The ITU Radio Regulations regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies. It is the supplementation to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union. In line to the ITU Constitution and Convention and the ITU International Telecommunication Regulations, this ITU Radio Regulations belong to the basic documents of the International Telecommunication Union; the ITU Radio Regulations comprise and regulate the part of the allocated electromagnetic spectrum from 9 kHz to 275 GHz. The current approved version of the ITU Radio Regulations is structured as follows: Volume 1 – Articles CHAPTER I – Terminology and technical characteristics Section I – General terms Section II – Specific terms related to frequency management Section III – Radiocommunication services Section IV – Radio stations and systems Section V – Operational terms Section VI – Characteristics of Emissions and Radio Equipment Section VII – Frequency Sharing Section VIII – Technical terms relating to space CHAPTER II – Frequencies CHAPTER III – Coordination and recording of frequency assignments and Plan modifications CHAPTER IV – Interferences CHAPTER V – Administrative provisions CHAPTER VI – Provisions for services and stations CHAPTER VII – Distress and safety communications CHAPTER VIII – Aeronautical services CHAPTER IX – Maritime services CHAPTER X – Provisions for entry into force of the Radio RegulationsVolume 2 – Appendices Volume 3 – Resolutions and Recommendations Volume 4 – ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference Maps to be used in relation to Appendix 27 The Radio Regulations define: the allocation of different frequency bands to different radio services.
The drafting and adoption of the Radio Regulations is the responsibility of the World Radiocommunication Conferences of the ITU, meetings of which are held every three or four years. Recent WRCs are: Geneva, 1995 Geneva, 1997 Istanbul, 2000 Geneva, 2003 Geneva, 2007 Geneva, 2012 Geneva, 2015 Sharm el-Sheikh, 2019 The most recent published version of the Radio Regulations, the "Edition of 2015" contains the complete texts of the Radio Regulations as adopted and revised by WRC-15, including all articles, resolutions, a subset of the recommendations issued by ITU-R. International Telecommunication Union Radio Regulations website World Radiocommunication Conferences website Historic editions of the Radio Regulations at the Library of Congress Web Archives 100 Years of ITU Radio Regulations 100 years of International Radio Regulations Contents of the Radio Regulations ICT Regulation Toolkit by infoDev in cooperation with the International Telecommunication Union European Radiocommunications Office Federal Communications Commission Ofcom Agence Nationale des Fréquences Telecommunications Regulatory Authority Australian Communications and Media Authority
The Rockwell X-30 was an advanced technology demonstrator project for the National Aero-Space Plane, part of a United States project to create a single-stage-to-orbit spacecraft and passenger spaceliner. It was cancelled in the early 1990s before a prototype was completed, although much development work in advanced materials and aerospace design was completed. While a goal of a future NASP was a passenger liner capable of two-hour flights from Washington to Tokyo, the X-30 was planned for a crew of two and oriented towards testing; the NASP concept is thought to have been derived from the "Copper Canyon" project of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, from 1982 to 1985. In his 1986 State of the Union Address, President Ronald Reagan called for "a new Orient Express that could, by the end of the next decade, take off from Dulles Airport, accelerate up to 25 times the speed of sound, attaining low earth orbit or flying to Tokyo within two hours." Research suggested a maximum speed of Mach 8 for scramjet based aircraft, as the vehicle would generate heat due to atmospheric friction, which would expend considerable energy.
The project showed that much of this energy could be recovered by passing hydrogen over the skin and carrying the heat into the combustion chamber: Mach 20 seemed possible. The result was a program funded by NASA, the United States Department of Defense. In April 1986 McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell International, General Dynamics were awarded contracts to develop technology for a hypersonic air-breathing SSTO vehicle/airframe. Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were each awarded contracts of $175 M to develop engines/propulsion; the airframe contractors would compete and two or three would be eliminated after a year. The plan was that 42 months contracts would be awarded to build the flight demonstrator vehicle. In 1990, the companies joined under the direction of Rockwell International to develop the craft, to deal with the technical and budgetary obstacles. Development of the X-30, as it was designated, began. Despite progress in the necessary structural and propulsion technology, NASA still had substantial problems to solve.
