A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, comparable features and equipment, they share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or with some kind of alliteration. Sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered. For instance, the U. S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship. The most famous sister ships were RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic; as with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas. Half-sister refers with some significant differences. One example of half-sisters are the First World War-era British Courageous-class battlecruisers where the first two ships had four 15-inch guns, but the last ship, HMS Furious, had two 18-inch guns instead.
Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in "long-hull" and "short-hull" versions. Notable airships include the American sister ships USS Akron and USS Macon, the German Hindenburg class airship's Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin II; the accepted commercial distinctions of a sister ship are the following: Type: Identical main type Dry weight: ± 10% on the DWT Builder: Identical shipbuilding company name The critical overriding criteria are the same hull design. For example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan and the Philippines. All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships; the International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these: A sister ship is a ship built by the same yard from the same plans; the acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the lightship displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship.
Ship naming and launching Ship commissioning
Arish or el Arīsh is the capital and largest city of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, 344 kilometers northeast of Cairo. It borders Israel. Arish is distinguished by its clear blue water, widespread fruitful palmy wood on its coast, its soft white sand, it has a marina, many luxury hotels. The city has some of the faculties of Suez Canal University. Arish is by a big wadi, the Wadi Al Arish, which receives flash flood water from much of north and central Sinai; the Azzaraniq national park is on the eastern side of Arish. The city grew around a Bedouin settlement near the ancient Ptolemaic outpost of Rhinocorura. In the Middle Ages, pilgrims misidentified the site as the Sukkot of the Bible. ʻArīsh means "palm huts" in Modern Standard Arabic. New fortifications were constructed at the original site by the Ottoman Empire in 1560. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French laid siege to the fort, which fell after 11 days on February 19, 1799.
During World War I, the fort was destroyed by British bombers. It was the location of the 45th Stationary Hospital which treated casualties of the Palestine campaign; the remains of those who died there were moved to Kantara Cemetery. Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, proposed Arish as a Jewish homeland since neither the Sultan nor the Kaiser supported settlement in Palestine. In 1903, Joseph Chamberlain, the British colonial secretary, agreed to consider Arish, Herzl commissioned the lawyer David Lloyd George a charter draft, but his application was turned down once an expedition, led by Leopold Kessler had returned and submitted a detailed report to Herzl, which outlined a proposal to divert some of the Nile waters to the area for the purpose of settlement. El Arish Military Cemetery was built in 1919 marked the dead of the First World War, it was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer. On December 8, 1958, an air battle occurred between Israeli air forces over Arish. Arish was under military occupation by Israel in 1956 and again from 1967 to 1979.
It was returned to Egypt in 1979 after the signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. On 24 November 2017, 305 people were killed in a bomb and gun attack at the al-Rawda mosque near Arish. Arish is in the northern Sinai Peninsula and is about 50 kilometres from the Rafah border crossing with the Gaza Strip. Arish is the closest larger settlement to Lake Bardawil; the city is served by el Arish International Airport. The construction of the northern coast highway in Egypt was expected to be finished by 2008 linking El-Qantarah at the Suez Canal in the west to the Gaza Strip border passing by Arish; the railway line from Cairo is under re-construction and it reached the "Ser and Qawarir zone" west of Arish. This route was part of the Palestine Railways built during World War I and World War II to connect Egypt with Turkey; the railway was cut during the formation of Israel. The North Sinai is a milestone for the Egyptian government planners to redistribute the high-density population in the Nile Delta, it is expected that by accomplishing the transportation and irrigation projects, three million Egyptians will settle in North Sinai.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert, although prevailing Mediterranean winds moderate its temperatures, typical to the rest of the northern coast of Egypt. The highest record temperature was 45 °C, recorded on May 29, 2003, while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C, recorded on January 8, 1994. List of cities and towns in Egypt Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport, is the largest naval base in Western Europe and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Royal Navy. It is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. HMNB Devonport is located in the west of the city of Plymouth, England. Having begun as Royal Navy Dockyard in the late-17th century, Shipbuilding ceased at Devonport in the early 1970s, but ship maintenance work has continued: the now privatised maintenance facilities are operated by Babcock Marine, a division of Babcock International Group, who took over the previous owner Devonport Management Limited in 2007. From 1934 until the early 21st century the naval barracks on the site was named HMS Drake; the name HMS Drake has been extended to cover the entire base. In the early 1970s the newly-styled'Fleet Maintenance Base' was itself commissioned as HMS Defiance. HM Naval Base Devonport is the home port of the Devonport Flotilla which includes the Trafalgar-class submarines.
