BMT Brighton Line
The BMT Brighton Line known as the Brighton Beach Line, is a rapid transit line in the B Division of the New York City Subway in Brooklyn, New York City, United States. Local service is provided at all times by the Q train, but is joined by the B express train on weekdays; the Q's segment on the Brighton Line begins at the line's south end, Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, the Q travels the entire line, over the Manhattan Bridge south tracks to the BMT Broadway Line. The B runs via the bridge's north tracks to the IND Sixth Avenue Line; the Brighton Line opened from the Willink entrance of Prospect Park to Brighton Beach on July 2, 1878 and the full original line on August 18. It was an excursion railroad — the Brooklyn and Coney Island Railway — to bring beachgoers from downtown Brooklyn to the seashore at Coney Island on the Atlantic Ocean, at a location named Brighton Beach at the same time the railroad arrived, it has been known since its opening as the Brighton Beach Line but is now described as the Brighton Line in MTA literature and in public usage.
After losing its connection with the Long Island Rail Road in 1883, the railroad fell on hard times, reorganizing as the Brooklyn and Brighton Beach Railroad. Seeking a new route for its excursion business and its local trade in communities along the way, it formed an agreement with the Kings County Elevated Railway to connect to its Fulton Street Line, which gave access to the new Brooklyn Bridge and Manhattan passengers; this was accomplished in 1896. A series of mergers and leases put the Brighton Beach Line in the hands of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, a holding company which controlled most of the rapid transit and bus lines in Brooklyn and part of Queens; the line was electrified with trolley wire and, for a time, trolleys from several surface routes and elevated trains operated together on the line. The BRT was reorganized as the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation in 1923. In 1940, the BMT was purchased by the City of New York, operation passed to the city's Board of Transportation, which operated the city-built Independent Subway System.
The original line was a two-tracked high-speed surface steam railroad operating from Bedford Station, at Atlantic Avenue near Franklin Avenue in the City of Brooklyn, at which point it made a physical connection to the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch. From Bedford the line ran on a surface private right-of-way several blocks south to Park Place, which it crossed at grade, in an open cut with street overpasses through what is now Crown Heights and Flatbush, as far as Church Lane in the Town and Village of Flatbush. From that point the line continued on the surface to a point at current Beverley Road between Marlborough Road and East 16th Street, curving southeast and running on the surface between the lines of the latter streets through the Towns of Flatbush and Gravesend to Sheepshead Bay turning southerly to reach the beach at Brighton Beach on Coney Island in the Town of Gravesend; the line was extended westward from Brighton Beach in 1903, so that it could terminate with the former Prospect Park and Coney Island Railroad at Culver Depot in Coney Island.
Passengers, with this short extension, were given access to the developing area of Coney Island. The Culver Depot became the center of operations for the Brighton Beach Line. In 1903, the New York State Legislature created the Brooklyn Grade Crossing Elimination Commission to eliminate grade all grade crossings on the Brighton Beach Line and the Bay Ridge Line of the Long Island Rail Road; the city was supposed to cover half of the costs, not exceeding $1,000,000, while the railroads were to cover the other half of the costs. The work started on December 30, 1905, was completed in 1908. A short piece of two-tracked elevated railroad was built from the ramp connecting to the Fulton Street Elevated as far as Park Place, where the original 1878 open cut began. From the end of that original cut south of Church Avenue, the line was wholly rebuilt as a four-track railroad with express and local stations to a point south of Neptune Avenue at the border of Coney Island, continuing along its original right-of-way to Brighton Beach station.
The portion from Church Avenue to Avenue H was placed in a depressed open cut, while the portion from Avenue H to south of Sheepshead Bay was raised onto an earthen embankment with earth excavated from the open-cut portion and from the Bay Ridge Improvement of the Long Island Rail Road. The separation of the railroad grade allowed the line's trolley wire north of Sheepshead Bay to be replaced with ground-level third rail; the above work by the BGCEC left the line between Park Place and Church Avenue in its original condition from steam railroad days. Between 1918 and 1920, further work rebuilt the portion between Prospect Park and Church Avenue as a four-track line. At the same time, the remaining portion of the line south of Neptune Avenue was replaced with a four-track elevated structure, including a four- to six-track elevated line extension, connecting the Brighton Line to the new Coney Island terminal at Surf and Stillwell Avenues; this same work rerouted mainline Brighton Beach trains from the Fulton Street elevated line via a new deep tunnel under Flatbush Avenue to connect to the BMT Fourth Avenue Line at DeKalb Avenue station, where trains could access the new BMT Broadway subway.
