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IMZ-Ural is a Russian maker of heavy sidecar motorcycles. In 1940, the Soviet Union acquired the design and production techniques for BMW R71 motorcycles and sidecars; the first M-72 model was finished in 1941. Factories were to be located in Moscow and Kharkov, but due to the approach of Nazi German troops, the Moscow facilities were moved to Irbit, the Leningrad and Kharkov facilities to Gorkiy. Plans for the M-72 were sold to the Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation, a Chinese industrial firm, to build the Chang Jiang; the origins of the IMZ-Ural are linked to developments in the Eastern Front during World War II. The Soviet Union was preparing for possible military action by Nazi Germany. Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet military to prepare in all possible areas, including the ground forces that would be defending the Soviet Union against invading German tanks and infantry. Mobility was stressed after the Soviet Union had witnessed the effect of the blitzkrieg on Poland. A meeting was held at the Soviet Defence Ministry to devise a motorcycle that would be suitable for the Red Army.

The Red Army wanted to modernize its equipment after the suspension of the Winter War with Finland. The motorcycles used up to that point had not been satisfactory; the motorcycle was "modeled after a late-1930s BMW sidecar bike called the R71, which Nazi Germany provided to the Soviet Union after the countries signed a nonaggression Molotov–Ribbentrop pact in 1939."According to official accounts, after lengthy discussion, the BMW R71 motorcycle was found to match the Red Army's requirements. Five units were covertly purchased through Swedish intermediaries. Soviet engineers in Moscow dismantled the five BMWs, reverse engineered the BMW design in every detail and made molds and dies to produce engines and gearboxes in Moscow. Early in 1941, the prototypes of the Dnepr M-72 motorcycle were shown to Stalin who made the decision to enter mass production. One of the original BMWs purchased through the Swedish intermediaries survives, is displayed in the IMZ-Ural factory museum. In 1941, BMW began series production of the R75 and ended production of the R71.

As production escalated, the Moscow Motorcycle Plant was established, producing hundreds of Russian M-72 sidecar motorcycles. The Nazi Blitzkrieg was so fast and effective that Soviet strategists worried that the Moscow factory was within range of German bombers; the decision was made to move the motorcycle plant east, out of bombing range and into the resource rich Ural mountain region. The site chosen was the town of Irbit, located on the fringe of Siberia in the Ural mountains. Irbit had once been an important Trade and Fair centre in Russia before the Revolution of 1917; the only available substantial building was a brewery outside of town, beyond the railway line. It was converted into a research and development building to prepare for the construction of a massive new facility to build the M-72 motorcycle. On October 25, 1942 the first batch of motorcycles went to the front. During WWII a total of 9,799 M-72 motorcycles were delivered for reconnaissance detachments and mobile troops. After WWII the factory was expanded, in 1950 the 30,000th motorcycle was produced.

The "URAL" was built for the military only. In the late 1950s, the KMZ plant in Ukraine assumed the task of supplying the military, the Irbit Motorcycle Works focused on making bikes for domestic consumers. In the late 1950s the full production of the plant was turned over to non-military production. In 1957, the M-72 production lines were sold to the People's Republic of China; the export history of URALs started at first to developing countries. Between 1973 and 1979, Ural was one of the makes marketed by SATRA in the UK as Cossack motorcycles; the main products today are the heavy duty Ural sidecar motorcycles with two-wheel-drive designed for rough, rugged terrain, cT model for urban commuting and paved road touring. There are many places in Russia where poor roads, or a lack of roads, makes horses and URAL motorcycles necessary to transport gear. URAL motorcycles have four-stroke, fuel injected air-cooled, flat-twin engines, a four speed gear box with reverse gear, shaft drive, two disc dry clutch, spring shock absorbers, disc brakes on all three wheels.

The company has developed an engine that meets the standards required by the modern sporting and leisure rider. Though the outward appearance of the engine is the same as before, new quality control techniques employ better alloying and casting, better engineering tolerances, better paint, powder coating and stainless steel exhausts while retaining the advantage of continuity with the inherently balanced design of a horizontally-opposed flat twin engine with roller bearings in a solid frame; the motorcycles are exported to Australia, the UK, Netherlands, Spain, Norway, Iceland, Germany, Iran, South Africa, Uruguay and the US. The number sold since the factory was founded exceeds 3.2 million. IMZ-Ural is the only Russian manufacturer of large capacity motorcycles and one of few manufacturers of sidecar motorcycles in the world. Like most motorcycle manufacturers, Ural now sources pre-made components in many cases — buying alternators from Nippon Denso, brakes from Brembo, handlebar controls from Domino, forks from Paioli, ignitions from Ducati Energia, etc.