The Department of Defense wanted it to carry a crew of two and a small payload. The demands of being a human-rated vehicle, with instrumentation, environmental control systems and safety equipment, made the X-30 larger and more expensive than required for a technology demonstrator; the X-30 program was terminated amid budget cuts and technical concerns in 1993. A more modest hypersonic program culminated in the uncrewed X-43 "Hyper-X". A detailed, one-third scale mockup of the X-30 was built by engineering students at Mississippi State University's Raspet Flight Research Lab in Starkville, Mississippi, it is on display at the Aviation Challenge campus of the U. S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama; the X-30 configuration integrated fuselage. The shovel-shaped forward fuselage generated a shock wave to compress air before it entered the engine; the aft fuselage formed an integrated nozzle to expand the exhaust. The engine between was a scramjet. At the time, however, no scramjet engine was close to operational.
The aerodynamic configuration was an example of a waverider. Most of the lift was generated by the fuselage by compression lift; the "wings" were small fins providing control. This configuration was efficient for high-speed flight, but would have made takeoff and slow-speed flight difficult. Temperatures on the airframe were expected to be 980 °C over a large part of the surface, with maxima of more than 1650 °C on the leading edges and portions of the engine; this required the development of high temperature lightweight materials, including alloys of titanium and aluminum known as gamma and alpha titanium aluminide, advanced carbon/carbon composites, titanium metal matrix composite with silicon carbide fibers. Titanium matrix composites were used by McDonnell Douglas to create a representative fuselage section called "Task D"; the Task D test article was four feet high by eight feet wide by eight feet long. A carbon/epoxy cryogenic hydrogen tank was integrated with the fuselage section and the whole assembly, including volatile and combustible hydrogen, was tested with mechanical loads and a temperature of 820 °C in 1992, just before program cancellation.
General characteristics Length: 160 ft 0 in Wingspan: 74 ft 0 in Gross weight: 300,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × scramjetPerformance Propellants: air/slush LH2 Scramjet Aircraft of comparable role and era NASA X-43 Tupolev Tu-2000 HOTOL American X-Vehicles Air Force History of the NASP Video Aero-Space Plane: Flexible Access to Space 4 min
TransAsia Airways Flight 222 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight operated by TransAsia Airways from Kaohsiung, Taiwan, to Magong, Penghu Island. On 23 July 2014, the ATR 72-500 twin turboprop operating the route crashed into buildings during approach to land in bad weather at Magong Airport. Among the 58 people on board, only 10 survived. An investigation by the Taiwanese Aviation Safety Council found that the pilots intentionally descended below the minimum descent altitude and that the captain was overconfident, resulting in pilot error. Flight 222 was scheduled to depart from Kaohsiung at 16:00 Taiwan time, but it was delayed by bad weather and took off at 17:43; the flight was uneventful until final approach. The weather at Magong Airport was inclement and visibility was poor, making it difficult for the pilots to see the runway. Kaohsiung Approach Control instructed Flight 222 remain in a holding pattern with three other aircraft. Flight crews of Flight 222 requested for clearance to land on Runway 20.
While they were waiting for their approach clearance, Kaohsiung Approach informed Flight 222 that the visibility had improved at Magong Airport. After that, Flight 222's crew requested for a landing clearance in Magong to Kaohsiung Approach. Kaohsiung Approach assigned Flight 222 to a lower altitude and radar vector. At 18:55, Flight 222 was cleared to land. Flight 222 descended and maintained their altitude at 2,000 ft. Flight 222 descended from 2000 ft to its assigned altitude of 400 ft; the crews set their assigned altitude to 300 ft, below the Minimum Descent Altitude of 330 ft. After descending through 344 ft, the crews set the altitude to 200 ft. At 19:05, the crew disengaged the yaw damper; the crew tried to locate the runway, unaware that Flight 222 had deviated to the left while still descending. By the time the First Officer and the Captain called for a go-around, the aircraft had an altitude of only 72 ft, hence collision with the ground was inevitable. Flight 222 sheared trees for several hundred feet in a small forest.
The impact caused some parts of the ATR 72 to detach from its body. Flight 222 flew out of the forest and into Xixi Village; the ATR 72 impacted and destroyed several houses in the village. The force of the impact damaged the ATR 72. Most of its components detached from the main fuselage, it lost its outer right wing, vertical stabilizer and empennage due to the impact. The force of the impact tore open its center fuselage; the ATR 72 subsequently burst into flames. Dead bodies littered the street of Xixi Village. Most of the survivors who crawled out of the wreckage of Flight 222 sought refuge in nearby houses. Most residents in Xixi Village offered their assistance to the survivors, some of them treated their injuries; some of the survivors burn injuries. 10 of the 58 people on board Flight 222 survived. Five people on the ground were injured; the aircraft involved in the accident was an ATR 72-500, registration B-22810, MSN 642. It first flew on 14 June 2000 and was delivered to TransAsia Airways on 20 July 2000.
