7 billion. The company's name is an acronym that consists of the founder's initials plus those of Elmtaryd, the family farm where he was born, the nearby village Agunnaryd; the business is a private company owned by Inter IKEA Systems B. V. controlled by the sons of its founder Ingvar Kamprad. The company is known for its modernist designs for various types of appliances and furniture, its interior design work is associated with an eco-friendly simplicity. In addition, the firm is known for its attention to cost control, operational details, continuous product development that allowed IKEA to lower its prices by an average of two to three percent.
The IKEA group has a complex corporate structure, which members of the European Parliament have alleged was designed to avoid over €1 billion in tax payments over the 2009–2014 period. It is controlled by several foundations based in the Liechtenstein; as of June 2019, there are 433 IKEA stores operating in 52 countries and in fiscal year 2018, €38.8 billion worth of IKEA goods were sold. The IKEA website contains about 12,000 products and there were over 2.1 billion visitors to IKEA's websites in the year from September 2015 to August 2016. The company is responsible for 1% of world commercial-product wood consumption, making it one of the largest users of wood in the retail sector. Most of IKEA's stores and factories are owned by INGKA, a holding company controlled by the Stichting INGKA Foundation, one of the 40 wealthiest foundations in the world. INGKA received 90% of IKEA's revenue in 2018. Ingvar Kamprad founded IKEA in 1943 as a mail-order sales business, but began to sell furniture five years later.
The first store was opened in Älmhult, Småland, in 1958, under the name Möbel-IKÉA. The first stores outside Sweden were opened in Denmark; the stores spread to other parts of Europe in the 1970s, with the first store outside Scandinavia opening in Switzerland, followed by West Germany. Amid a high level of success, the company's West German executives accidentally opened a store in Konstanz in 1973 instead of Koblenz; that decade, stores opened in other parts of the world, such as Japan, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore. IKEA further expanded in the 1980s, opening stores in countries such as France and Spain, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy; the company expanded into more countries in the 1990s and 2000s. Germany, with 53 stores, is IKEA's biggest market, followed by the United States, with 51 stores; the first IKEA store in Latin America opened on 17 February 2010 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Older IKEA stores are blue buildings with yellow accents, they are designed in a one-way layout, leading customers counter-clockwise along what IKEA calls "the long natural way" designed to encourage the customer to see the store in its entirety.
There are shortcuts to other parts of the showroom. The sequence first involves going through the furniture showrooms making note of selected items; the customer collects a shopping cart and proceeds to an open-shelf "Market Hall" warehouse for smaller items visits the self-service furniture warehouse to collect noted showroom products in flat pack form. Sometimes, they are directed to collect products from an external warehouse on the same site or at a site nearby after purchase. Customers pay for their products at a cash register. Not all furniture is stocked at the store level, such as particular sofa colours needing to be shipped from a warehouse to the customer's home or to the store. Most stores follow the layout of having the showroom upstairs with the marketplace and self-service warehouse downstairs; some stores are single level, while others have separate warehouses to allow more stock to be kept on-site. Single-level stores are found predominantly in areas where the cost of land would be less than the cost of building a 2-level store.
Some stores have dual-level warehouses with machine-controlled silos to allow large quantities of stock to be accessed throughout the selling day. Most IKEA stores offer an "as-is" area at the end of the warehouse. Returned and showcased products are displayed here and sold with a significant discount, but with a no-returns policy. IKEA uses a sales technique called "bulla bulla" in which a bunch of items are purposefully jumbled in bins, to create the impression of volume, therefore, inexpensiveness; every IKEA includes a restaurant serving traditional Swedish food, including potatoes with Swedish meatballs. In Kuala Lumpur, the usual boiled or mashed potatoes have been replaced with French fries. Besides these Swedish foods, hot dogs and drinks are sold, along with a few varieties of the local cuis
Anna of Cleves was a daughter of Duke William V of Jülich-Berg and his wife, Maria of Austria. She married on 27 September 1574 in Neuburg with Count Palatine Philip Louis of Neuburg, they had the following children: Countess Palatine Anna Maria of Neuburg, married on September 9, 1591 to Frederick Wilhelm I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Dorothea Sabine Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg, married: in 1613 Magdalene of Bavaria in 1631 Countess Palatine Catharina Charlotte of Zweibrücken in 1651 Countess Maria Francisca of Fürstenberg Otto Henry Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, married: in 1620 Hedwig of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Amalia Hedwig John Frederick, Count Palatine of Sulzbach-Hilpoltstein, married: in 1624 Agnes of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Louis V Sophie Barbara Andreas Thiele: Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte. Band I, Teilband 2: Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs-, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser II. Fischer, Frankfurt am Tafel 485 Siegrid Westphal: Konversion und Bekenntnis.