This work was done as a part of t
New York City Subway
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, the metro system with the most stations, it offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the MTA operates the Staten Island Railway and MTA Bus, with free transfers to and from the subway. The PATH in Manhattan and New Jersey and the AirTrain JFK in Queens both accept the subway's MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. However, the Roosevelt Island Tramway does allow free transfers to the MTA and bus systems though it is not operated by the MTA.
The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the eighth busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend. On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. Of the system's 27 services, 24 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is above ground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks.
The outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments. Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under Broadway.) The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line; the fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line; the oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. By the time the first subway opened in 1904, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932; this required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.
In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority, a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus
Independent Subway System
The Independent Subway System known as the Independent City-Owned Subway System or the Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad, was a rapid transit rail system in New York City, now part of the New York City Subway. It was first constructed as the Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan in 1932. One of three rail networks that became part of the modern New York City subway, the IND was intended to be owned and operated by the municipal government, in contrast to the operated or jointly funded Interborough Rapid Transit Company and Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation companies, it was merged with these two networks in 1940. The original IND service lines are B, C, D, E, F and G services. In addition, the BMT's M, N, Q and R now run on IND trackage; the Rockaway Park Shuttle supplements the A service. For operational purposes, the IND and BMT lines and services are referred to jointly as the B Division; until 1940, it was known as the Independent City-Owned Subway System, Independent Subway System, or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad.
It became known as the IND after unification of the subway lines in 1940. The first IND line was the Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan, opened on September 10, 1932; the original IND system was underground in the four boroughs that it served, with the exception of a short section of the IND Culver Line containing two stations spanning the Gowanus Canal in the Gowanus section of Brooklyn. In the early 1920s, Mayor John Hylan proposed a complex series of city-owned and operated rapid transit lines to compete with the BMT and IRT their elevated lines; the New York City Transit Commission was formed in 1921 to develop a plan to reduce overcrowding on the subways. The original plans included: Two major trunk lines in midtown Manhattan, with one running under Eighth Avenue and one under Sixth Avenue, which had an elevated line A crosstown subway under 53rd Street running under the East River to Queens Plaza, meeting with a Brooklyn–Queens crosstown line, continuing under Queens Boulevard and Hillside Avenue to 179th Street, where bus service would converge A subway under the Grand Concourse in the Bronx, diverging from the Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan at 145th Street and Saint Nicholas AvenueThese lines were built as planned.
All but a short portion of the Culver Line are underground. On March 14, 1925, the groundbreaking of the Eighth Avenue subway took place at 123rd Street and St. Nicholas Avenue. On July 8, 1931, the first train of R1s left Coney Island at 11:35am and ran via the BMT Sea Beach Line to Times Square; the trip took 42 minutes. On September 10, 1932, the Eighth Avenue Line opened from 207th Street to Chambers Street, inaugurating the IND. In February 1933 the Cranberry Street Tunnel opened, along with the Eighth Avenue Line from Chambers Street to Jay Street–Borough Hall. On the northern end of the construction, in the Bronx, the connecting Concourse Line opened on July 1, 1933 from 205th Street to 145th Street. On the IND's opening day, it had a small subway car fleet of 300 cars, while the IRT had 2,281 subway and 1,694 elevated cars, the BMT had 2,472 cars; the new IND Eighth Avenue Line was built using 1,000,000 cubic yards of concrete and 150,000 short tons of steel. The roadbed of the new subway was expected to last 30 years.
At the time of the line's opening, other portions of the Independent Subway System were under construction, including five underwater tunnels: Cranberry Street Tunnel, 8,487 feet long Rutgers Street Tunnel, 5,479 feet long 53rd Street Tunnel, 5,589 feet long Concourse Tunnel, 5,397 feet long Greenpoint Tube, 4,790 feet longThere was some vandalism on the IND Eighth Avenue Line's opening day, as some of the uptown stations were broken into by people who clogged turnstile slots with gum and other objects. Two months after the IND opened for business, three exits from the 96th Street and 103rd Street stations – at 95th and 97th Streets and at 105th Street – were closed due to theft; the Queens Boulevard Line referred to as the Long Island City−Jamaica Line, Fifty-third Street−Jamaica Line, Queens Boulevard−Jamaica Line prior to opening, was of the original lines of the city-owned Independent Subway System, planned to stretch between the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan and 178th Street and Hillside Avenue in Jamaica, Queens.
