A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another, in Egypt, Al-Azhar University opened in 975 AD as the second oldest university in the world. In Nigeria Public Universities can be established by both the Federal Government and by State Governments, students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board and they are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. South Africa has 23 public tertiary institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Almost entire national universities in Brunei are public universities and these are major universities in Brunei, University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The University Grant Commission is the body for all the public universities in Bangladesh. The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, recently many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and currently, the public universities are usually run by the provincial governments, there are circumstances where the municipal governments administer the universities. Some public universities are national, which are administered by the central government. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises. The majority of universities are not entitled to award bachelors degrees. Public universities usually enjoy higher reputation domestically, eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee. The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government, the Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is largely self-financed.
The Shue Yan University is the private institution with the status of a university. There are public and private institutes in Indonesia. The government provide public universities, high schools and academies in each province, the private educational institution usually provided by religious organizations, public organizations, and some big companies. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public, There are some private undergraduate colleges, mostly engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities
A bachelors degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelors degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. The term bachelor in the 12th century referred to a knight bachelor, by the end of the 13th century, it was used by junior members of guilds or universities. By folk etymology or wordplay, the word came to be associated with bacca lauri in reference to laurels being awarded for academic success or honours. An honours degree generally requires an academic standard than a pass degree. In most African countries, the university systems follow the model of their former colonizing power, for example, the Nigerian university system is similar to the British system, while the Ivorian system is akin to the French. The degree is typically identical to the program of Frances universities, bachelors degree programs cover most of the fields in Algerian universities, except some fields, such as Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science.
Bachelors degrees at the University of Botswana normally take four years, the system draws on both British and American models. Degrees are classified as First Class, Second Class Division One, Second Class Division Two and Third as in English degrees, but without being described as honours. The main degrees are named by British tradition, but in recent years there have been a numbers of degrees named after specific subjects, such as Bachelor of Library, in Morocco, a bachelors degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah. The course of study takes three years, which are divided into two cycles. The first cycle comprises the first, or propaedeutic, after successfully completing their first two years, students can pursue either theoretical specialization or professional specialization. The second cycle is one long, after whose completion students receive the licence détudes fondamentales or the licence professionnelle. This academic degree system was introduced in September 2003, University admission is extremely competitive, with attendant advantages and disadvantages.
Nonetheless, it takes four to five years to complete a bachelors degree, in cases of poor performance, the time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example, one may not study for more than 10 years for a five-year course, students are normally asked to leave if they must take longer. B. Arch. and other specialized undergraduate degrees, such as B. Eng, Science undergraduate degrees may require six months or a semester dedicated to SIWES but it is usually mandatory for all engineering degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required, not excluding course work, the classifications of degrees, first-class, second-class, third-class and a pass
Doctor of Philosophy
A Doctor of Philosophy is a type of doctoral degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph. D. s are awarded for a range of programs in the sciences, engineering. The Ph. D. is a degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph. D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, individuals with an earned doctorate can use the title of Doctor with their name and use the post-nominal letters Ph. D. The requirements to earn a Ph. D. degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, a person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of doctor. A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions. A Ph. D. candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of academic research. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph. D.
such as the Doctor of Musical Arts, a degree for music performers and the Doctor of Education, in 2016, ELIA launched The Florence Principles on the Doctorate in the Arts. The Florence Principles have been endorsed are supported by AEC, CILECT, CUMULUS, the degree is abbreviated PhD, from the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters. In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties, the faculty of arts. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees and final degrees, the doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph. D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements, besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. According to Keith Allan Noble, the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150, the doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teachers credential in the 17th century.
Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, starting in 2016, in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a contribution to scientific knowledge. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine, upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences, which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy
Aarhus University is a prestigious public university located in Aarhus, Denmark. Founded in 1928, it is Denmarks second oldest university and the largest, with a total of 44,500 enrolled students as of 1 January 2013, in most prestigious ranking lists of the worlds best universities, Aarhus University is placed in the top 100. The university belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities, the business school within Aarhus University, called Aarhus BSS, holds the EFMD Equis accreditation, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and the Association of MBAs. This makes the school of Aarhus University one of the few in the world to have the so-called Triple Crown accreditations. Aarhus University was founded on 11 September 1928 as Universitetsundervisningen i Jylland with a budget of 33,000 Dkr and an enrollment of 64 students, the university was founded as a response to the increasing number of students at the University of Copenhagen after World War I. Classrooms were rented from the Technical College and the corps consisted of one professor of philosophy and four associate professors of Danish, German.
