IND Eighth Avenue Line

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IND Eighth Avenue Line
"A" train "B" train "C" train "D" train "E" train
The A, C, and E, which use the Eighth Avenue Line through Midtown Manhattan, are colored blue.
The B and D also serve the portion of the line in Upper Manhattan.
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System New York City Subway
Termini 207th Street
South of High Street
Stations 31[a]
Daily ridership 1,007,933[1]
Operation
Opened 1932–1933
Owner City of New York
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority
Character Underground
Technical
Line length 14 mi[3] (23 km)
Number of tracks 2-4
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification 600V DC third rail
Route map
Inwood–207th Street
Dyckman Street
190th Street
181st Street
175th Street
168th Street
163rd Street–Amsterdam Avenue
155th Street
145th Street
135th Street
125th Street
116th Street
Cathedral Parkway–110th Street
103rd Street
96th Street
86th Street
81st Street–Museum of Natural History
72nd Street
59th Street–Columbus Circle
50th Street
(Handicapped/disabled access southbound only)
42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal
(former lower level razed)
 
34th Street–Penn Station
23rd Street
14th Street
West Fourth Street–Washington Square
Eighth Avenue on upper level
Sixth Avenue on lower level
Spring Street
Canal Street
Chambers Street–World Trade Center
Fulton Street
High Street

The IND Eighth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line in New York City, United States, and is part of the B Division of the New York City Subway. Opened in 1932, it was the first line of the Independent Subway System (IND), and the Eighth Avenue Subway name was also applied by New Yorkers to the entire IND system.[4][5][6]

The line runs from 207th Street in Inwood south to an interlocking south of High Street in Brooklyn Heights, including large sections under St. Nicholas Avenue, Central Park West, and Eighth Avenue. The entire length is underground, though the 207th Street Yard, which branches off near the north end, is on the surface. Flying junctions are provided with the IND Concourse Line, IND Sixth Avenue Line, and IND Queens Boulevard Line. Between 59th Street–Columbus Circle and 145th Street, the line can be called the Central Park West Line.

Most of the line has four tracks, with one local and one express track in each direction, except for the extreme north and south ends, where only the two express tracks continue. Internally, the line is chained as Line "A", with tracks A1, A3, A4, and A2 from west to east,[7] running from approximately 800 at the south end[8] to 1540 at the north end (measured in feet).[9]

The whole line is served at all times by the A train, which runs express except during late nights, the C provides local service south of 168th Street while the A runs express. In addition, the B provides weekday local service and the D full-time express service between the Concourse Line (145th Street) and Sixth Avenue Line (59th Street–Columbus Circle) junctions, and the E runs local from the Queens Boulevard Line junction at 50th Street south to World Trade Center. The A, C, and E are colored blue on signs because they run via Eighth Avenue through Midtown Manhattan, while the B and D are orange since they use the Sixth Avenue Line through Midtown Manhattan.[10]

Extent and service[edit]

The following services use part or all of the Eighth Avenue Line,[11] the trunk line's bullets are colored blue:

  Time period Section of line
rush hours, middays,
and evenings
weekends late nights
"A" train express local entire line
"B" train local no service between 145 St and 59 St
"C" train local no service south of 168 St
"D" train express between 145 St and 59 St
"E" train local between 50 St and WTC

The Eighth Avenue begins as a two-track subway under Broadway at 207th Street in Inwood. A flying junction just to the south brings two tracks from the 207th Street Yard between the main tracks, merging after Dyckman Street, the subway leaves Broadway to pass under Fort Tryon Park to the north end of Fort Washington Avenue, which it follows to roughly 175th Street before turning southeast under private property.[9]

The small 174th Street Yard lies under Broadway, with two tracks exiting to the south under that roadway.[9] When the George Washington Bridge was designed in the 1920s, provisions were made for a lower deck that would carry these two tracks north from the yard and across the bridge, as well as two commuter rail tracks.[12][13] However, when the lower level was added in 1962, it instead carried a roadway.

