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IRT Lexington Avenue Line

The IRT Lexington Avenue Line is one of the lines of the A Division of the New York City Subway, stretching from Lower Manhattan north to 125th Street in East Harlem. The line is served by the 4, ​5, ​6, <6> trains. The line was constructed in two main portions by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, a private operator; the first portion, from City Hall north to 42nd Street, was opened between 1904 and 1908, is part of the first subway line in the city. The original subway turned west across 42nd Street at the Grand Central station went north at Broadway, serving the present-day IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line; the second portion of the line, north of 42nd Street, was constructed as part of the Dual Contracts, which were signed between the IRT. For decades, the Lexington Avenue Line was the only line in Manhattan that directly served the Upper East Side and East Midtown, its average of 1.3 million daily riders is more than the total riderships of the transit systems of San Francisco and Boston.

In 2007, its ridership exceeded that of the entire Washington Metro, in part spurred the construction of the parallel Second Avenue Subway that year, to relieve congestion on the Lexington Avenue line. Four stations along this line have been abandoned; when platforms were lengthened to fit ten cars, it was deemed most beneficial to close these stations and open new entrances for adjacent stations. The 18th Street station was abandoned because of the proximity to both 14th Street–Union Square and 23rd Street. In addition, the City Hall and Worth Street stations were both close to the Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall station's Brooklyn Bridge and Duane Street exits so both were abandoned. South Ferry is within walking distance of Bowling Green, is right next to the corresponding station on the Broadway–Seventh Avenue line. Services that use the Lexington Avenue Line are colored forest green; the following services use part or all of the line: The Lexington Avenue Line begins in lower Manhattan at the inner loop of the abandoned South Ferry station.

North of the station is a merge with the tracks of the Joralemon Street Tunnel from Brooklyn, which become the express tracks. These run north under Park Row to Centre Street. At the south end of Centre Street, directly under New York City Hall, is the City Hall Loop and its abandoned station, the southern terminus of the original IRT subway line; the loop is still used to turn < 6 > service. From Brooklyn Bridge, the line continues northward in a four-across track layout under Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue, Park Avenue South until 42nd Street. At this point, the beginning of Metro-North Railroad's Park Avenue tunnel in Grand Central Terminal forces the Lexington Avenue Line to shift eastward to Lexington Avenue. Just south of Grand Central, a single non-revenue track connects the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle to the southbound local track. Under Lexington Avenue, the line assumes a two-over-two track configuration, with the local tracks running on the upper level and the express on the lower, although it returns to a four-across layout between 96th Street and 116th Street.

125th Street returns to this two-over-two layout, although here the upper level is used by all northbound trains and the lower level by southbound trains. This is. North of this, the line crosses under the Harlem River into the Bronx via the four-track Lexington Avenue Tunnel, where the line splits into the IRT Jerome Avenue Line on the western two tracks and the IRT Pelham Line on the eastern two tracks. Construction started on the first IRT line in 1900. A 1902 explosion during construction damaged properties just above the line; the part of the line from City Hall to just south of 42nd Street was part of the original IRT line, opened on October 27, 1904. A 0.3 miles extension to Fulton Street opened at 12:01 a.m. on January 16, 1905. Only the northbound platform opened at this time; the next station, Wall Street, was opened on June 12, 1905 as well as the southbound platform at Fulton Street. The first revenue train on the South Ferry extension left South Ferry at 11:59 p.m. on July 9, 1905.

The first train ran through the Joralemon Street Tunnel to Brooklyn about 12:45 a.m. on January 9, 1908. The original plan for what became the extension north of 42nd Street was to continue it south through Irving Place and into what is now the BMT Broadway Line at Ninth Street and Broadway. Contracts awarded on July 21, 1911 included Section 6 between 26th 40th Street; the IRT submitted an offer for what became its portion of the Dual Contracts on February 27, 1912, construction was soon halted on Section 6. The construction of this line, in conjunction with the construction of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, would change the operations of the IRT system. Instead of having trains go via Park Avenue, turning onto 42nd Street, before turni

Paralympic swimming

Paralympic swimming is an adaptation of the sport of swimming for athletes with disabilities. Paralympic swimmers compete at the Summer Paralympic Games and at other sports competitions throughout the world; the sport is governed by the International Paralympic Committee. Both men and women compete in Paralympic swimming. Swimming has been a part of the Paralympic program since the 1960 Summer Olympics in Italy. Rules for the sport are adapted from those set forth by the International Swimming Federation. Swimmers compete individually in backstroke, butterfly, individual medley, as teams in relay races. At the Paralympics, World Championships and other elite level competitions, swimmers compete in an Olympic-size swimming pool. Significant differences between able-bodied and Paralympic swimming include the starting position and adaptations allowed for visually impaired swimmers. Competitors may start a race by standing on a platform and diving into the pool, as in non-disabled swimming, or by sitting on the platform and diving in, or they may start the race in the water.

In events for the blind and visually impaired, people called "tappers" may stand at the end of the pool and use a pole to tap the swimmers when they approach the wall, indicating when the swimmer should turn or end the race. No prostheses or assistive devices may be worn during competition. Swimmers are classified according to the extent of their disability; the classification system allows swimmers to compete against others with a similar level of function. Swimmers with physical disabilities are allocated a category between 1 and 10, with 1 corresponding to the most severe types of disability. Physical disabilities of Paralympic swimmers include single or multiple limb loss, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries and disabilities which impair the use of joints. Blind and visually impaired swimmers compete within separate categories, being allocated to categories 11, 12 or 13. Category 11 corresponds to blind swimmers, while competitors in category 13 have severe but not total visual impairment.

Category 11 swimmers compete with blackened goggles to ensure competitors are on an level. Category 11 swimmers are required to use tappers but they are optional for category 12 and 13. Swimmers with mental disabilities compete in category 14. Numbers are combined with a letter prefix depending on the event type. An "S" prefix corresponds to freestyle and butterfly, while "SB" corresponds to breaststroke and "SM" to the medley. Hence, a swimmer with severe physical disabilities competing in backstroke may compete in an S3 event, while a blind swimmer in the medley would compete in class SM11. For relay races, athletes from different classifications compete together, but the sum of their individual classifications must not exceed a given points total. For example, a relay team for a 34 points freestyle relay may consist of two S8 swimmers and two S9 swimmers, or an S10 swimmer and three S8 swimmers Updated to 2016 Summer Paralympics. Countries in italics are former countries. Jessica Long Ellie Simmonds Trischa Zorn Michael Edgson World Disabled Swimmers of the Year Category:World record holders in paralympic swimming Disability sport classification World Para Swimming

Ã…kviksundet Bridge

The Åkviksundet Bridge is a box girder bridge that crosses the Åkviksundet strait between the islands of Dønna and Staulen in Nordland county, Norway. Together with the Hoholmen Bridge, it forms the road connection between the municipalities of Herøy and Dønna; the bridge is 285 metres long, the longest of the three spans is 135 metres, the maximum clearance to the sea is 24.2 metres. Jan-Eirik Nilsskog was the main engineer; the Åkviksundet Bridge was opened by King Harald V on 19 June 1999. List of bridges in Norway List of bridges in Norway by length List of bridges List of bridges by length