Industrial Research Institute
The Industrial Research Institute, Inc. is a nonprofit association based in Arlington, Virginia. IRI is a nonpartisan, membership-based organization that brings leaders of R&D together to discover, IRI held its first meeting on February 25,1938, after the National Research Council established it as a branch within its Division of Engineering and Industrial Research. IRI’s original membership consisted of fourteen companies, the organizations first president was Maurice Holland, on April 17,1945, IRI separated from the National Research Council and formed a nonprofit,501 organization, incorporated in the State of New York. 1945, IRI separates from the National Research Council and forms an independent organization,1946, IRI establishes the IRI Medal. 1952, IRI hosts a meeting with the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation,1958, The need to publish research findings results in the creation of IRIs journal Research Management. 1966, The organization assists the OEEC in developing a proposal for the construction of a college in Europe meant to teach scientists how to manage and this eventually leads to the creation of one of IRIs sister organizations, the European Industrial Research and Management Association. 1973, IRI establishes the IRI Achievement Award,1982, IRI establishes the Maurice Holland Award. 1984, IRI creates a program to allow an individual to serve in the Office of Science. 1985, IRI and its journal begin publishing the results of a survey regarding expected expenditure levels among R&D labs. The report is known as the R&D Trends Forecast,1988, Research Management is redesigned and renamed Research-Technology Management as part of the Institutes 50th anniversary celebration. 1989, the IRI Board decides to relocate IRI headquarters from New York City to Washington,1995, the IRI Board changes the constitution of the Institute to allow for organizations without a U. S. -based lab to become members, helping to expand membership internationally. 2001, RTM begins to be offered online via Ingenta,2003, IRI headquarters is moved from Washington, D. C. to Arlington, VA. 2007, IRI celebrates RTMs 50th year of publication,2008, IRI drafts policy speeches on science and technology for both candidates in the presidential election. 2012, IRIs journal, RTM, is redesigned and reformatted starting in the January–February 2012 issue,2013, IRI celebrates its 75th anniversary. IRI governance resides in its membership, each member organization is responsible for choosing a voting representative to vote on its behalf in IRI elections. A simple majority is required for any action to be taken, the membership is led by an elected sixteen-member Board of Directors, with each member serving three years. The board also appoints a president who serves as Chief Staff Administrator, federal laboratories involved in technological innovation, research, design, or technical support of products and services may also join as Associate Members. The Board of Directors retains the right to offer limited membership to others at its discretion, membership includes free attendance passes to IRI events and a subscription to IRIs official journal, Research-Technology Management
In the 20th century, DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kapton, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek, Sorona, Corfam, and Lycra. DuPont developed Freon for the refrigerant industry, and later more environmentally friendly refrigerants and it also developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair. In 2014, DuPont was the fourth largest chemical company based on market capitalization. Its stock price is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, DuPont was founded in 1802 by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe, the Eleutherian Mills site is now a museum and a National Historic Landmark. DuPont continued to expand, moving into the production of dynamite, in 1902, DuPonts president, Eugene du Pont, died, and the surviving partners sold the company to three great-grandsons of the original founder. Charles Lee Reese was appointed as director and the company began centralizing their research departments, the company subsequently purchased several smaller chemical companies, and in 1912 these actions gave rise to government scrutiny under the Sherman Antitrust Act. The courts declared that the dominance of the explosives business constituted a monopoly. The court ruling resulted in the creation of the Hercules Powder Company, at the time of divestment, DuPont retained the single base nitrocellulose powders, while Hercules held the double base powders combining nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. DuPont subsequently developed the Improved Military Rifle line of smokeless powders, in 1910, DuPont published a brochure entitled Farming with Dynamite. DuPont also established two of the first industrial laboratories in the United States, where began the work on cellulose chemistry, lacquers. DuPont Central Research was established at the DuPont Experimental Station, across the Brandywine Creek from the powder mills. In 1914, Pierre S. du Pont invested in the automobile industry. The following year he was invited to sit on GMs board of directors, the DuPont company would assist the struggling automobile company further with a $25 million purchase of GM stock. In 1920, Pierre S. du Pont was elected president of General Motors, under du Ponts guidance, GM became the number one automobile company in the world. However, in 1957, because of DuPonts influence within GM, in the 1920s, DuPont continued its emphasis on materials science, hiring Wallace Carothers to work on polymers in 1928. Carothers invented neoprene, a rubber, the first polyester superpolymer. The invention of Teflon followed a few years later, DuPont introduced phenothiazine as an insecticide in 1935