In 2009 the Ministry of Defence announced the conclusion of a long-running review of the long-term role of three naval bases. Devonport will no longer be used as a base for attack submarines after these move to Faslane by 2017, the Type 45 destroyers are based at Portsmouth. However, Devonport retains a long-term role as the dedicated home of the amphibious fleet, survey vessels and half the frigate fleet. In 1588, the ships of the English Navy set sail for the Spanish Armada through the mouth of the River Plym, thereby establishing the military presence in Plymouth. Sir Francis Drake is now an enduring legacy in Devonport, as the naval base has been named HMS Drake. In 1689 Prince William of Orange became William III and immediately he required the building of a new Royal Dockyard west of Portsmouth. Edmund Dummer, Surveyor of the Navy, travelled the West Country searching for an area where a dockyard could be built. Having dismissed the Plymouth site as inadequate, he settled on the Hamoaze area which soon became known as Plymouth Dock renamed Devonport.
On 30 December 1690, a contract was let for a dockyard to be built: the start of Plymouth Royal Dockyard. Having selected the location, Dummer was given responsibility for designing and building the new yard. At the heart of his new dockyard, Dummer placed a stone-lined basin, giving access to what proved to be the first successful stepped stone dry dock in Europe; the Navy Board had relied upon timber as the major building material for dry docks, which resulted in high maintenance costs and was a fire risk. The docks Dummer designed were stronger with more secure foundations and stepped sides that made it easier for men to work beneath the hull of a docked vessel; these innovations allowed rapid erection of staging and greater workforce mobility. He discarded the earlier three-sectioned hinged gate, labour-intensive in operation, replaced it with the simpler and more mobile two-sectioned gate. Dummer wished to ensure that naval dockyards were efficient working units that maximised available space, as evidenced by the simplicity of his design layout at Plymouth Dock.
He introduced a centralised storage area alongside the basin, a logical positioning of other buildings around the yard. His double rope-house combined the separate tasks of spinning and laying while allowing the upper floor to be used for the repair of sails. On high ground overlooking the rest of the yard he built a grand terrace of houses for the senior dockyard officers. Most of Dummer's buildings and structures were rebuilt over ensuing years, including the basin and dry dock; the terrace survived into the 20th century, but was destroyed in the Blitz along with several others of Devonport's historic buildings. Just one end section of the terrace survives; the dockyard was established on the southern tip of the present-day site. The town that grew around the dockyard was called Plymouth Dock up to 1823, when the townspeople petitioned for it to be renamed Devonport; the dockyard followed suit twenty years becoming Devonport Royal Dockyard. In just under three centuries over 300 vessels were built at Devonport, the last being HMS Scylla in 1971.
The dockyard began in. It was here. In the 1760s a period of expansion began, leading to a configuration which can still be seen today: five slipways, four dry docks and a wet basin. One slipway survives unaltered from this period: a rare survival, it is covered with a timber superstructure of 1814, a rare and early survival of its type.
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum
The Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum is a technical history museum located in Haifa, Israel. The museum covers the maritime history of Israel – from clandestine immigration during the British Mandate for Palestine through the history of the Israeli navy since its inception; the museum is named after one of the leaders of the Jewish Yishuv. It was established by Colonel Yoske Coral and opened to the public in 1969; the museum is run by the Israeli Ministry of Defense. It stands next to the Israeli National Maritime Museum, dedicated to maritime history and archaeology. Remnants of the INS Dakar, an Israeli submarine that sunk in 1968, are on display at the museum The following vessels are on permanent display: INS Mivtach, a decommissioned missile boat INS Gal, a retired Gal-class submarine INS Af Al Pi Chen, a clandestine immigration ship, built as a Royal Navy Mark 2 Tank Landing Craft in World War II List of museums in Israel Official webpage at Israeli Ministry of Defense
USS Scorpion (SSN-589)
USS Scorpion was a Skipjack-class nuclear submarine of the United States Navy and the sixth vessel of the U. S. Navy to carry that name. Scorpion was lost on 22 May 1968, with 99 crewmen dying in the incident. USS Scorpion is one of two nuclear submarines the U. S. Navy has lost, it was one of four mysterious submarine disappearances in 1968, the others being the Israeli submarine INS Dakar, the French submarine Minerve and the Soviet submarine K-129. Scorpion's keel was laid down 20 August 1958 by General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut, she was launched 19 December 1959, sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth S. Morrison, the daughter of the last commander of the World War II-era USS Scorpion. Scorpion was commissioned 29 July 1960, Commander Norman B. Bessac in command. Assigned to Submarine Squadron 6, Division 62, Scorpion departed New London, Connecticut, 24 August for a two-month European deployment. During that time, she participated in exercises with NATO-member navies. After returning to New England in late October, she trained along the eastern seaboard until May 1961.