The two main tracks from Fort Washington Avenue enter Broadway near 172nd Street, curving and running underneath a public school (PS173M) at 174th Street, and other private property, and the yard tracks in a double-decker tunnel. A few blocks later, the lower tracks separate to straddle the yard tracks at 168th Street, the local/express split begins here, with the local tracks coming from the yard and the express tracks coming from Inwood. Contrary to standard practice, the two local tracks are in the center and the two express tracks are on the outside. Except during late nights, the local service (C) ends at 168th Street, reversing direction on the yard tracks; the A runs to 207th Street at all times, express except during late nights. South of 168th Street, the express (outer) tracks lower below the local tracks, forming another double-decker tunnel, this time under St. Nicholas Avenue.[9]

North of 145th Street, the lower (express) tracks rise into the center, and the three-track IND Concourse Line enters St. Nicholas Avenue below the four-track Eighth Avenue Line. 145th Street is a two-level transfer station, with two island platforms on each level. To the south, the Concourse Line tracks rise and merge with the Eighth Avenue Line, carrying the B onto the local tracks and the D onto the express tracks, the resulting four-track line continues south under St. Nicholas Avenue and Eighth Avenue (Frederick Douglass Boulevard), which becomes Central Park West at 110th Street.[9]

Emergency Exit #80 on Central Park West & West 104 Street
13th Street power station
Cranberry Street ventilation building
Jay Street power station

Most of the line under Central Park West is built on two levels with both local tracks to the west and only local stations, the two northbound tracks are above the two southbound tracks. Approaching 59th Street–Columbus Circle, where Central Park West becomes Eighth Avenue, the subway again spreads out into a single four-track level.[9]

A flying junction south of 59th Street takes B and D trains east under 53rd Street, merging with two tracks from 57th Street to become the four-track IND Sixth Avenue Line, the two-track IND Queens Boulevard Line, also in 53rd Street, curves south into a lower level of the 50th Street station, and merges to the south, taking E trains onto the local tracks. An unused southbound-only lower level at 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal was formerly accessed only from the southbound track from the Queens Boulevard Line. Plans for the 7 Subway Extension required partially demolishing the lower level to make room for the new IRT Flushing Line tracks.[9]

The four-track line continues south under Eighth Avenue to 14th Street, where it turns southeast under Greenwich Avenue and south under Sixth Avenue, above the four-track IND Sixth Avenue Line. The two-level West Fourth Street–Washington Square station allows easy transfers between the two lines. Just to the south are track connections between the local tracks of each line, not used by current normal service patterns, the Sixth Avenue Line turns east into Houston Street after passing the connections.[9]

Canal Street, under Sixth Avenue, is the last normal four-track station on the line. Crossovers in each direction, beyond the station, take C and late night A trains between the local tracks to the north and the express tracks to the south, as the subway turns from Sixth Avenue into Church Street, the southbound local track passes under the express tracks, bringing E trains to the east. At this point, a bellmouth originally intended for the never-built IND Worth Street Line is present on the east side of the tunnel.[9][14][15] It has been proposed to use this to bring Long Island Rail Road Atlantic Branch trains to Lower Manhattan as part of the Lower Manhattan-Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project.[16]

The four tracks continue south under Church Street, with two separate but connected stations at World Trade Center at the end of the local tracks and Chambers Street on the express tracks, the two express tracks turn east under Fulton Street, crossing the East River through the Cranberry Street Tunnel into Cranberry Street in Brooklyn. Cranberry Street leads to High Street, from which the line turns south into Jay Street, straddled by the two-track IND Sixth Avenue Line from the Rutgers Street Tunnel. The Eighth and Sixth Avenue Lines end, becoming the IND Fulton Street Line and IND Culver Line, at crossovers (currently unused) allowing trains to switch between the two, south of High Street. Both the A and C trains continue along the Fulton Street Line.[9]

History[edit]

Planning and construction[edit]

As early as March 1918, soon after the BMT Broadway Line opened to Times Square – 42nd Street, plans were being considered for an extension beyond the stubs at 57th Street (which was not yet open) to the Upper West Side and Washington Heights via Central Park West (Eighth Avenue).[17] On August 3, 1923, the New York City Board of Estimate approved the Washington Heights Line, an extension of the Broadway Line to Washington Heights. The line was to have four tracks from Central Park West at 64th Street under Central Park West, Eighth Avenue, Saint Nicholas Avenue, and private property to 173rd Street, and two tracks under Fort Washington Avenue to 193rd Street. South of 64th Street, one two-track line would connect to the Broadway Line stubs at 57th Street, and another would continue under Eighth Avenue to 30th Street at Penn Station, with provisions to continue downtown.[18][19]