Instant film is a type of photographic film introduced by Polaroid to be used in an instant camera. The film contains the chemicals needed for developing and fixing the photograph, in earlier Polaroid instant cameras the film is pulled through rollers which breaks open a pod containing a reagent that is spread between the exposed negative and receiving positive sheet. This film sandwich develops for some time after which the sheet is peeled away from the negative to reveal the developed photo. In 1972, Polaroid introduced integral film, which incorporated timing and receiving layers to automatically develop and fix the photo without any intervention from the photographer. Instant film is available in sizes from 24 mm ×36 mm up to 50.8 cm ×61 cm size, with the most popular film sizes for consumer snapshots being approximately 83 mm ×108 mm. Early instant film was distributed on rolls, but later and current films are supplied in packs of 8 or 10 sheets, and single sheet films for use in large format cameras with a compatible back. Though the quality of integral instant film is not as good as conventional film, peel apart black and white film, Instant film was used where it was undesirable to have to wait for a roll of conventional film to be finished and processed, e. g. Some photographers use instant film for test shots, to see how a subject or setup looks before using conventional film for the final exposure. Instant film is notable for having had a range of film speeds available than other negative films of the same era. Current instant film formats typically have an ISO between 100 and 1000, two companies manufacture instant film, Fujifilm and The Impossible Project for older Polaroid cameras. Instant positive film uses diffusion transfer to move the dyes from the negative to the positive via a reagent, the process varies according to the film type. The first instant films produced sepia tone photos, the negative develops quickly, after which some of the unexposed silver halide grains are solubilized by the reagent and transferred by diffusion from the negative to the positive. After a minute, depending on type and ambient temperature. True black and white films were released in 1950 after problems with chemistry stabilization were overcome, color film is much more complex due to multiple layers of emulsion and dye. The negative consists of three emulsion layers sensitive to the colors each with a layer of developing dye beneath it of the complementary color. Once light exposed the negative, the reagent is spread between the negative and positive and the dye layer migrates to the positive surface where it forms the photo. Emulsion layers exposed to their respective color block the complementary dye below it, reproducing the original color. For example, a photo of a blue sky would expose the emulsion, blocking all the yellow dye beneath it and allowing the magenta
Nokia Bell Labs is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to laboratories around the rest of the United States. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory, Bell Labs was also at one time a division of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary. Eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories, in 1880, the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs, approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone. Bell used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D. C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter, the laboratory is also variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory. The laboratory focused on the analysis, recording, and transmission of sound, Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf. This resulted in the founding of the Volta Bureau c,1887, located at Bells fathers house at 1527 35th Street in Washington, D. C. where its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building, close by at 1537 35th St. specifically to house the lab, the building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical, the first president of research was Frank B. Jewett, who stayed there until 1940, ownership of Bell Laboratories was evenly split between AT&T and the Western Electric Company. Its principal work was to plan, design, and support the equipment that Western Electric built for Bell System operating companies and this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, and transmission equipment. Bell Labs also carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, a few workers were assigned to basic research, and this attracted much attention, especially since they produced several Nobel Prize winners. Until the 1940s, the principal locations were in and around the Bell Labs Building in New York City. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence, the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. Since 2001, many of the locations have been scaled down or closed. The Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007, the mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a commercial and residential project. The prospects of success are clouded by the difficulty of readapting Saarinens design and by the current glut of aging, eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories
Maurice Ralph Hilleman was an American microbiologist who specialized in vaccinology and developed over 40 vaccines, an unparalleled record of productivity. He also played a role in the discovery of the cold-producing adenoviruses, the viruses. He is credited with saving lives than any other medical scientist of the 20th century. Robert Gallo described him as the most successful vaccinologist in history, Hilleman was born on a farm near the high plains town of Miles City, Montana. His parents were Anna and Gustav Hillemann, and he was their eighth child and his twin sister died when he was born, and his mother died two days later. He was raised in the household of his uncle, Robert Hilleman. He credited much of his success to his work with chickens as a boy and his family belonged to the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. When he was in the grade, he discovered Charles Darwin. Later in life, he rejected religion, due to lack of money, he almost failed to attend college. His eldest brother interceded, and Hilleman graduated first in his class in 1941 from Montana State University with family help and he won a fellowship to the University of Chicago and received his doctoral degree in microbiology in 1944. His doctoral thesis was on chlamydia infections, which were thought to be caused by a virus. Hilleman showed that these infections were, in fact, caused by a species of bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, that grows only inside of cells. After joining E. R. Squibb & Sons, Hilleman developed a vaccine against Japanese B encephalitis and that helped him to recognize that a 1957 outbreak of influenza in Hong Kong could become a huge pandemic. Working on a hunch, after nine 14-hour days he and a colleague found that it was a new strain of flu that could kill millions, forty million doses of vaccines were prepared and distributed. Although 69,000 Americans died, the pandemic could have resulted in more deaths in the United States. Hilleman was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal from the American military for his work, in 1957, Hilleman joined Merck & Co. as head of its new virus and cell biology research department in West Point, Pennsylvania. In 1963, his daughter Jeryl Lynn came down with the mumps and he cultivated material from her, and used it as the basis of a mumps vaccine. The Jeryl Lynn strain of the vaccine is still used today
Merck & Co.
Merck Sharp & Dohme outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. The company was established in 1891 as the United States subsidiary of the German company Merck, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government during World War I and subsequently established as an independent American company in 1917. While it operates as Merck & Co. in North America, Merck & Co. is the worlds seventh largest pharmaceutical company by market capitalization and revenue. Its headquarters is located in Kenilworth, New Jersey, Merck & Co. publishes The Merck Manuals, a series of medical reference books for physicians, nurses, and technicians. These include the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, the worlds best-selling medical reference, the Merck Index, a compendium of chemical compounds, was formerly published by Merck & Co. before being acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2012. Merck & Co. traces its origins to its original German parent company Merck, in the 19th century, the Merck company in Darmstadt evolved from a pharmacy to a major pharmaceutical company which pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine. In 1891, family member George Merck emigrated to the United States, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government in 1917 and re-established as an independent American company. Until the end of World War II, the company was led by George W. Merck, Merck & Co. hold the trademark rights to the Merck name in North America, while its former parent company retains the rights in the rest of the world. In 1929, H. K. Mulford Company merged with Sharpe and Dohme and this company brought to the future Merck & Co, Inc vaccine technology, including immunization of cavalry horses in World War I and delivery of a diphtheria antitoxin in 1925. In 1953, Merck & Co. merged with Philadelphia-based Sharp & Dohme, Inc. founded by Alpheus Phineas Sharp and Carl Friedrich Louis Dohme in 1845, becoming the largest US drugmaker. The merger combined Merck & Co. s strength in scientific research and chemical manufacturing with Sharp & Dohmes sales and distribution system, the combined company kept the trade name Merck in the United States and Canada, and as Merck Sharp & Dohme outside North America. In 1965 Merck & Co. acquired Charles E. Frosst Ltd. of Montreal, Canada and created Merck-Frosst Canada, Inc. as its Canadian subsidiary, Merck & Co. closed this facility in July 2010, and the company was renamed Merck Canada in 2011. The company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1970 and it has an operating subsidiary, KBI Inc. which was originally formed as a joint venture with AstraZeneca. In November 1993, Merck & Co. completed a $6 billion purchase of Medco Containment Services Inc. one of the largest mail-order pharmacy and managed-care drug companies. Merck & Co. spun Medco off ten years later, and on August 20,2003, in November 2009, Merck & Co. announced that it would merge with competitor Schering-Plough in a US$41 billion deal. The maneuver was an attempt to preserve Schering-Ploughs rights to market Remicade, the merger was completed on 2009-11-04. As of 2015, Merck Sharp & Dohme remains a subsidiary of the Merck & Co. parent, as of December 2013, the US company had approximately 76,000 employees in 120 countries with 31 factories worldwide. It is one of the seven largest pharmaceutical companies