The company makes the frame and body parts. The 2003 USA model featured a ne

Northern Blues

Northern Blues Football Club is a long-established Australian rules football club based in Preston and playing in the Victorian Football League. The Northern Blues are affiliated with the Carlton Blues in the AFL, play their home games at the Preston City Oval and Ikon Park; the club was established in 1882 as the Preston Football Club. The club participated in the VFA between 1903 and 1912, since 1926. After World War II, the club was known as the Bullants, wore a plain red guernsey with a white monogram; the club became the Northern Bullants. Ahead of the 2012 season, the club adopted the colours and nickname of its AFL-affiliate. In 2013 the third open age team affiliated with the Victorian Amateur Football Association began and in 2016 reverted to the name Preston Bullants; the club was formed in 1882 but little is known of its first three years before the Shire of Jika Jika changed its name in September 1885 to Preston. Preston and another local club, Gowerville merged and competed at lower levels of the Victorian Junior Football Association.

After a battle with the Council, the club was granted permission in 1887 to play on Preston Park where it had remained with the exception of one year when it played at Coburg to allow the ground to be widened. From 1890, the club played in the First Rate Division of the V. J. F. A. and despite being its remote location compared to the other clubs, was the only one of the 28 teams of 1890 to survive the decade despite finishing last or second last in five consecutive seasons. By the late 1890s the district was starting to grow and the struggling club gathered depth and strength and took out the first of three consecutive First-Rate premierships in 1900, defeating Collingwood Juniors before 5,000 people at the Brunswick Street Oval. Further premierships followed in 1901 and 1902, no finals being played as Preston finished the requisite two games clear of their nearest rivals to claim the title. With the VFA keen to expand their number of clubs, Preston were a logical choice to join the senior body in 1903, changing from a blue jumper with yellow sash to a plain maroon jumper with navy blue knicks.

Despite a reasonable opening season where they won six games, the club struggled to find players and finished last in 1904 in the middle of what was to be a 27-game losing streak. Several other bottom-of-the list results came before a brief resurgence in 1909 under former Collingwood champion Charlie Pannam, but with the loss of several key players to League clubs, Preston again went on a downward spiral and won just one game through 1910 and 1911. With Northcote joining the Association in 1908, pressure was applied for the two clubs to merge and the VFA forced the issue early in 1912. Preston officials encouraged their players to move, but diverted all the clubs trophies and assets to the junior Preston Districts club that had acted as their Seconds and the Northcote-Preston entity has never been recognised in Association records. Preston were promoted before their time: by 1912, the district numbered just 4,800 people spread over 8,800 acres. Of the other suburbs represented in the VFA, the next smallest was Brighton with 11,000.

Preston's leading player during early VFA days was Sid Hall, a centre half-back regarded as the best high mark in the competition. Despite the lack of success, Preston managed to supply some fine players to League ranks in Percy Ogden, Hedley Tompkins and Bill Hendrie, Hugh James, Joe Prince, George Doull and Eric Woods. Preston's place was taken by Melbourne City who didn't win a game in the two years before they folded; the nucleus of the Preston club returned to the First-Rate Division of the Victorian Junior Football Association. Ogden returned to captain-coach the club in 1916 and 1917 while Essendon were in recess for the First World War and by 1919 Preston re-established as one of the top teams in junior football. Young George Gough was recruited by Fitzroy as a rover. Premierships came in 1921 and again in 1923, under the coaching of William "Bull" Adams, refused a clearance to Fitzroy by his West Australian club, overrunning Yarraville in the final term despite playing one man short.

With the loss of North Melbourne and Hawthorn to the League in 1925, the Association accepted Preston and Camberwell into their ranks for the 1926 season. The team used their uniform from junior days, a broad red stripe down the chest and back and with white sides and sleeves; this time the club was ready for senior ranks, raising a few eyebrows when they won nine of the 18 games in their first season as well as supplying the Recorder Cup winner, William "Bluey" Summers. A finals appearance came the following year, Preston's first senior final finished in a draw with Brighton, who won the replay held a fortnight later; the club remained in the middle ranking of the Association up until the cessation of play during the Second World War, the highlight being a remarkable 1931 season under the legendary Roy Cazaly who sacked half the side mid-season and promoted youngsters. Needing to win 12 games straight to ensure a finals spot, Preston managed to sneak in with 11 wins and a draw, but were bundled out in the Preliminary Final after several injuries.