Mayor John Hylan instead wanted to build an independent subway system, operated by the city, the New York City Board of Transportation gave preliminary approval to several lines in Manhattan, including one on Eighth Avenue, on December 9, 1924. The main portion of the already-approved Washington Heights Line—the mostly-four track line north of 64th Street—was included, but was to continue north from 193rd Street to 207th Street. South of 64th Street, the plan called for four tracks in Eighth Avenue, Greenwich Avenue, the planned extension of Sixth Avenue, and Church Street. Two tracks would turn east under Fulton Street or Wall Street and under the East River to Downtown Brooklyn.[20][21]

A groundbreaking ceremony was held at St. Nicholas Avenue and 123rd Street on March 14, 1925.[22] Most of the Eighth Avenue Line was dug using a cheap cut-and-cover method, where the street above was excavated. Still, the construction of the line was difficult, as it had to go under or over several subway lines, at 59th Street–Columbus Circle, workers had to be careful to not disrupt the existing IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line overhead. 42nd Street, the longest station along the line at 1,115 feet (340 m), was expected to be a major express station with large platforms, so the platforms were staggered away from each other in order to avoid going under property lines. Additionally, several workers died in cave-ins during construction.[23]

The stations on the line were built with 600 feet (180 m) long platforms, but they had provisions to lengthen them to 660 feet (200 m) to accommodate eleven-car trains.[24]:70 Four of the express stations (at Fulton, 14th, 42nd, and 59th Streets) were built with long mezzanines so that passengers could walk the entire length of the mezzanines without having to pay a fare, it was proposed to develop the mezzanines of these four stations with shops, so that they would become retail corridors, similar to the underground mall of the under-construction Rockefeller Center.[23]

Early operation[edit]

The majority of the Eighth Avenue Line, from Chambers Street north to 207th Street, was opened to the public just after midnight on September 10, 1932 after three days of operation on a normal schedule but without passengers,[25] the Cranberry Street Tunnel, extending the express tracks east under Fulton Street to Jay Street–Borough Hall in Brooklyn, was opened for the morning rush hour on February 1, 1933.[26] The Jay–Smith–Ninth Street Line opened on March 20, 1933, extending the line beyond Jay Street–Borough Hall.[27]

When the subway opened in 1932, express (A) and local (AA) trains served the line; expresses did not run during late nights or Sundays.[25] Expresses and late night/Sunday locals were sent south into Brooklyn in February 1933,[26] and, when the IND Concourse Line opened on July 1, 1933,[28] the C was added to the express service, while all locals became CC trains to the Concourse Line, forcing A trains to run local north of 145th Street.[29] The E was added to the local tracks south of 50th Street on August 19, 1933, when the IND Queens Boulevard Line opened.[30] The final major change came on December 15, 1940, when the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened, the AA was brought back as a non-rush hour local service, becoming the BB and switching to the Sixth Avenue Line at 59th Street–Columbus Circle during rush hours. The CC was kept only during rush hours to provide local service south past 59th Street. Additionally the C became a rush hour-only service, replaced by a full-time D over the express tracks between the Concourse and Sixth Avenue Lines,[31] the AA was discontinued in 1988[32] and the B and C's northern terminals were swapped in 1998.[33] This created the pattern that has remained to this day, with five services during normal hours: the A express, B part-time local via Sixth Avenue (then BB), C local (then AA and CC), D express via Sixth Avenue, and E local from Queens.

Later years[edit]

In 1953, the platforms were lengthened at Spring Street and Canal Street to 660 feet to allow E trains to run eleven car trains, the E and F began running eleven car trains during rush hours on September 8, 1953. The extra train car increased the total carrying capacity by 4,000 passengers, the lengthening project cost $400,000.[34]

A report for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation looking at the Lower Manhattan Rail Link, an idea to connect Lower Manhattan with the Long Island Rail Road and JFK International Airport, presented several alternatives that would utilize the Cranberry Street Tunnel instead of building a new East River Tunnel. These alternatives would have required that C trains be rerouted through the Rutgers Street Tunnel.[35]