On 9 August 1961, she returned to New London, moving to Virginia, a month later. In 1962, she earned a Navy Unit Commendation. Norfolk was Scorpion's port for the remainder of her career, she specialized in developing nuclear submarine warfare tactics. Varying roles from hunter to hunted, she participated in exercises along the Atlantic coast and Puerto Rico operating areas. From June 1963 to May 1964, she interrupted operations for an overhaul at Charleston, she resumed duty in late spring, but was again interrupted from 4 August to 8 October for a transatlantic patrol. In the spring of 1965, she conducted a similar patrol in European waters. In 1966 she deployed for special operations. After completing those assignments, her commanding officer received a Navy Commendation Medal for outstanding leadership and professional skill. Other Scorpion officers and crewmen were cited for meritorious achievement. Scorpion is reputed to have entered an inland Russian sea during a "Northern Run" in 1966, where it filmed a Soviet missile launch through its periscope before fleeing from Soviet Navy ships.
On 1 February 1967, Scorpion entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard for needed refueling overhaul. However, instead of a much-needed complete overhaul, she received only emergency repairs to get back on duty; the preferred SUBSAFE program required increased submarine overhaul times, from 9 months in length to 36 months. Intensive vetting of submarine component quality, SUBSAFE, was required, coupled with various improvements and intensified structural inspections – hull-welding inspections using ultrasonic testing – and reduced availability of critical parts like seawater piping. Cold War pressures prompted U. S. Submarine Force Atlantic officers to seek ways to cut corners; the last overhaul cost one-seventh of those performed on other nuclear submarines at the same time. This was the result of concerns about the "high percentage of time offline" for nuclear attack submarines, estimated at about 40% of total available duty time. Scorpion's original. Long-overdue SUBSAFE work, such as a new central valve control system, was not performed.
Crucially, her emergency system was not corrected for the same problems. While Charleston Naval Ship Yard claimed the Emergency Main Ballast Tank Blow system worked as-is, SUBLANT claimed it did not, their EMBT was "tagged out" or listed as unusable. Perceived problems with overhaul duration led to a delay on all SUBSAFE work in 1967. CNO Admiral David Lamar McDonald approved Scorpion's reduced overhaul on 17 June 1966. On 20 July, McDonald deferred SUBSAFE extensions, otherwise deemed essential since 1963.. In late October 1967, Scorpion started refresher training and weapons system acceptance tests, was given a new commanding officer, Francis Slattery. Following type training out of Norfolk, she got underway on 15 February 1968 for a Mediterranean Sea deployment, she operated with the 6th Fleet into May and headed west for home. Scorpion suffered several mechanical malfunctions, including a chronic problem with Freon leakage from refrigeration systems. An electrical fire occurred in an escape trunk when a water leak shorted out a shore power connection?
There is no evidence that Scorpion's speed was restricted in May 1968, although it was conservatively observing a depth limitation of 500 feet, due to the incomplete implementation of planned post-Thresher safety checks and modifications. Departing the Mediterranean on 16 May, two men left Scorpion at Naval Station Rota in Spain, one for a family emergency and the other was dispatched for health reasons; some U. S. ballistic missile submarines operated from the U. S. Naval base Rota, it is speculated that USS Scorpion provided noise cover for USS John C. Calhoun as they both departed to the Atlantic the first time; as well as Soviet intelligence trawlers, there were Soviet fast nuclear attack submarines attempting to detect and follow the U. S. submarines going out of Rota. Scorpion was detailed to observe Soviet naval activities in the Atlantic in the vicinity of the Azores. An Echo II-class submarine was operating with this Soviet task force, as well as a Russian guided missile destroyer. Having observed and listened to the Soviet units, Scorpion prepared to head back to Naval St
Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the UK Government or the British Government; the government is led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet; the government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most to command the confidence of the House of Commons by possessing a majority of MPs.
Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree; the current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. She is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the general election on 7 May 2015, when David Cameron was the party leader. Prior to this and the Conservatives led a coalition from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister; the Government is referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.
A key principle of the British Constitution is. This is called responsible government; the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by Parliament; this constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215. Parliament is split into the House of Commons; the House of Commons is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law.
Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, may have introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform. Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House. For most senior ministers this is the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson and Lord Adonis sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor now that the Lords have limited powers in relation to money bills.
The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834. Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, it requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held; the support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House; the House of Commons is thus the Responsible house. The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject