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The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about ​8 1⁄2 months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released; as of May 28, 2019, only the iPod Touch remains in production. Like other digital music players, some versions of the iPod can serve as external data storage devices. Prior to macOS 10.15 Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music, videos, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, calendars, to the devices supporting these features from computers using certain versions of Apple macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch; as of iOS 5, separate apps named "Music" and "Videos" are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are treated as separate products.

During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod. Apple made the Apple Newton from 1993 to 1998 and made the eMate from 1997 to 1998. Following the lackluster sales of these devices, Apple wanted a mobile device and so started to develop a personal media player, which would become the iPod; the iPod was released in late 2001. The iPod line came from Apple's "digital hub" category, when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players "big and clunky or small and useless" with user interfaces that were "unbelievably awful," so Apple decided to develop its own; as ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple's hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey, design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive. Rubinstein had discovered the Toshiba hard disk drive while meeting with an Apple supplier in Japan, purchased the rights to it for Apple, had already worked out how the screen and other key elements would work.

The aesthetic was inspired by the 1958 Braun T3 transistor radio designed by Dieter Rams, while the wheel-based user interface was prompted by Bang & Olufsen's BeoCom 6000 telephone. The product was developed in less than one year and unveiled on October 23, 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put "1,000 songs in your pocket."Apple did not develop the iPod software in-house, instead using PortalPlayer's reference platform based on two ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetooth headphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs; as development progressed, Apple continued to feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. IPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans—a font similar to Apple's corporate font, Myriad.

Color display iPods adopted some Mac OS X themes like Aqua progress bars, brushed metal meant to evoke a combination lock. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic and third-generation iPod Nano by changing the font to Helvetica and, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right. In 2006 Apple presented a special edition for iPod 5G of Irish rock band U2. Like its predecessor, this iPod has engraved the signatures of the four members of the band on its back, but this one was the first time the company changed the colour of the metal; this iPod was only available with 30GB of storage capacity. The special edition entitled purchasers to an exclusive video with 33 minutes of interviews and performance by U2, downloadable from the iTunes Store. In September 2007, during a lawsuit with patent holding company, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device, developed in 1979.

Kane Kramer applied for a UK patent for his design of a "plastic music box" in 1981, which he called the IXI. He was unable to secure funding to renew the US$120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea; the name iPod was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and the phrase "Open the pod bay doors, Hal", which refers to the white EVA Pods of the Discovery One spaceship. Chieco saw an analogy to the relationship between the spaceship and the smaller independent pods in the relationship between a personal computer and the music player. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jersey had listed an "iPod" trademark with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in July 2000 for Internet kiosks; the first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, commercial use began in January 2000, but had been discontinued by 2001.

The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005. The earliest recorded use in comm


Qiangqu was head of the maternal Qiang tribe, Western Tuqi Prince, successor to Huzheng, chanyu of the Southern Xiongnu from 179 to 188 AD. Qiangqu's reign coincided with a troublesome time for the Han Empire, few records address Chinese relations with the Southern Xiongnu. In 187 AD Qiangqu sent Southern Xiongnu cavalry troops under command of the Eastern Tuqi Prince to aid the governor of Yuzhou province against the former governor, Zhongshan province, Zhang Shun, who had rebelled in alliance with the Xianbei; this caused discontent among the elders, who were alarmed by the frequency with which Qiangqu sent their men off to battle for the Han dynasty. In 188 AD, the Xiuchuge clan killed Qiangqu; the title of chanyu went to his son Yufuluo. The Jie branch of the Xiongnu is named after Qiangqu. On they created the Later Zhao Jie state led by Shi Le. Barfield, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Basil Blackwell Bichurin N. Ya. "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol.