Despite the modest finals record, the club provided the 1934 and 1936 Recorder Cup winners in Danny Warr and Bert Hyde respectively. Leading players up to World War 2 included Summers, Warr, "Bert" Smith, Frankie "Dickie" Dowling and Bill "Socks" Maslen, the latter pa

Print Wikipedia

Print Wikipedia is an art project by Michael Mandiberg that printed 106 of the 7,473 volumes of English Wikipedia as it existed on April 7, 2015. The project shows the spines of the first 1,980 volumes in the set, supplemented by 106 actual physical volumes, each of which runs to 700 pages. A 36-volume index of all of the 7.5 million contributors to English Wikipedia is part of the project. The table of contents takes up 91 700-page volumes; the printed volume only includes text of the articles: images and references are not included. The project was shown at the Denny Gallery in New York City in the summer of 2015. Similar projects have been held with a printed part of the German Wikipedia and with the Dutch Wikipedia Mandiberg thought of the project in 2009 but ran into technical difficulties, he engaged an assistant, Jonathan Kirinathan, to aid with the programming of the code to compile and upload an entire English Wikipedia download. The print files were uploaded to self book publisher and are available for printout as paper volumes.

Mandiberg's motivation was to answer the question, "How big is it?" For a big data entity, its size is on the threshold of what can be perceived as a collection of volumes, but not so large as to overwhelm one's senses, such as the data files of Facebook or the NSA. Katherine Maher, the Executive Director of the Wikimedia Foundation, described it as "a gesture at knowledge". Wikimedia cooperated with the project and helped fund it. The task took three years, the upload process took 24 days, 3 hours and 18 minutes, it was completed on 12 July 2015. PediaPress had attempted to raise money for a full English Wikipedia printout on Indiegogo in 2014, with a goal of $50,000, but the project was pulled; the pulled project had intended to print 1,000 volumes, which would include 1,200 pages each: 1,200,000 pages in total equal to about 80 meters of shelf space. Mandiberg assured people that he won't be printing out the entire collection, claiming an entire collection is not necessary for people to comprehend the true size of Wikipedia, once people have seen a portion of it, it will help them realize its size.

Mandiberg estimates that the printing costs of a full printout would be around $500,000. The Denny art exhibit featured only a selection of actual printed volumes with about 2,000 of the other volumes represented as spines on the wall; the show revolved around the actual upload of the print files to 2015 in art Print Wikipedia web site

Fantasy football (association)

Fantasy football is a game in which participants assemble an imaginary team of real life footballers and score points based on those players' actual statistical performance or their perceived contribution on the field of play. Players are selected from one specific division in a particular country, although there are many variations; the original game was created in England by Bernie Donnelly on Saturday 14 August 1971 and is still going strong 45 years later. Fantasy football has evolved in recent years from a simple recreational activity into a significant business due to exposure via the internet. An emerging variant is club-based fantasy football in which participants select players from within their own club. Participating clubs have more than one football team and adopt club fantasy football to increase communication and banter between teams; some clubs charge a nominal amount for players to enter a team and either use the proceeds as a fundraiser or to fund the fantasy league prizes. Club fantasy football leagues tend to be less sophisticated than the national variety since most clubs run them on a spreadsheet.

Niche sports websites now offer online versions with both paid and free versions available. Most fantasy football leagues those run by national newspapers, ask participants to select 11 players within a price budget. There is a restriction on the number of players per club; some games are squad-based, where participants choose not just a first eleven but a set of substitutes. You can only use max. 3 players of one team. In smaller leagues played by a small group of people, players are bought by bidding between the rival managers rather than for a set amount of money; this means a particular player can only play for one team, thus any points he accrues are credited to that team only. Most leagues offer the chance to transfer players in and out of the team as the season progresses, in case of injury, suspension or loss of form. Points are gained or deducted depending on players' performances. Points systems vary between games, but points are awarded for some or all of the following achievements: Playing in a match Scoring a goal Earning an assist Keeping a clean sheet Saving a penalty Goalkeeper saves three shots or more Win for the player's teamAs well as the above, points can be deducted for some or all of the following: Conceding a goal Receiving a yellow or red card Missing a penalty kick Scoring an own goal Getting substituted Loss for the player's teamThe number of points each achievement or offense is credited with varies between different games.

For example, in the Daily Telegraph league, three points are awarded for an assist, five for a goal. Due to the emphasis placed on assists and goal-scoring, the value of players can differ from real-life football, both in terms of individuals and position. For example, Claude Makelele, a world-class central midfield player, was considered a valuable player in fantasy football because he was not an attacking player, as evidenced by three league goals in eight years at Real Madrid and Chelsea, zero for the French national team in seventy-one appearances. For this reason, some fantasy football games changed their scoring system to put a greater emphasis on real player performance instead of emphasizing goals and assists. For instance, the game KAISER uses player scores gained by computer analyses based on dozens of different criteria; these scores are supplied by the data provider OPTA. The game Oulala Fantasy Football uses a sophisticated scoring system. With 70 different points scoring criteria, which includes a matrix of any action that a player can perform, the criteria of 70 rises to a total of 275 dependent on each player's position on the field.

Detailed actions include corners won, shots on/off target, successful dribbles and provoking an offside as well as many more others. These stats are update in real time. Oulala ceased to exist in 2018. Most fantasy football games provide a choice of joining either public leagues. Public leagues are open to everybody and there are leagues for each club or leagues for each country. League members compete against each other and in some cases there is cash prizes for winning those leagues. Private leagues let the manager play with their friends only; some games combine this with having unique teams in the leagues. This means; as a result, there is a lot of activity on the transfer market where players are exchanged in between the community members. At the start of the season, fantasy football leagues can be set up in various ways. For leagues with unique teams, i.e. leagues where every player exists only once, there are at least two different starter options. Option 1 is a player auction; every player is auctioned and the manager of a community needs to bid for the players.

Managers have a certain budget for the auction. Option 2 is a player draft; each manager is allocated a certain number of players. For leagues without unique teams, i.e. every manager can own every player if he has sufficient funding, there is neither a draft nor an auction but managers can pick their players until they have used up their budget. Various fantasy football games with unique teams offer the option of a player auction. At the beginning of the season, players are put on a transfer m

John Leonora

John Leonora was an endocrinologist and faculty member at Loma Linda University. His research focused on the role of hypothalamic "factors" for indirectly controlling the metabolism of such avascular tissues as dental enamel and the Islands of Langerhans. John Leonora, son of Joseph Leonora and Carmela Folise Leonora, was born in Milwaukee, soon after his parents arrived as immigrants from Sicily. After Joseph Leonora died in 1942, Carmela Leonora found employment as a hand stitcher in an Italian shoe factory and John became an errand boy for businesses in Milwaukee, he excelled in school and became a proficient pianist and playing in jazz combos. He was an active member of the Italian club at Lincoln High School, he received a one-year scholarship at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Upon receiving his B. S. degree at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Leonora took an interim position as a laboratory assistant in chemistry and obtained teaching credentials at what is now Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan.

There he met Johanna Mae Zwemer, working toward a secretarial degree. They married in 1952. Leonora had returned to the University of Wisconsin. There he and his wife lived while he completed his Ph. D. obtained a federal fellowship, embarked on his career as an endocrinologist. For more than four decades, Leonora was active in his chosen field of medical physiology, he conducted research in his own laboratory. Based on his doctoral studies and subsequent research fellowship, Leonora intended to devote his career to the investigation of gonadotropic hormones. One day he received a telephone call from Ralph R. Steinman, a dental colleague, studying the flow of dentinal fluid in rats from the odontoblasts in the dental pulp through the dentin using an intraperitoneal injection of the fluorescent dye, acriflavine hydrochloride, he found that in the teeth of rats fed a cariogenic diet the flow of dentinal fluid was markedly reduced. He wondered if some systemic mechanism was involved in this impairment and so decided to contact Leonora, as an endocrinologist.