In 1929, the municipality of Aarhus gave the university land with a landscape of rolling hills. The design of the university buildings and 12 ha campus area was assigned to architects C. F. Møller, Kay Fisker and Povl Stegmann, who won the architectural competition in 1931. The first buildings housed the Departments of Chemistry and Anatomy and were opened on 11 September 1933, the construction of the buildings was funded solely by donations which totaled 935,000 Dkr and the buildings covered an area of 4, 190m2. One of the most generous contributors was De Forenede Teglværker i Aarhus led by director K. Nymark. Forenede Teglværker decided to donate 1 million yellow bricks and tiles worth c.50,000 Dkr, on 23 April 1934, Aarhus University was given permission to hold examinations by the king and on 10 October 1935, Professor Dr. phil. Ernst Frandsen was appointed the first rector of the university, since 1939, C. F. Aarhus University had offered courses in basic medical subjects from 1933 and on 10 October 1935 the Faculty of Medicine was formally established.
The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine in Aarhus was met some opposition from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Copenhagen. The professors thought that the state should not establish a new Faculty until the shortcomings of the old one had been solved, in the end, the professors agreed to sign a recommendation for the new Faculty as long as improvements to the old one were not delayed. In 1992, the Faculty of Medicine merged with the dental school, the Committee approved and by declaration of the king on 5 November 1937, the faculty could hold examinations in economics and law. Courses had been offered in theology since 1932 at the Faculty of Humanities, already on 22 June 1928, Reverend Balslev of Aarhus had proposed that Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus taught basic courses in theology. At this time, Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus did not have the means to meet these criteria so the case was shelved for the time being. In April 1931, the case reopened, this time by Bishop Skat Hoffmeyer who proposed free teaching in the required subjects, on 5 September 1932 Reverend Asmund held the first lecture in theology
Roskilde University is a Danish public university founded in 1972 and located in Trekroner in the Eastern part of Roskilde. The university awards degrees, masters degrees, and Ph. D. degrees in a wide variety of subjects within social sciences, the humanities. The university was founded in 1972 and was intended as an alternative to the traditional Danish universities which had been the scene of several student uprisings in the late 1960s. The students considered the traditional universities undemocratic and controlled by the professors, in the 1970s the university was known for its very liberal education as opposed to the usual lectures provided by the more traditional universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The focus was shifted from traditional lectures to group orientated methods, RU can be said to have brought to Denmark the Anglo-Saxon concepts of interdisciplinarity and less well-defined boundaries between academic fields. The Rector is appointed by the university board, the rector in turn appoints deans and deans appoint heads of departments.
There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, hence the university has no faculty governance. Roskilde University offers higher education at bachelor-, and Ph. D. levels within four areas, humanistic technologies. The traditional educational setup at RU was based on two years of studies in one of the main scientific areas and four years of specialization. Today, the university follows the general educational structure in Denmark based on three years of bachelor studies qualifying for a master study
University of Southern Denmark
The University of Southern Denmark is a university in Denmark. It has campuses located in Southern Denmark and on Zealand, the university offers a number of joint programmes in co-operation with the University of Flensburg and the University of Kiel. Contacts with regional industries and the scientific community are strong. The University of Southern Denmark was established in 1998 when the Odense University, the Southern Denmark School of Business and Engineering, the University Library of Southern Denmark was merged with the university in 1998. In 2006, the Odense University College of Engineering was merged into the university, in 2007, the Business School Centre in Slagelse and the National Institute of Public Health were merged into the University of Southern Denmark. Princess Marie took over the role of the patron of the University in 2009, the Rector is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints deans and deans appoint heads of departments, there is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads.
Hence the university has no faculty governance, University Library of Southern Denmark is a part of the university. Research activities and student education make up the activities of the university. The University of Southern Denmark has cooperation with business and industry in the region. The university offers a number of degrees taught in English, examples include European Studies, the faculty of all six campuses comprises approximately 1,200 researchers in Odense, Esbjerg, Sønderborg and Copenhagen, approximately 18,000 students are enrolled. The University of Southern Denmark offers programmes in five different faculties - Humanities, Engineering, Social Sciences and it incorporates approximately 35 institutes,30 research centres, and a well-equipped university library. The University offers a range of traditional disciplines as well as a broad selection of business. In recent years the number of options available has been considerably expanded, examples include the introduction of a very successful Journalism programme in Odense, Information Science in Kolding, and a Mechatronics Engineering programme in Sønderborg.