1, p. 146, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, reprint Moscow-Leningrad, 1950 Chang, Chun-shu, The Rise of the Chinese Empire 1, The University of Michigan Press Cosmo, Nicola Di, Ancient China and Its Enemies, Cambridge University Press Cosmo, Nicola di, Military Culture in Imperial China, Harvard University Press Crespigny, Rafe de, A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, Brill Loewe, Michael, A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, Xin Periods, Brill Taskin B. S. "Materials on Sünnu history", Moscow, 1968, p. 31 Whiting, Marvin C. Imperial Chinese Military History, Writers Club Press

Helensburgh Parish Church

The West Kirk is a Church of Scotland parish church on Colquhoun Square in Helensburgh, Scotland. Designed by James Hay, in 1853, it is designated as a Category B listed building by Historic Environment Scotland. In 2011 the church united with St Columba Church to become St Andrew's Kirk; the St Columba Church building became The Tower arts centre. In 2015 St Andrew's Kirk united with Park Church to become Helensburgh Parish Church. In 2016 the Park Church building became the Buddhist Meditation Centre of Scotland. Since December 2015 the Parish Minister is the Reverend David T. Young BA, BD Min, MTh. Official website

Elvira Kovač

Elvira Kovač, alternately spelled in Latin-script characters as Elvira Kovács, is a politician in Serbia from the country's Hungarian community. She has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2007 as a member of the Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians. Kovač was born in Zrenjanin, Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, in what was the Socialist Republic of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, she studied at the faculty of economics in Subotica, graduating in 2006, subsequently worked in the provincial secretariat for health and social policy in the executive council of Vojvodina until July 2007. Kovač joined the VMSZ in 2000, became a regional trainer for the National Democratic Institute in 2005, joined the presidency of the VMSZ's youth forum in 2005, she received the 224th position on the VMSZ's electoral list in the 2007 Serbian parliamentary election. She was, able to take a seat in the assembly on July 18, 2007, as a replacement for Andrea Galgo-Ferenci, who had resigned.

Kovač served as an opposition member during this time. For the 2008 parliamentary election, Kovač received the fourth position on the electoral list of the Hungarian Coalition, a multi-party alliance led by the VMSZ; the coalition won four seats, she was chosen as part of its delegation. For a European Serbia formed a coalition government after the election, the VMSZ provided parliamentary support to the administration. Serbia's electoral system was reformed in 2011, such that parliamentary mandates were awarded in numerical order to candidates on successful lists. Kovač was given the third position on the VMSZ's list for the 2012 election and was re-elected when the list won five mandates, she again received the third position in 2014 and was promoted to second in 2016. Although the VMSZ was in opposition from 2012 to 2014, it has provided support to Serbia's coalition government led by the Serbian Progressive Party since 2014, Kovač has once again served with the government's parliamentary majority during this time.

Kovač was a deputy member of Serbia's delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe from October 2007 to October 2012 and again from January 2013 to May 2014, since which time she has been a full member. She sits with the European People's Party parliamentary group. Kovač is a member of the PACE committee on non-discrimination. In May 2017, she affirmed, she is the deputy chair of the Serbian parliament's European integration committee. She is married and has a son

César de la Peña

César Francisco de la Peña Rentería is a Mexican footballer who plays for Celaya. Once one of the young has played only a few minutes with the first team, he made his senior team debut on October 7, 2011 as a substitute in a match against Estudiantes Tecos in a 3 - 2 win of Monterrey. His parents Cesar de La Peña & Zulema Rentera have always supported his career since his days practising as an amateur, he was playing as amateur at Chivas AC in San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo León, when he was 10 years old. He has looked a great promise since then, his nickname is "Chorri" and he has one brother, Alan de la Peña, a sister, Zuleyma de la Peña. His father, Cesar de la Peña, is considered as his main backer since he supported his career since Chorri was a child. After a short loan spell with Belén where he impressed along with fellow Monterrey loanee Julio César Cruz, de la Peña signed with Correcaminos. César de la PeñaLiga MX stats at ESPN profile César de la Peña – FIFA competition record