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe. Vaccines can be prophylactic, or therapeutic, the administration of vaccines is called vaccination. The effectiveness of vaccination has been studied and verified, for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine. The World Health Organization reports that licensed vaccines are available to prevent or contribute to the prevention. The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae, the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the title of his Inquiry into the. Variolae vaccinae. known. the Cow Pox. In 1881, to honor Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed, vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. Limitations to their effectiveness, nevertheless, exist, sometimes, protection fails because the hosts immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all. Lack of response commonly results from factors such as diabetes, steroid use. Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for older people, the efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors, the disease itself the strain of vaccine whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed. Idiosyncratic response to vaccination, some individuals are non-responders to certain vaccines, assorted factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetic predisposition. If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against, the disease is likely to be less virulent than in unvaccinated victims, in 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States,552 deaths resulted. After the introduction of new vaccines, the number of cases dropped to fewer than 150 per year, in early 2008, there were 64 suspected cases of measles. Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious, other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a hundred years ago. As long as the vast majority of people are vaccinated, it is more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur. This effect is called herd immunity, polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive eradication campaign that has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of three countries. However, the difficulty of reaching all children as well as cultural misunderstandings have caused the anticipated eradication date to be missed several times, vaccination given during childhood is generally safe
Robert H. Wentorf Jr.
Wentorf was a chemical engineer and physical chemist who specialized in the synthesis of diamond and other superhard materials under conditions of high temperature and pressure. He is best known as the inventor of cubic boron nitride, borazon is used industrially as a substitute for diamond where chemical reactivity or high temperature is a problem in grinding or cutting. He also worked on diamond synthesizing projects and he contributed to the chemical understanding of the reactions involved in synthesis of diamond, as well as to the design of necessary apparatus and the transition to production level. He also invented a process for growing single large diamond crystals in a thermal gradient and his description of scientific research is often quoted, When one is on new ground, the only way to discover the ground rules is to try many things. Of course, one is guided by principles, but the main idea is to make mistakes as fast as possible. Memorial Tributes, National Academy of Engineering
General Electric, often abbreviated as GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 68th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue, as of 2012, the company was listed the fourth-largest in the world among the Forbes Global 2000, further metrics being taken into account. The Nobel Prize has twice been awarded to employees of General Electric, Irving Langmuir in 1932, on January 13,2016, it was announced that GE will be moving its corporate headquarters from Fairfield, Connecticut to the South Boston Waterfront neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. The first group of workers arrived in the summer of 2016, morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edisons lighting experiments. The new company also acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year, both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day. The company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electrics Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed, in 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average. After 120 years, it is the one of the original companies still listed on the Dow index. In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business, GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in East Cleveland, Ohio. Nela Park is still the headquarters for GEs lighting business, owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919 to further international radio. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales from 1919, in 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, Schenectady, NY. The sound was broadcast on GEs WGY, experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which—along with WGY and WGFM —was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. GEs history of working with turbines in the field gave them the engineering know-how to move into the new field of aircraft turbosuperchargers. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE introduced the first superchargers during World War I, superchargers became indispensable in the years immediately prior to World War II, and GE was the world leader in exhaust-driven supercharging when the war started. This experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine that was demonstrated in the United States in 1941, GE ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. In 2002, GE acquired the assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs, refrigerators and other products in the 1980s and 1990s to protest GEs role in weapons production. With IBM, Burroughs, NCR, Control Data Corporation, Honeywell, RCA and UNIVAC, GE had a line of general purpose and special purpose computers