ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes, references to minor units in three tables: Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list Table A.2 – Current funds codes Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies & fundsThe tables and ongoing discussion are maintained by SIX Interbank Clearing on behalf of ISO and the Swiss Association for Standardization. The ISO 4217 code list is used in business globally. In many countries the ISO codes for the more common currencies are so well known publicly that exchange rates published in newspapers or posted in banks use only these to delineate the currencies, instead of translated currency names or ambiguous currency symbols. ISO 4217 codes are used on airline tickets and international train tickets to remove any ambiguity about the price; the first two letters of the code are the two letters of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes and the third is the initial of the currency itself.

So Japan's currency code is JPY -- JP for Y for yen. This eliminates the problem caused by the names dollar, franc and pound being used in dozens of countries, each having differing values. If a currency is revalued, the currency code's last letter is changed to distinguish it from the old currency. In some cases, the third letter is the initial for "new" in that country's language, to distinguish it from an older currency, revalued. Other changes can be seen, however. Another example of the third letter not being the initial of the unit's name is EUR for the euro. In addition to codes for most active national currencies ISO 4217 provides codes for "supranational" currencies, procedural purposes, several things which are "similar to" currencies: Codes for the precious metals gold, silver and platinum are formed by prefixing the element's chemical symbol with the letter "X"; these "currency units" are denominated as one troy ounce of the specified metal as opposed to "USD 1" or "EUR 1". The code XTS is reserved for use in testing.

The code XXX is used to denote a "transaction" involving no currency. There are codes specifying certain monetary instruments used in international finance, e.g. XDR is the symbol for special drawing right issued by the International Monetary Fund; the codes for most supranational currencies, such as the East Caribbean dollar, the CFP franc, the CFA franc BEAC and the CFA franc BCEAO. The predecessor to the euro, the European Currency Unit, had the code XEU; the use of an initial letter "X" for these purposes is facilitated by the ISO 3166 rule that no official country code beginning with X will be assigned. Because of this rule ISO 4217 can use "X" codes for non-country-specific currencies without risk of clashing with a future country code. ISO 3166 country codes beginning with "X" are used for private custom use, never for official codes. For instance, the ISO 3166-based NATO country codes use "X" codes for imaginary exercise countries ranging from XXB for "Brownland" to XXR for "Redland", as well as for major commands such as XXE for SHAPE or XXS for SACLANT.

The inclusion of EU in the ISO 3166-1 reserved codes list, allows the euro to be coded as EUR rather than assigned a code beginning with X though it is a supranational currency. The ISO 4217 standard includes a crude mechanism for expressing the relationship between a major currency unit and its corresponding minor currency unit; this mechanism is called the currency "exponent" and assumes a base of 10. For example, USD is equal to 100 of its minor currency unit the "cent". So the USD has exponent 2; the code JPY is given the exponent 0, because its minor unit, the sen, although nominally valued at 1/100 of a yen, is of such negligible value that it is no longer used. As with the USD, the minor currency unit has a value, 1/100 of the major unit, but in some cases 1/1000 is used, sometimes ratios apply which are not integer powers of 10. Mauritania does not use a decimal division of units, setting 1 ouguiya equal to 5 khoums, Madagascar has 1 ariary = 5 iraimbilanja; some currencies do not have any minor currency unit at all and these are given an exponent of 0, as with currencies whose minor units are unused due to negligible value.

There is a three-digit code number assigned to each currency, in the same manner as there is a three-digit code number assigned to each country as part of ISO 3166. This numeric code is the same as the ISO 3166-1 numeric code. For example, USD has code 840, the numeric code for the US; the ISO standard does not regulate either the spacing, prefixing or suffixing in usage of currency codes. According however to the European Union's Publication Office, in English, Irish and Maltese texts, the ISO 4217 code is to be followed by a hard space and the amount: a sum of EUR 30In Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene and Swedish the order is reversed.

2015–16 Chicago Bulls season

The 2015–16 Chicago Bulls season was the 50th season of the franchise in the National Basketball Association. Fred Hoiberg was selected after the firing of previous head coach Tom Thibodeau. Jimmy Butler, for the second time was voted to play in the 2016 NBA All-Star Game, held in Toronto. However, Butler was unable to play due to injury and replacing. Derrick Rose played in 66 games this season, the most since his MVP campaign in 2010-11. Following the season, he was traded to the New York Knicks, Joakim Noah signed as a free agent with the Knicks and Gasol signed with the San Antonio Spurs; the Bulls missed the playoffs for the first time since 2008 and were eliminated from playoff contention by the Detroit Pistons


Ugallu, the "Big Weather-Beast", inscribed U4/UD. GAL-˹la˺, Akkadian: ūmu rabû, meaning "big day", was a lion-headed storm-demon and has the feet of a bird, featured on protective amulets and apotropaic yellow clay or tamarisk figurines of the first millennium BC but had its origins in the early second millennium; the iconography changed over time, with the human feet morphing into an eagle's talons and dressing him in a short skirt. He was one of the class of personifying moments of divine intervention in human life. Ugallu was one of the eleven mythical monsters created by Tiāmat in her conflict with the younger gods, on the reverse of the first tablet of the Epic of Creation, Enûma Eliš; the tale describes how Marduk captured and bound the creatures, rehabilitating them with work reconstructing the world from the corpses of his vanquished adversaries. This transformed them into protective charms which would be used to adorn the doors of palaces, for example that of Ashurbanipal's southwest palace at Nineveh, such as the Esagila of the Marduk temple as described in the Agum-Kakrime Inscription, private dwellings to ward off evil and disease.

Sometimes in pairs of ugallū, the beneficial protective demon finds special purpose in adorning the outer gates of buildings. Ugallu first appears figuratively in the First Babylonian dynasty as a porter of the underworld, a servant of Nergal. In times he is represented on amulets as paired with the Sumerian demon Lulal, in many respects similar in appearance, he is portrayed clasping a dagger, described thus: "a lion's head and lion's ears, it holds a... in its right hand and carries a mace in its left, it is girded with a dagger, its name is ugallu."