Castellers de Vilafranca

The Castellers de Vilafranca is a cultural and sporting association whose main objective is to build castells. It has the status of a public-interest association; the group was founded in 1948 in response to the increased interest in human tower building in Vilafranca del Penedès, a Catalan tradition that has evolved since the 18th century Ball de Valencians, a dance from Valencia. Nowadays, the Castellers de Vilafranca have about 400 active human tower building members of all ages, with no discrimination on the grounds of race, sex or social status, they share the common goal of building human towers, democratic values and teamwork, a constant desire to surpass themselves, a will to maintain a lead over a select and competitive group of rival human tower associations. The group’s headquarters is Cal Figarot, Casa Via Raventós, a house located in downtown Vilafranca del Penedès and specially adapted for human tower building activity; the group is one of the most important organizations in Vilafranca del Penedès and has represented Catalan culture abroad numerous times.

The association has more than five hundred official supporters, has the support of several public and private institutions. In addition to hosting and participating in human tower exhibitions, it organizes other cultural activities, such as small-scale concerts, a poetry contest, a massive bicycle event, a dominoes tournament, food events and a human tower school for kids; the Castellers de Vilafranca’s efforts to preserve and promote popular Catalan culture have been recognized by the town of Vilafranca del Penedès, which awarded the group with the Medalla de la Vila, by the Generalitat de Catalunya with the Creu de Sant Jordi. The Castellers de Vilafranca cultural association was founded in September 1948 by Oriol Rossell, who became the first cap de colla; the group started with seven-level towers, forged close relationships with casteller groups in other towns. The first caps de colla were Ramon Sala; the group wore rose-coloured shirts, subsequently, red ones. In 1956, the group became inactive due to internal disagreements and disputes.

In 1957, it reorganized and elected to wear green shirts, still the distinctive colour used by the group today. From 1957 to 1968, seven-level towers were the norm, the cinc de set was the highest tower achieved. From 1969 to 1974, the group improved building the first towers in the eight-level category: the torre de Set, quatre de vuit, tres de vuit, pilar de sis, the torre de vuit amb folre. In 1972, the group won the Concurs de castells de Tarragona, the Human Towers Competition held biennially in Tarragona city in the south of Catalonia. During those years, the caps de colla were Josep Pedrol, Carles Domènech, Joan Bolet, Gabi Martínez, Lluís Giménez and Gabi Martínez, again. In 1975, the group went through major internal restructuring, shifting from the personal and almost-exclusive leadership of the cap de colla to management of the technical side of tower-building by a consensual team. 1981 brought with it more internal changes, it was decided that team members would no longer be individually paid.

This provoked a division in the group. From 1975 to 1982, eight-level towers were performed but with difficulties. In 1983 and 1984, the group regained its strength in this category and, in 1985, it built the first cinc de vuit; this landmark achievement proved to be a milestone on the way to more impressive nine-level towers. In 1987, the first tres and quatre de nou amb folre arrived, in 1989 the first successful tres de nou amb folre was achieved. Similar success came in 1990 with the first quatre de nou amb folre; the cap de colla between 1975 and 1994 was Carles Domènech. Between 1995 and 2004, the group enjoyed its most successful years to date. During this period, the highest and most difficult towers were achieved: descarregats the torre de nou amb folre i manilles, pilar de set amb folre, pilar de vuit amb folre i manilles, quatre de vuit amb l’agulla, quatre de nou amb folre i l’agulla, cinc de nou amb folre, tres and quatre de nou amb folre built simultaneously. There were other successes, too.

As for towers that were “only” carregats: the torre de vuit. The group won the Tarragona Human Towers Competition in 1996, 1998, 2002, 2004 and 2006. In 2005 Castellers de Vilafranca achieved the torre de nou amb folre, considered the most difficult tower done by any group to date. Francesc Moreno "Melilla" was the cap de colla between 1995 and 2003, Lluís Esclassans from 2004 to 2007. David Miret was elected the new cap de colla in December 2007. Castellers de Vilafranca have achieved in their history most of the constructions that have been seen in any performance. You will find below the detailed list of human constructions and the date in which they were topped or dismantled for the first time: According to the general organization of the group, management is divided into two main bodies - a technica