This was the beginning of a decades-long collaborative journey. Leonora first suggested that none of the recognized hormones were plausible candidates for regulating dentinal flow transport, but that the hypothalamus might well be an alternative hormonal source, they found that infusing rats with a crude extract from rabbit hypothalami triggered increased DFT activity. This, raised the question whether the hypothalamic factor had a direct effect on the teeth or rather had an indirect effect characteristic of other hypothalamic hormones. Assuming that the hypothalamic factor was mediated through one of the major salivary glands, they found that this factor was biologically active when administered to rats with intact parotid glands but was wholly ineffective in rats that had the parotid glands removed. There was no involvement of the other salivary glands, they concluded that the direct regulation of DFT was therefore secreted by the parotid glands and this endocrine function was controlled by the hypothalamus.

The next step was to isolate the purified parotid hormone from porcine glands, determine its amino acid structure and confirm its stimulation of DFT. The hypothalamic parotid hormone releasing factor was purified but not completed because of the rejection of a research grant application. While the research was thus diverted it persisted in other directions. First, an antibody to the porcine parotid hormone was produced and used for a radioimmunoassay of the parotid hormone. An ELISA method was developed for measuring the parotid hormone titer in biological fluids; the research focused on the mechanism by which dietary sucrose suppressed the DFT. Initial studies suggested. Further studies showed that the sucrose effect occurred indirectly by inhibiting secretion of the hypothalamic parotid hormone releasing factor, it was found that the sucrose effect could be reversed by the infusion of the compound carbamyl phosphate through the internal carotid artery. This confirmed that the site of action was within the central nervous system—namely the hypothalamus.

Intact rats fed carbamyl phosphate along with a cariogenic diet showed a significant reduction in caries. Carbamyl phosphate, was ineffective in parotidectomized rats. Therefore, an intact hypothalamic-parotid gland endocrine axis was found to be necessary for the effectiveness of carbamyl phosphate; the next question was what physiological factors stimulate the secretion of the parotid hormone? Feeding pigs a standard pig chow proved to stimulate parotid hormone secretion along with the copious secretion of saliva. Pigs fed nonnutritive substances and exposed to auditory and visual cues salivated profusely, but these cues did not change the fasting level of the parotid hormone; this demonstrated that, although the endocrine and exocrine functions of the parotid glands occur concurrently, they must be controlled by different mechanisms. The nutritive composition thus proved to be critical for the secretion of the parotid hormone. Nutritive substrates activate neural stimuli going to the hypothalamus, which in turn activates the hypothalamic-parotid gland endocrine axis that stimulates the dentinal fluid transport mechanism.

At this juncture a group of investigators at the University of Oulu Dental School, Finland, Tjaderhane, L. et al. discovered that the parotid hormone not only regulates the flow of dentinal fluid but is invo

Inaba Masanari

Inaba Masanari known as Inaba Masashige and sometimes known as Mino-no-kami, was a Japanese samurai of the Azuchi–Momoyama period through early Edo period. He served the Oda and Tokugawa clans, became a daimyō in the early Edo period. Masanari was the husband of Kasuga-no-Tsubone, who bore him three sons: Masakatsu and Masatoshi. For some reason, Masanari divorced her. In the Edo period, the Inaba were identified as one of the fudai or insider daimyō clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa clan, in contrast with the tozama or outsider clans; the fudai Inaba clan originated in 16th century Mino Province. They claim descent from Kōno Michitaka. A cadet branch are descended from Inaba Masanari, who fought in the armies of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi; this branch of the Inaba was created in 1588. In 1619, he was granted the han of Itoigawa in Echigo Province, his descendants resided successively at Odawara Domain in Sagami Province from 1632 through 1685. Masanari's heirs settled at Yodo Domain in Yamashiro Province from 1723 through 1868.

The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period. Inaba Masamichi, 1681–1685—8th Kyoto shoshidai. Inaba Masanobu, 1804–1806—34th Kyoto shoshidai. Inaba Masakuni, 1863–1864—55th Kyoto shoshidai. Appert, Georges and H. Kinoshita.. Ancien Japon. Tokyo: Imprimerie Kokubunsha. OCLC 4429674 Bodart-Bailey, Beatrice.. Kaempfer's Japan: Tokugawa Culture Observed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824819644. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. OCLC 413099 Hank, Patrick, ed.. Dictionary of American Family Names. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195081374. Japans Kaiserhof in de Edo-Zeit: Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Jahre 1846 bis 1867. Münster: Tagenbuch. ISBN 9783825839390. A History of Japan. Kobe: Kobe Chronicle. OCLC 64778754 Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie du japon. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 465662682. "Inaba-shi" on