The Infrared Astronomical Satellite was the first-ever space telescope to perform a survey of the entire night sky at infrared wavelengths. Following the end of its mission, the 1.1 metric-ton satellite was not deorbited and constitutes a space hazard. Launched on 25 January 1983, its mission lasted ten months; the telescope was a joint project of the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom. Over 250,000 infrared sources were observed at 12, 25, 60, 100 micrometer wavelengths. Support for the processing and analysis of data from IRAS was contributed from the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology; the Infrared Science Archive at IPAC holds the IRAS archive. The success of IRAS led to interest in the 1985 Infrared Telescope mission on the Space Shuttle, the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility which transformed into the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, SIRTF, which in turn was developed into the Spitzer Space Telescope, launched in 2003.

The success of early infrared space astronomy led to further missions, such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS instrument. IRAS was the first observatory to perform an all-sky survey at infrared wavelengths, it mapped 96% of the sky four times, at 12, 25, 60 and 100 micrometers, with resolutions ranging from 30 arcseconds at 12 micrometers to 2 arcminutes at 100 micrometers. It discovered about 350,000 sources. About 75,000 of those are believed to be starburst galaxies, still enduring their star-formation stage. Many other sources are normal stars with disks of dust around them the early stage of planetary system formation. New discoveries included the first images of the Milky Way's core. IRAS's life, like that of most infrared satellites that followed, was limited by its cooling system. To work in the infrared domain, a telescope must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. In IRAS's case, 73 kilograms of superfluid helium kept the telescope at a temperature of 2 K, keeping the satellite cool by evaporation.

The on-board supply of liquid helium was depleted after 10 months on 21 November 1983, causing the telescope temperature to rise, preventing further observations. The spacecraft continues to orbit the Earth. IRAS was designed to catalog fixed sources, so it scanned the same region of sky several times. Jack Meadows led a team at Leicester University, including John Davies and Simon Green, which searched the rejected sources for moving objects; this led to the discovery of three asteroids, including 3200 Phaethon, six comets, a huge dust trail associated with comet 10P/Tempel. The comets included 126P/IRAS, 161P/Hartley–IRAS, comet IRAS–Araki–Alcock, which made a close approach to the Earth in 1983. Out of the six comets IRAS found, four were long period and two were short period comets. Overall, over a quarter million discrete targets were observed during its operations, both inside and beyond Earth's solar system. In addition, new objects were discovered including comets; the observatory made headlines with the announcement on 10 December 1983 of the discovery of an "unknown object" at first described as "possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and so close to Earth that it would be part of this solar system".

Further analysis revealed that, of several unidentified objects, nine were distant galaxies and the tenth was "intergalactic cirrus". None were found to be Solar System bodies. During its mission, IRAS detected odd infrared signatures around several stars; this led to the systems being targeted by the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS instrument between 1999 and 2006, but nothing was detected. In 2014, using new image processing techniques on the Hubble data, researchers discovered planetary disks around these stars. IRAS discovered six comets, out of total of 22 recoveries of all comets that year; this was a lot for this period, before the launch of SOHO in 1995, which would allow the discovery of many more comets in the next decade. Several infrared space telescopes have continued and expanded the study of the infrared Universe, such as the Infrared Space Observatory launched in 1995, the Spitzer Space Telescope launched in 2003, the Akari Space Telescope launched in 2006. A next generation of infrared space telescopes began when NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer launched on 14 December 2009 aboard a Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Known as WISE, the telescope provided results hundreds of times more sensitive than IRAS at the shorter wavelengths. A planned mission is NASA's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Mission, a successor to the NEOWISE mission. On 29 January 2020, 23:39:35 UTC, IRAS was expected to pass as as 12 meters from the U. S. Air Force's Gravity Gradient Stabilization Experiment of 1967, another un-deorbited satellite left aloft. Further complications arose from the fact that GGSE-4 was outfitted with an 18 meter long stabilization boom, in an unknown orientation and may have struck the satellite if the spacecraft's main body did not. Initial observations from amateur astronomers seemed to indicate that both satellites had survived the pass, with the California-based debris tracking organization LeoLabs confirming that they had detected no ne

Tangkhulic languages

The Tangkhulic and Tangkhul languages are a group of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in northeastern Manipur, India. Conventionally classified as "Naga", they are not related to other Naga languages, are conservatively classified as an independent Tangkhul–Maring branch of Tibeto-Burman, pending further research; the Maringic languages appear to be related to the Tangkhulic family, but not part of it. Tangkhulic languages include: Tangkhul Somra Akyaung Ari Kachai Huishu TusomThe Tangkhulic languages are not close to each other. Brown's "Southern Tangkhul", it has strong links with the discovered Sorbung language, not Tangkhulic despite being spoken by ethnic Tangkhul. Koki, Long Phuri and Para are "Naga" languages spoken in and around Leshi Township, Myanmar; these four languages could classify as Tangkhulic languages or Ao languages. Mortensen classifies the Tangkhulic languages as follows. TangkhulicNorthern: Huishu North-Central: Champhung East-Central Eastern Kachai Phadāng Central Standard Tangkhul Ukhrul Southern Brown's'Central Tangkhul' South-Central Khangoi Brown's'Northern Tangkhul' Proto-Tangkhulic, the reconstructed ancestral proto-language of the Tangkhulic languages, has been reconstructed by Mortensen.