The 2015–2019 MTA Capital Plan called for five of the Eighth Avenue Line's stations, along with 28 others, to undergo a complete overhaul as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative, the stations receiving renovations are 34th Street–Penn Station, 72nd Street, 86th Street, Cathedral Parkway–110th Street, and 163rd Street–Amsterdam Avenue. Updates would include cellular service, Wi-Fi, USB charging stations, interactive service advisories and maps, improved signage, and improved station lighting.[36][37][38]

IND Worth Street Line[edit]

The IND Worth Street Line was a proposed major expansion of the IND Eighth Avenue Line, it was to come out of the main line's local tracks along Sixth Avenue/Church Street south of Canal Street and turn south-east into Worth Street. This route would have traveled in a two-track tunnel and probably stop at Foley Square (Lafayette and Centre Streets, on the north side of Federal Plaza), Chatham Square (with a possible connection to the Second Avenue Subway), Rutgers Street–East Broadway (with a connection to the IND Rutgers Street Line), and a station in the Lower East Side (possibly Pitt Street and Grand Street). This portion would have been about two miles long.[39]

Crossing to Williamsburg, the line was to have stops at Havemeyer Street and Union Avenue, the latter of which would have had connections to the IND Crosstown Line and a major junction to the IND Houston Street Line, the IND Utica Ave Line, and a connection to the Rockaways.[39]

Although the line never saw construction, evidence remains visible of a plan to build it. Bellmouths can be seen while traveling on the local tracks south of Canal Street. A large open space above the platform level at East Broadway was intended to become a two-track station. Above the tunnel north of the Broadway station, a six-track station where the IND Worth Street and the Houston Street Lines would have converged can be envisioned.

Gallery[edit]

Station listing[edit]

Station service legend
Stops all times Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops late nights only Stops late nights only
Stops weekdays only Stops weekdays only
Stops rush hours in peak direction only Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Time period details
Handicapped/disabled access Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
Handicapped/disabled access ↑ Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
in the indicated direction only
Handicapped/disabled access ↓
Aiga elevator.svg Elevator access to mezzanine only
Neighborhood
(approximate)
Handicapped/disabled access Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes
Manhattan
Inwood Handicapped/disabled access Inwood–207th Street express A all times September 10, 1932[25] Bx12 Select Bus Service
crossovers to connecting tracks to 207th Street Yard
Dyckman Street express A all times September 10, 1932[25]
connecting tracks to 207th Street Yard merge
Washington Heights Elevator access to mezzanine only 190th Street express A all times September 10, 1932[25]
Elevator access to mezzanine only 181st Street express A all times September 10, 1932[25]
Handicapped/disabled access 175th Street express A all times September 10, 1932[25] George Washington Bridge Bus Station
Local tracks begin in 174th Street Yard
Handicapped/disabled access 168th Street all A all timesC all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (1 all times)
163rd Street–Amsterdam Avenue local ZZZtemporarily closed for construction September 10, 1932[25] Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until September 2018.
155th Street local A late nightsC all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] Bx6 Select Bus Service
Harlem 145th Street all A all timesC all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] IND Concourse Line (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.D all times)
IND Concourse Line joins (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.D all times)
135th Street local A late nightsB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nights September 10, 1932[25]
Handicapped/disabled access 125th Street all A all timesB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nightsD all times September 10, 1932[25] M60 Select Bus Service to LaGuardia Airport
116th Street local A late nightsB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nights September 10, 1932[25]
Upper West Side Cathedral Parkway–110th Street local ZZZtemporarily closed for construction September 10, 1932[25] Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until September 2018.