The aircraft was powered by Whitney Canada PW127F engines. There were a crew of four; the captain was Lee Yi-liang, aged 60, the first officer was Chiang Kuan-hsing, 39. Lee had logged 22,994 Chiang 2,392 hours. Two French citizens and 46 Taiwanese died in the crash. Among the victims was the Taiwanese master carpenter Yeh Ken-chuang. Taiwan News reported that "first suspicions hinted" the accident might be related to Typhoon Matmo, which had passed over Taiwan and Penghu earlier in the day. TransAsia Airways general manager Chooi Yee-choong apologized for the accident in a news conference held on 23 July. On 30 July, TransAsia Airways announced that they had made changes to their standard operating procedures for domestic flights, would henceforth require that visibility at the arrival airport be 50% above the published minimum before a landing is attempted, that the maximum holding time waiting for the weather to clear before having to divert be thirty minutes. On 25 August, the airline announced compensation of NT$14.9 million for each of the 48 victims of the crash, the highest rate a Taiwanese airline has paid to crash victims since China Airlines Flight 611 in 2002.
An official investigation led by the Aviation Safety Council of Taiwan was initiated. The aircraft's flight recorders have been read out; some findings from the flight recorders were made known on 1 August 2014. It was revealed that the pilots announced an go-around at 7:06 p.m. during final approach. At that time, the RPM of the number 1 engine dropped, while unusual sounds were recorded by the cockpit voice recorder; these sounds were considered to be consistent with a propeller churning on trees, an interpretation supported by the discovery of remnants of tree branches in one engine. Typhoon Matmo was blamed for the cause of the crash, as Matmo had made landfall earlier in the day. Taipei Center had prohibited pilots to fly, with Typhoon Matmo still above Taiwan; the typhoon injured 10 people. When Matmo had passed most of Taiwan, Taipei Center cleared pilots to fly in Taiwanese airspace, but it still warned pilots that the weather in and around Penghu Island would remain inclement; the center of Matmo was only 23 nautical miles from Penghu Island.
Kost Castle is located in the Jičín District of the Czech Republic. Kost Castle lies in Northern Bohemia the region Bohemian Paradise and is owned by Kinský dal Borgo noble family It was founded by Beneš von Wartenberg before 1349 as a possible construction site and was completed by his sons Peter and Marquard von Wartenberg in a high gothic style, it retains most of the original features and is overall well preserved and maintained. The castle is known for its donjon, so-called "White tower", protected by two circles of fortress walls. In 1414 the family of Zajíc von Hasenburg moved there, because Nicolaus von Hasenburg married Skunka, a widow after Peter von Wartenberg; the castle was owned by families of Schellenberg, Biberstein and others. During centuries some more buildings were joined to it. Unlike most other castles in Bohemia, it does not lie on a spit between two brooks. Another peculiarity is the tower; the trapezoidal tower has the corners facing the areas of most catapult attacks. This is to make the missiles glance off the tower walls instead of hitting it headon thereby minimizing the damage.
The Courage C41 was a sports prototype racing car built by Courage Compétition in 1994, used in international sports car races from 1995 until 1999. Designed by Paolo Catone, it used a 5-litre Chevrolet V8 engine, developed by Comptech, used the 3-litre twin-turbocharged flat-six engine from a Porsche 935, as well as an Oldsmobile V8. In 1998, two of the C41s were developed into the Courage C51, which used a 3-litre twin-turbocharged Nissan VRH35Z V8 engine, was used in that year's 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 1999, the C41s were converted to the C52 specification. In 2000, the C41 line was replaced by the new C60. In 1994, Yves Courage decided to build a World Sports Car for the IMSA GT Championship, the Paolo Catone-designed C41. Although the C41 was designed by Catone, Marcel Hubert had developed a long-tailed concept model for the car, but this design was scrapped after Hubert retired. Catone began to design the car, on a limited budget, in early 1994, completed it in July 1994; the C41 used a carbon fibre and aluminium honeycomb monocoque chassis, with a rear shear plate designed to allow the usage of multiple different types of engine.