Mortensen lists the following phonological innovations from Proto-Tibeto-Burman to Proto-Tangkhulic. PTB *s- > *th-. Proto-Tangkhulic lexical innovations are: *war ‘mushroom’ *kɔ.phuŋ ‘mountain’ *kɔ.mi ‘to give’ *khaj ‘fish’ *pan ‘hand’ *pej ‘foot’ George van Driem Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill. Mortensen, David R. and James A. Miller. “A reconstruction of Proto-Tangkhulic rhymes.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 36: 1-32. Mortensen, David R.. Database of Tangkhulic Languages.. Mortensen, David R. and James A. Miller. “Proto-Tangkhul Onsets in Comparative Perspective.” International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics 42, November 4. Mortensen, David R.. “Comparative Tangkhul.” Unpublished Qualifying Paper, UC Berkeley. Mortensen, David. 2014. The Tangkhulic Tongues - How I Started Working on Endangered Languages

Battle of Carmona

One of Scipio's first major battles in Spain, this siege is described by Appian in his Iberica at 5.25-28. Now this Hasdrubal ordered all the remaining Carthaginian forces in Spain to be collected at the city of Carmone to fight Scipio with their united strength. Hither came a great number of Spaniards under the lead of Mago, of Numidians under Masinissa. Hasdrubal had the infantry in a fortified camp and Mago, who commanded the cavalry, bivouacking in front of it. Scipio divided his own horse so that Lælius should attack Mago while he himself should be opposed to Masinissa; this fight was for some time doubtful and severe to Scipio, since the Numidians discharged their darts at his men suddenly retreated, wheeled and returned to the charge. But when Scipio ordered his men to hurl their javelins and pursue without intermission, the Numidians, having no chance to turn around, retreated to their camp. Here Scipio desisted from the pursuit and encamped in a strong position, which he had chosen, about ten stades from the enemy.

The total strength of the enemy was 70,000 foot, 5000 horse, thirty-six elephants. That of Scipio was not one-third of the number. For some time, therefore, he did not venture a fight, except some light skirmishes; when his supplies began to fail and hunger attacked his army, Scipio considered that it would be base to retreat. Accordingly he sacrificed, bringing the soldiers to an audience after the sacrifice, putting on again the look and aspect of one inspired, he said that the deity had appeared to him in the customary way and told him to attack the enemy, had assured him that it was better to trust in heaven than in the size of his army because his former victories were gained by divine favor rather than by numerical strength. In order to inspire confidence in his words he commanded the priests to bring the entrails into the assembly. While he was speaking he saw some birds flying overhead with great swiftness and clamor. Looking up he pointed them out and exclaimed this was a sign of victory which the gods had sent him.

He followed their movement, crying out like one possessed. The whole army, as it saw him turning hither and thither, imitated his actions, all were fired with the idea of certain victory; when he had everything as he wished he did not hesitate, nor permit their ardor to cool, but still as one inspired exclaimed: "These signs tell us that we must fight at once." When they had taken their food he ordered them to arm themselves, led them against the enemy, who were not expecting them, giving the command of the horse to Silanus and of the foot to Lælius and Marcius. Hasdrubal and Masinissa, when Scipio was coming upon them unawares, being only ten stades distant, their soldiers not having taken their food, drew up their forces in haste, amid confusion and tumult. Battle being joined with both cavalry and infantry, the Roman horse prevailed over the enemy by the same tactics as before, by giving no respite to the Numidians, thus making their darts of no effect by reason of their nearness; the infantry were pressed by the great numbers of the Africans and were worsted by them all day long, nor could Scipio stem the tide of battle, although he was everywhere cheering them on.

Giving his horse in charge of a boy, snatching a shield from a soldier, he dashed alone into the space between the two armies, shouting: "Romans, rescue your Scipio in his peril."3 Then those who were near seeing, those who were distant hearing, what danger he was in, all being in like manner moved by a sense of shame and fear for their general's safety, charged furiously upon the enemy, uttering loud cries. The Africans were unable to resist this charge, they gave way. For a short space of time, there was a terrific slaughter; such was the result to Scipio of the battle of Carmone, although it had been for a long time doubtful. The Roman loss was 800. After this engagement the enemy retreated with all speed, Scipio followed dealing blows and doing damage whenever he could overtake them. After they had occupied a stronghold, where there was plenty of food and water, where nothing could be done but lay siege to them, Scipio was called away on other business, he left Silanus to carry on the siege while he subdued them.

The Africans who were besieged by Silanus deserted their position and retreated again until they came to the straits and passed on to Gades. Silanus, having done them all the harm, rejoined Scipio at New Carthage. In the meantime Hasdrubal, the son of Hamilcar, still collecting troops along the Northern ocean, was called by his brother Hannibal to march in all haste to Italy. In order to deceive Scipio he moved along the northern coast, passed over the Pyrenees into Gaul with the Celtiberian mercenaries whom he had enlisted. In this way he was hastening into Italy without the knowledge of the Italians