103rd Street local A late nightsB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nights September 10, 1932[25]
96th Street local A late nightsB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nights September 10, 1932[25]
86th Street local ZZZtemporarily closed for construction September 10, 1932[25] M86 Select Bus Service
Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until October 2018.
81st Street–Museum of Natural History local A late nightsB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] M79 Select Bus Service
72nd Street local ZZZtemporarily closed for construction September 10, 1932[25] Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until October 2018.
Midtown Handicapped/disabled access 59th Street–Columbus Circle all A all timesB weekdays until 11:00 p.m.C all except late nightsD all times September 10, 1932[25] IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (1 all times2 late nights)
IND Sixth Avenue Line splits (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.D all times)
Handicapped/disabled access ↓ 50th Street local A late nightsC all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] IND Queens Boulevard Line (E all times)
Accessible southbound only
IND Queens Boulevard Line joins (E all times)
Handicapped/disabled access 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal all A all timesC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25] IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (1 all times2 all times3 all times)
IRT Flushing Line (7 all times <7> rush hours until 9:30 p.m., peak direction​)
IRT 42nd Street Shuttle (S all except late nights)
BMT Broadway Line (N all timesQ all timesR all except late nightsW weekdays only) at Times Square–42nd Street
Port Authority Bus Terminal
M34A Select Bus Service
Handicapped/disabled access 34th Street–Penn Station all A all timesC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25] Penn Station: Amtrak, Long Island Rail Road, and New Jersey Transit
M34/M34A Select Bus Service
Chelsea 23rd Street local A late nightsC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25] M23 Select Bus Service
Handicapped/disabled access 14th Street all A all timesC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25] BMT Canarsie Line (L all times) at Eighth Avenue
Greenwich Village Handicapped/disabled access West Fourth Street–Washington Square all A all timesC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25] IND Sixth Avenue Line (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.D all timesF all timesM weekdays until 11:00 p.m.)
Connection to PATH at Ninth Street
local crossovers to/from IND Sixth Avenue Line (no regular service)
SoHo Spring Street local A late nightsC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25]
TriBeCa Canal Street all A all timesC all except late nightsE all times September 10, 1932[25]
Financial District Chambers Street express A all timesC all except late nights September 10, 1932[25] two parts of the same station; local tracks end
BMT Broadway Line (N late nightsR all except late nightsW weekdays only) at Cortlandt Street
IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (2 weekdays and weekday late nights3 weekdays only) at Park Place
Connection to PATH at World Trade Center
Handicapped/disabled access World Trade Center local E all times September 10, 1932[25]
Local tracks end
Handicapped/disabled access Fulton Street express A all timesC all except late nights February 1, 1933[26] formerly Broadway–Nassau Street
IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (2 weekdays and weekday late nights3 weekdays only)
BMT Nassau Street Line (J all timesZ rush hours, peak direction)
IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 all times5 all times except weekday late nights)
Connection to BMT Broadway Line (N late nightsR all except late nightsW weekdays only) at Cortlandt Street via Dey Street Passageway
Brooklyn
continues through the Cranberry Street Tunnel
Brooklyn Heights High Street express A all timesC all except late nights June 24, 1933[40] The line opened through here on February 1, 1933, but the station was not yet complete.
Continues as the IND Fulton Street Line (A all timesC all except late nights), with crossovers to/from the IND Culver Line (no regular service)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Metropolitan Transportation Authority considers Chambers Street and World Trade Center to be separate stations.[2] If Chambers Street-World Trade Center is considered a single station, the count drops to 30.