The first section of the line, west from Roosevelt Avenue to 50th Street, opened on August 19, 1933. E trains ran local to Hudson Terminal in Manhattan, while the GG ran as a shuttle service between Queens Plaza and Nassau Avenue on the IND Crosstown Line, which opened on the same day; the Cranberry Street Tunnel, extending the Eighth Avenue express tracks east under Fulton Street to Jay Street–Borough Hall in Brooklyn, was opened for the morning rush hour on February 1, 1933. Until June 24, 1933, High Street was skipped; the first short section of the IND Culver Line opened on March 20, 1933, taking Eighth Avenue Express A trains south from Jay Street to Bergen Street. The rest of the line opened on October 7, 1933 to the "temporary" terminal at Church Avenue, three blocks away from the Culver elevated at Ditmas Avenue. In 1936, the A was rerouted to the IND Fulton Street Line and E trains from the Queens Boulevard Line replaced them. The
A cross-platform interchange is a type of interchange between different lines at a metro station. The term originates with the London Underground. In the United States, it is referred to as a "cross-platform transfer"; this configuration occurs at a station with island platforms, with a single platform in between the tracks allocated to two directions of travel, or two side platforms between the tracks, connected by level corridors. The benefit of this design is that passengers do not need to use stairs to another platform level for transfer, thus increasing the convenience of users. A cross-platform interchange arrangement may be costly due to the complexity of rail alignment if the railway designers arrange the track with flyovers. A common two-directions cross-platform interchange configuration consists of two directions of two different lines sharing an island platform, the respective return directions of both lines sharing a different island platform in the same station complex. Common cross-platform interchanges allow passengers to change trains without changing to another platform.
This applies at places where trains of different directions meet in minor and major hubs, but this arrangement is only found at some interchange stations in metro and other rail networks worldwide. Some railway lines in more congested areas offer cross-platform interchanges between different categories of trains, for example between express and stopping trains. For instance, this kind of interchange is used at many European railway minor hubs to connect fast trains to local feeder services, as well as surface sections of suburban lines like the RER E in Paris or the Metro North Hudson Line in New York State. However, local–express interchanges are found in only a few metro networks, such as Chicago, London, New York City, Philadelphia; the New York City Subway system has numerous stations facilitating cross-platform transfers between local and express trains using pairs of island platforms, each serving express trains on one side, local trains on the other side, with both alternatives headed in the same direction.
As express and stopping trains head for different directions, cross-platform interchange between different train categories is combined with cross-platform interchanges between different lines. In some, but not all, the trains are coordinated in the timetable. In the case, the cross-platform infrastructure offers the possibility of changing trains, independently from the waiting time for the second train. In metro systems with short headways, waiting time is small, but such an noncoordinated approach could reduce the advantages of stairless cross-platform interchange in railway networks with less dense train traffic. A more advanced approach involves the coordination of the lines' timetables to reduce the scheduled changing time, either from one line to the other, or, bidirectionally, between both trains at the same time; this concept is used in Dutch and Swiss railway networks, where trains of different lines meet at the same platforms in numerous hubs all over the country. Most advanced are coordinated cross-platform interchanges wherein interconnected trains wait for each other to'guarantee' scheduled interchanges in the event of modest delays.
In order to still ensure on-time running across the network, additional waiting time for trains is limited to a certain period of time depending on general network performance, further connections to be guaranteed, train category, train line, a balanced consideration of other factors. In practice, most railways coordinating cross-platform interchanges define a certain waiting time window for each'guaranteed' interchange; some railway operators will delay train departure signals to allow imminently arriving passengers time to interchange. For example, the Vienna U-Bahn metro signals train drivers to wait by operating a special white light signal triggered by the approach of an interchange train on another track. In most cases, only cross-platform interchanges used for both directions of travel are listed, with some exceptions. Amsterdam metro network includes cross-platform interchanges at Van der Madeweg station between metro lines 50 and 53 and in the future at Amsterdam South station between metro lines 50 and 52.