Konfessionelle Handlungsfelder der Fürstinwitwe Anna im Zuge der Rekatholisierung Pfalz-Neuburgs zwischen 1614 und 1632. In: Vera von der Osten-Sacken, Daniel Gerth: Fürstinnen und Konfession. Beiträge hochadeliger Frauen zu Religionspolitik und Bekenntnisbildung. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte, Beihefte, Band 104, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-52510-136-0, p. 317
Frederick Rotimi Alade Williams, QC, SAN was a prominent Nigerian lawyer, the first Nigerian to become a Senior Advocate of Nigeria. In the 1950s, he was a member of the Action Group and subsequently became the minister for local government and Justice, he was the president of the Nigerian Bar Association in 1959, the association is the leading body for lawyers in the country. He left politics as a result of the political crisis in the Western Region of Nigeria. Throughout his career, he was involved in some memorable and important court cases, such as Lakanmi vs the Western Government of Nigeria, which set the precedent that a military government could not use its power to make laws that will appropriate an individuals property; the Oloye Williams, himself a Yoruba chieftain, was among a group of lawyers that represented the Oba of Lagos, Adeniji Adele, against challenges by the Nigerian National Democratic Party. The latter had gained solidarity and foundation from the ruling House of Docemo in Lagos.
Rotimi Williams was born on 16 December 1920 in Lagos. His older brother was Akintola Williams, born a year earlier, who became a distinguished Chartered Accountant, his father and uncle were both lawyers, were called to the bar in 1927 and 1892 respectively. He entered primary school in the 1930s, at the Methodist Ologbowo School went to C. M. S Grammar School, Lagos for secondary education. Despite being given a full scholarship to study mechanical engineering at Yaba Higher College, he chose to become a lawyer, he earned his bachelor's degree in 1942 and was called to the bar at the Gray's Inn, London in 1943. He set up the first indigenous Nigerian law firm in 1948 with Chief Remilekun Fani-Kayode and Chief Bode Thomas; the law firm was called "Thomas and Kayode". In 1943, he became the first Nigerian solicitor to the Supreme Court of Nigeria and soon thereafter entered the political arena as a member of the Nigerian Youth Movement, he rose to become the movement's general secretary. However, the movement was soon embroiled in a crisis which dented its political support among the Nigerian masses.
When the movement began to fade politically, he was one of the educated members of the Nigerian political class who joined the Action Group. He was the group's legal adviser in the early 1950s and was a member of the Western region's privy council, he was elected into the Lagos Town Council in 1953 and was subsequently made chairman of the council. In 1957, he became the Western Region's Attorney General, the first Nigerian to be an attorney general, he was made Queen's Counsel in 1958, another first for him, as he was one of the first two Nigerians to be made one. In 18 October 1975, Rotimi Williams became the chairman of the Constitutional Drafting Committee; the body was formed to present a draft constitution to be approved by the military administration of Obasanjo. He led the convention to present an agenda for broad coalition building across ethnic and regional lines; the body pushed for presidential winners to have at least 25% of the total votes cast in two thirds of the nineteen states in Nigeria and that each of the 19 states of the federation should have a minister representing them.
The political parties should have support in at least two thirds of the states