The first C41 was built in October 1994, it was fitted with a Comptech-developed 5-litre Chevrolet V8 engine, which, in 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans trim, was claimed to produce around 560 hp. The power was transmitted to the rear wheels via a 5-speed Intermotion SDC gearbox, whilst Brembo brakes were used to slow the 17 in BBS wheels. KONI developed the suspension, which consisted of double wishbones made out of fabricated steel, pushrod-operated dampers with coil springs; the Chevrolet engine remained the primary engine for the 1995 and the start of the 1996 IMSA GT Championship seasons, but by the middle of 1996, different engines began to be fitted. Scott Schubot fitted an Oldsmobile engine to his C41 partway through the 1996 season, whilst a 3-litre twin-turbocharged Porsche 935 flat-six engine was fitted by Courage for the 1997 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 1998, two C41s were developed into the C51 specification for that year's 24 Hours of Le Mans; the C51 was further developed into the C52 for the 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans, the VRH35Z was replaced with a 3.5-litre Nissan VRH35L engine.
For this race, another C41 was converted to the C51 specification, although this retained its Porsche 935 flat-six. The final development of the C41 line came in 2000, when the C52s were fitted with the Sodemo-developed 3.2-litre twin-turbocharged Peugeot A32 V6 engine, producing a claimed output of 550 hp. In 2000, the new Courage C60 was introduced as the C52's replacement, bringing to an end the C41 line; the Courage C41 made its first appearance at the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans, with Courage Compétition selecting Henri Pescarolo, Franck Lagorce and Éric Bernard to drive it. A second C41, driven by Eric van de Poele, Olivier Beretta and Matjaz Tomlje, was entered, but did not qualify for the event; the C41 of Pescarolo and Bernard lasted 26 laps before succumbing to electrical problems, retiring. Following this race, two C41s were shipped to America for use in the IMSA GT Championship in 1996. Wheel Works Racing took one of the C41s, selected Rick Sutherland, Jean-Paul Libert, Steve Fossett to drive at the 24 Hours of Daytona.
Van de Poele joined the trio for the race, but the C41 was forced to retire due to accident damage after 209 laps, restricting them to 49th place. For the 12 Hours of Sebring, van de Poele switched to Doyle Racing. In addition to this, Scott Schubot entered himself and Jérôme Policand in his entered C41; the Wheel Works Racing C41 was forced to retire due to accident damage after 56 laps, whilst Schubot's car retired for the same reason after 239 laps. Wheel Works Racing did not compete with the C41 again, leaving Schubot as the only C41 entrant at the Grand Prix of Atlanta. At the Exxon Superflo 500, Schubot crashed the C41 in practice, drove Support Net Racing's Hawk C-8 instead in the race, he returned to the C41 with the car now using an Oldsmobile engine. At the California Grand Prix, Schubot finished in seventh place, before taking 14th overall, ninth in class, at the Grand Prix of Dallas. At the Daytona Finale, Schubot's C41 overheated prior to the start of the race, resulting in him driving for Doyle Racing in the race.
In 1997, Courage Compétition began running the C41 in the IMSA GT Championship, doing so for the first time at the 24 Hours of Daytona. It would not be a successful event, as the C41, driven by Policand, Didier Cottaz and Fredrik Ekblom, succumbed to engine trouble after 12 laps, restricting them to 80th place. At the Grand Prix of Atlanta, Schubot was the sole C41 entrant, running Policand, Martin Guimont and Jacek Mucha in his C41, but the team could only manage 51 laps, finished 18th, last, overall. Schubot partnered Mucha in the next round, the Lime Rock Grand Prix, the pair competed 91 laps before gearbox problems struck, were classifie
Ronald Merrill "Ron" Theobald was an American second baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the Milwaukee Brewers during the early 1970s. He was born in Oakland and died in Walnut Creek, California. Theobald was born in Oakland and graduated from Harry Ells High School in Richmond, California in 1961, he played college baseball at the University of Arizona He was signed as a free agent by the Chicago Cubs in 1964. That year, he was drafted from the Cubs by the Minnesota Twins in the First-Year Player Draft. In March 1970, Theobald was purchased by the Washington Senators. On May 11, 1970, he was traded, along with Hank Allen, to the Milwaukee Brewers for Wayne Comer. Theobald made his MLB debut on April 12, 1971 with the Brewers and played for two seasons before retiring in 1973. Theobald died in Walnut Creek, California on April 14, 2016 at the age of 72. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pura Pelota