Further, cross-platform connections are offered at Amstel station between metro lines 51, 53, 54 and suburban services of Netherlands Railways. At Newmarket Station, there are three lines serving two island platforms. Western Line services use the centre line allowing cross-platform interchange with Southern Line services which use the outer lines. By 2011, Barcelona metro only offers one cross-platform interchange between metro lines L4 and L11 at Trinitat Nova station where both lines terminate on one track each side of the shared island platform. Guogongzhuang station offers cross-platform interchange between Fangshan Line. National Library Station offers cross-platform interchange between Lines 9 and 4. In addition Nanluoguxiang station, Zhuxinzhuang Station, Beijing West Railway Station, Yancun East offer cross-platform interchange; the Berlin suburban rail network includes cross-platform transfers at Berlin East and at Baumschulenweg / Schöneweide, Bornholmer Straße, Treptower Park and Wannsee suburban railway stations.
Berlin metro services offer cross-platform connections at Mehringdamm, Nollendo
G (New York City Subway service)
The G Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown is an 11.4-mile-long rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored light green; the G operates at all times between Court Square in Long Island City and Church Avenue in Kensington, making local stops along its entire route. The G is the only non-shuttle service in the system. Since the 2000s, several improvements have been made to the G, including a route extension in Brooklyn and a full-route audit that identified solutions for issues on the G service; the G serves two stations in Queens: Court Square and 21st Street, which are both in Long Island City. Prior to 2010, it served all stations on the IND Queens Boulevard Line between Court Square and 71st Avenue in Forest Hills. In 1939 and 1940, the then-designated GG used the now-demolished IND World's Fair Line to access the 1939 New York World's Fair. From 1976 to 2009, the GG, which became the G, had its southern terminal at Smith–Ninth Streets.
The original Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown Local service began on August 19, 1933, as a shuttle between Queens Plaza on the IND Queens Boulevard Line and Nassau Avenue. This service was designated GG. Starting on April 24, 1937, GG trains were extended to Forest Hills–71st Avenue during rush hours, serving as the Queens Boulevard local while E trains ran express west of Continental Avenue; the entire IND Crosstown Line was completed on July 1, 1937, including the connection to the IND Culver Line. GG service ran at all times between Forest Hills -- 71st Church Avenue. Soon after, it was cut back to Smith–Ninth Streets; the 1939 World's Fair was served by GG trains. The trains ran via the short-lived IND World's Fair Line to Horace Harding Boulevard. Trains were extended to the World's Fair Station at all times during the fair, supplemented by PM hour E trains; the fair closed on October 28, 1940, was demolished that year. As a result, GG service was truncated to Forest Hills–71st Avenue. On July 1, 1968, service was again extended to Church Avenue during rush hours.
During these times, the F train operated as an express on the IND Culver Line. This service pattern ended on August 30, 1976, due to budget cuts and because of complaints from many customers at local stations on the IND Culver Line who wanted direct access to Manhattan. Afterwards the GG was cut back to Smith–Ninth Streets. On August 27, 1977, GG service was cut back to Queens Plaza during late nights, local service along Queens Boulevard was provided by the F. Effective May 6, 1985, use of double letters to indicate local service was discontinued, so the GG was relabeled G. On May 24, 1987, the N and R services switched terminals in Queens; as part of the reroute plan, Queens Plaza became the northern terminal for the G train on evenings and late nights. Three years on September 30, 1990, G service was extended to 179th Street during late nights to replace the F, which terminated at 21st Street–Queensbridge. Beginning on March 23, 1997, due to construction on the connector between the IND 63rd Street Line and the IND Queens Boulevard Line, G trains terminated at Court Square on evenings and weekends.
On August 30, 1997, late night service was permanently cut back from 179th Street to Court Square with the F running local east of Queens Plaza replacing G service, meaning that the G only ran along the Queens Boulevard Line on weekdays. On December 16, 2001, the 63rd Street Connector opened and Court Square became the northern terminal for the G train during weekdays, while G service was extended to Forest Hills–71st Avenue at all other times, which represented the reverse of the previous pattern. Service along the IND Queens Boulevard Line was replaced by the new V train during weekdays; the G was to be truncated to Court Square at all times to make room for the V, but due to rider opposition, it was cut back only on weekdays until 8:30 pm. On July 5, 2009, the G was once again extended south at all times to Church Avenue; this was required for overhaul of the Culver Viaduct, which caused the express tracks at Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue/Ninth Street—used to switch G trains between tracks after they terminated at Smith–Ninth Streets—to be temporarily taken out of service.