References[edit]

  1. ^ MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Station Developers' Information". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  3. ^ "New Subway Link Opens Wednesday". New York Times. January 29, 1933. p. 3. 
  4. ^ "Old Jamaica Farm Divided for Homes". New York Times. October 8, 1939. p. 153. : "the property is near the Woodhaven Boulevard station of the Eighth Avenue subway"
  5. ^ "Delaney Assails Transit Sitdowns". New York Times. January 31, 1943. p. 26. : "the Jamaica inspection barn of the Eighth Avenue Subway System, in Kew Gardens, Queens"
  6. ^ Kramer, Frederick A. (January 1, 1990). Building the Independent Subway. Quadrant Press. ISBN 9780915276509. 
  7. ^ General Signal Arrangement, Sta. 943+00 to Sta. 971+50 (PDF) (Map) (November 15, 1968 ed.). New York City Transit Authority Maintenance of Way Department. 
  8. ^ Joseph Brennan. "Abandoned Stations: Court St, and Hoyt-Schermerhorn Sts platforms". Retrieved April 19, 2007. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dougherty, Peter (2006) [2002]. Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty. OCLC 49777633 – via Google Books. 
  10. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. "Take the Tomato 2 Stops to the Sunflower". City Room. Retrieved November 6, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017. 
  12. ^ Tobin, Austin J. (May 10, 1960). "Addition to Bridge Upheld". New York Times. p. 36. 
  13. ^ "Across the Hudson by Rapid Transit". New York Times. January 30, 1984. p. A16. 
  14. ^ "100 Miles of Subway in New City Project". New York Times. September 16, 1929. p. 1. 
  15. ^ File No. 72, Drawing No. 58: Proposed Additional Rapid Transit Lines and Proposed Vehicular Tunnels (Map) (August 23, 1929 ed.). New York City Board of Transportation. 
  16. ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority (October 2005). "Draft Long List of Alternatives" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Plan a New Subway on Upper West Side". New York Times. March 3, 1918. p. 27. 
  18. ^ "Two Subway Routes Adopted by City". New York Times. August 4, 1923. p. 9. 
  19. ^ "Plans Now Ready to Start Subways". New York Times. March 12, 1924. p. 1. 
  20. ^ "Hylan Subway Plan Links Four Boroughs at $450,000,000 Cost". New York Times. December 10, 1924. p. 1. 
  21. ^ Raskin, Joseph B. (November 1, 2013), The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System, Fordham University Press, ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2 
  22. ^ "Will Break Ground Today for New Uptown Subway". New York Times. March 14, 1925. p. 15. 
  23. ^ a b Warner, Arthur (1931-11-22). "THE CITY'S NEW UNDERGROUND PROVINCE; The Eighth Avenue Subway Will Be Not Only a Transit Line but a Centre for the Shopper A NEW UNDERGROUND PROVINCE OF NEW YORK The Eighth Avenue Subway Will Be a Rapid Transit Line With Innovations and Will Provide Centres for the Shoppers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-05-02. 
  24. ^ Transit Journal. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Incorporated. 1932. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Gay Midnight Crowd Rides First Trains in New Subway". New York Times. September 10, 1932. p. 1. 
  26. ^ a b c "City Opens Subway to Brooklyn Today". New York Times. February 1, 1933. p. 19. 
  27. ^ "City Subway Adds a New Link Today". New York Times. March 20, 1933. p. 17. 
  28. ^ "New Bronx Subway Starts Operation". New York Times. July 1, 1933. p. 15. 
  29. ^ Station Guide, Independent City Owned Rapid Transit Railroad (Map) (ca. 1937 ed.). Courtesy of the Board of Transportation of N.Y.C., printed in the Clarified Telephone Directories (Red Books) for New York City.  External link in |title= (help)
  30. ^ "Two Subway Units Open at Midnight". New York Times. August 18, 1933. p. 17. 
  31. ^ "6th Ave. Tube Adds Two New Services". New York Times. December 5, 1940. p. 27. 
  32. ^ "System-Wide Changes In Subway Service Effective Sunday, December 11, 1988". Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Retrieved June 17, 2016. 
  33. ^ "March 1, 1998 B C Routes are switching places above 145 St". Flickr. New York City Transit. March 1998. Retrieved October 23, 2016. 
  34. ^ Ingalls, Leonard (August 28, 1953). "2 Subway Lines to Add Cars, Another to Speed Up Service" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  35. ^ Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (2004). "Lower Manhattan Airport and Commuter Access Alternatives Analysis" (PDF). Retrieved March 19, 2008. 
  36. ^ "MTA Will Completely Close 30 Subway Stations For Months-Long "Revamp"". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016. 
  37. ^ "MTAStations" (PDF). governor.ny.gov. Government of the State of New York. Retrieved July 18, 2016. 
  38. ^ "Enhanced Station Initiative: CCM Pre-Proposal Conference" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 25, 2016. p. 8 (PDF page 15). Retrieved August 11, 2017. 
  39. ^ a b "100 MILES OF SUBWAY IN NEW CITY PROJECT; 52 OF THEM IN QUEENS; Transportation Board Gives Out Routes of Second System to Cover Four Boroughs. $438,400,000 COST TO BUILD Second Av. Trunk Line to Be Hub, Linking With Bronx and New River Tubes to East. ROCKAWAYS TO BE SERVED Project's Sponsors See Network Touching All Sections Now in Need of Rapid Transit. Big Items Not in Cost Estimate. East Side Belt Line. NEW SUBWAY UNIT TO HAVE 100 MILES Four New Routes in Bronx. Queens Gets Most Mileage. Main Manhattan-Bronx Line. 163d St.-Lafayette Avenue Line. East-West Bronx Line. New Brooklyn Lines. To Serve Rockaway. Queens Cross Connections, for Easterly Queens". The New York Times. 1929-09-16. Retrieved 2018-04-02. 
  40. ^ "Jobs are Filled on All Subway Links". New York Times. June 25, 1933. p. 8. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google

KML is from Wikidata