This had several benefits. First, five stations served by only the F train had more frequent service. Additionally, riders from northern Brooklyn and Long Island City had a direct route to Kensington. Since the Church Avenue terminal had four tracks to store terminating G trains, as opposed to only one storage track at Smith–9th Streets, this reduced delays on both services because terminating G trains could switch to the storage tracks without having to wait in the station for another train to leave, as had occurred at Smith–Ninth Street. On July 19, 2012, MTA officials made this extension permanent because it provided more direct connections between Kensington and north Brooklyn. Due to the MTA's financial crisis in the late 2000s, as well as continued capacity issues on the IND Queens Boulevard Line, the G was to be cut back from Forest Hills–71st Avenue to Court Square at all times beginning June 27, 2010. However, due to planned track repairs during the times the G ran on the Queens Boulevard Line, it ceased running on that line on April 19.
In addition, train headways were reduced, which inconvenienced about 201,000 weekly commuters since they had to wait longer for G trains. Flood waters from Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage to the Greenpoint Tubes under the Newtown Creek. Although the G was back in service days after the hurricane, the tube needed permanent repairs. To al
A flying junction or flyover is a railway junction at which one or more diverging or converging tracks in a multiple-track route cross other tracks on the route by bridge to avoid conflict with other train movements. A more technical term is "grade-separated junction". A burrowing junction or dive-under occurs; the alternative to grade separation is a level junction or flat junction, where tracks cross at grade, conflicting routes must be protected by interlocked signals. Simple flying junctions may have a single track pass over or under other tracks to avoid conflict, while complex flying junctions may have an elaborate infrastructure to allow multiple routings without trains coming into conflict, in the manner of a highway stack interchange. Where two lines each of two tracks merge with a flying junction, they can become a four-track railway together; this happens in the Netherlands. Nearly all junctions with high-speed railways are grade-separated. On the French LGV high-speed network, the principal junction on the LGV Sud-Est, at Pasilly where the line to Dijon diverges, on the LGV Atlantique at Courtalain where the line to Le Mans diverges, are grade separated with special high-speed switches that permit the normal line speed of 300 km/h on the main line, a diverging speed of 220 km/h.
The LGV network has four grade-separated high-speed triangles: Fretin, Claye-Souilly and Angles. A fifth, Vémars, is grade separated except for a single-track link on the least-used side, linking Paris Gare du Nord and Paris CDG airport. AustraliaBowen Hills railway station in Brisbane Burnley railway station in Melbourne Camberwell railway station in Melbourne Sydney Central Station Glenfield railway station, Sydney Strathfield railway station Sandgate Flyover, Newcastle - main line flies over coal branch lineDenmarkJunction of M1 and M2 lines on the Copenhagen MetroFrance Triangle de Fretin, connecting Paris and London. Triangle de Coubert, Paris. Triangle des Angles, with two parallel 1.5 km viaducts. Triangle de Claye-Souilly, partial four-way junction. Triangle de Vémars, Paris.. GermanyBruchsal Rollenberg junctionHong KongWhere Airport Express and Tung Chung Line diverge from each other at Tai Ho Wan Tseung Kwan O Line to the east of Tseung Kwan O StationNetherlands There are between 25 and about 40 flying junctions on Dutch railways, depending on how more complex examples are counted.
Near Harmelen. Before conversion to a flying junction, this was the site of the Harmelen train disaster. At Breukelen railway station at Lage Zwaluwe railway stationFlying junctions where the merged lines become a four track railway: near Den Haag Laan van NOI railway station north of Leiden where lines from Haarlem and Schiphol merge at Boxtel railway station where lines from's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg merge west of Gouda where lines from Rotterdam and The Hague mergeMore complex flying junctions, with tracks from four directions joining: around Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station around Duivendrecht railway station North-west exit of Utrecht Centraal railway station West and north-west exit of Rotterdam Centraal railway station at both sides of Weesp railway station TaiwanStart of Shalun Line, south of Zhongzhou StationUnited Kingdom Pelaw Junction where both the Tyne and Wear Metro green line to South Hylton joins the Durham Coast Line and yellow line continues to South Shields - both diverging on the bridge itself Springhead Junction on the North Kent Line Southfleet Junction on the HS1 Norton Bridge Junction near Stone, Staffordshire Hamilton Square underground station, Birkenhead, on Merseyrail Aynho Junction in Aynho, Northamptonshire Worting Junction near Basingstoke, Hampshire Cogload Junction near Taunton Weaver Junction near Dutton, Cheshire - the first Shortlands Junction in south London North-west of Harrow-on-the-Hill, in the north London suburbs Hitchin flyover, north of London Reading West Junction Bleach Green Viaducts & Junction, Northern IrelandUnited States Amtrak Along the New York-Washington section of the Northeast Corridor, on the Philadelphia-Harrisburg section of the Keystone Corridor, converging at Zoo Junction near 30th Street Station in Philadelphia.
All are now maintained by Amtrak. 39.97086°N 75.19848°W / 39.97086. In addition, lead tracks to Cabot Yard maintenance facilities branch off from the junction. Chicago, Illinois On the Chicago'L', where Orange Line trains diverge from Green Line trains north of 18th Street, as well as underground where a non-revenue flying junction separates Red Line trains heading to 95th from those heading to the South Side main line used to send some rush-period Red Line trains to Ashland/63rd. Another flying junction is planned to be built just north of Belmont/Sheffield to increase capacity on the Red Line, Brown Line, Purple Line Express. Denver, Colorado On the Regional Transportation District in Denver between the Southeast Corridor and the I-225 Corridor: the Southeast Corridor is on the west side of I-25 and the I-225 Corridor is in the median of I-225; the grade separations of the junction are woven into the grade separations of the interchange between the two highways. N
Fulton Street (IND Crosstown Line)
Fulton Street is a station on the IND Crosstown Line of the New York City Subway, located on Lafayette Avenue between South Portland Avenue and Fulton Street in Brooklyn. It is served by the G train at all times; this station opened on July 1, 1937, when the entire Crosstown Line was completed between Nassau Avenue and its connection to the IND Culver Line. On this date, the GG was extended in both directions to Smith–Ninth Streets and Forest Hills–71st Avenue; this underground station has two side platforms. Both platforms have a lime green trim line on a darker green border and name tablets reading "FULTON ST" in white sans serif font on a dark green background and lime green border. Small black "FULTON" signs in white lettering run along the trim line at regular intervals and directional signs in the same style are below the name tablets. Blue i-beam columns run along both platforms at regular intervals with alternating ones having the standard black station name plate in white lettering; the station is close to the Crosstown Line's junction with the IND Fulton Street Line just west of Lafayette Avenue, although the two stations do not have an in-system transfer.
Riders on Manhattan-bound A and C trains can catch a glimpse of this station's platforms through the right-side windows a few seconds after leaving Lafayette Avenue. There is an employee-only connection between the two stations via the tunnels. A proposed transfer to the busy Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center complex was rejected by the MTA due to the long walking distance between the two stations; this station tracks. However, most of it has been converted to employee-use only and the staircases leading up to it from the platforms are sealed off. At the extreme north end of the station, a single staircase from each platform goes up to a single full height turnstile before a staircase goes up to either western corners of South Portland and Lafayette Avenues, the northwest one for the Queens-bound platform and the southwest one for the Church Avenue-bound platform; the exit to the Church Avenue-bound platform was closed in the mid-1980s due to concerns over maintenance expense and potential crime, but was reopened in July 2005 following community pressure.
The station's full-time fare control area is at the extreme south end of the Church Avenue-bound platform. A bank of turnstiles at platform level leads to a token booth and one staircase going up to the northeast corner of Lafayette Avenue and Fulton Street. A crossunder here connects to the Queens-bound platform. Barclays Center Brooklyn Academy of Music Brooklyn Technical High School Fort Greene Park Irondale Center Mark Morris Dance Center MoCADA nycsubway.org – IND Crosstown: Fulton Street Station Reporter — G Train The Subway Nut — Fulton Street Pictures Fulton Street entrance from Google Maps Street View South Portland Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View