Moreover, the University of Southern Denmark is the university in Scandinavia that offers a degree programme in chiropractic studies. The University focuses on such as communication, information technology. Other areas of research is pursued through a number of research centres at the University of Southern Denmark. Examples include The Hans Christian Andersen Center, the Centre for Sound Communication, Odense in particular focuses on research within the field of geriatrics
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University. The university has 23,473 undergraduate students,17,398 postgraduate students,2,968 doctoral students, the university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish, many courses are offered in English. The university has several thousands of students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries. The university has had 8 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient, the rector, the prorector and the director of the university is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints directors of the different parts of the central administration, the deans appoint heads of 50 departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, hence the university has no faculty governance, although there are elected Academic Boards at faculty level who advise the deans.
The governing body manages a budget of about BDKK8.3. The University is organized into six faculties and about 100 departments, the University employs about 5,600 academic staff and 4,400 technical and administrative staff. The total number of enrolled students is about 40,000 annually, UCPH has established an international graduate talent program which provides grants for international Ph. D, students and a tenure track carrier system. UCPH operates about fifty master’s programmes taught in English, and has arranged about 150 exchange agreements with institutions and 800 Erasmus agreements. Each year there are about 1,700 incoming exchange students,2,000 outbound exchange students and 4,000 international degree-seeking students, about 3,000 Ph. D. students study there each year. South Campus – houses the Faculty of Humanities and a proportion of the Faculty of Science. In the winter of 2016–2017, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Theology will move to South Campus, frederiksberg Campus – home to sections of the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences.
The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the Faculty of Science use the Taastrup Campus, the Faculty of Science has facilities in Helsingør, Hørsholm and Nødebo. The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark, between the closing of the Studium Generale in Lund in 1536 and the establishment of the University of Aarhus in the late 1920s, it was the only university in Denmark. The university became a centre of Roman Catholic theological learning, but had faculties for the study of law, between 1675 and 1788, the university introduced the concept of degree examinations
Computer-supported cooperative work
At about this same time, in 1987 Dr. Charles Findley presented the concept of Collaborative Learning-Work. According to Carstensen and Schmidt, CSCW addresses how collaborative activities, on the one hand, many authors consider that CSCW and groupware are synonyms. The expertise of researchers in various and combined disciplines help researchers identify venues for possible development, essentially, CSCW goes beyond building technology itself and looks at how people work within groups and organizations and the impacts of technology on those processes. For example, many R&D professionals working with CSCW are computer scientists who have realized that social factors play an important role in the development of collaborative systems. On the flip side, many scientists who understand the increasing role of technology in our social world become technologists who work in R&D labs to develop cooperative systems. Over the years, CSCW researchers have identified a number of dimensions of cooperative work. A non-exhaustive list includes, individuals working together need to be able to some level of shared knowledge about each others activities.
Articulation work, cooperating individuals must somehow be able to work into units, divide it amongst themselves and, after the work is performed. Appropriation, how an individual or group adapts a technology to their own particular situation and these concepts have largely been derived through the analysis of systems designed by researchers in the CSCW community, or through studies of existing systems. CSCW researchers that design and build systems try to address core concepts in novel ways, one of the most common ways of conceptualizing CSCW systems is to consider the context of a systems use. One such conceptualization is the CSCW Matrix, first introduced in 1988 by Johansen, teams working in a CSCW environment need the same types of leadership as other teams. With increased participation in CSCW working environments, researchers have become interested in studying creativity in such forums, research has shown that the interface elements of CSCW environments often slow down creative collaboration due to the design of interfaces themselves.
There seems to be a gap between what people need socially to engage in creativity and the technical designs available to support such creativity, Groupware goes hand in hand with CSCW. The term refers to software that is designed to support activities of a group or organization over a network and includes email, conferencing tools, group calendars, workflow management tools, etc. While groupware enables geographically dispersed teams to achieve goals and engage in cooperative work. For instance, groupware often requires users to learn a new system, if team members are not willing to learn and adopt groupware, it is difficult for the organization to develop the requisite critical mass for the groupware to be useful. On the technical side, networking issues with groupware often create challenges in using groupware for CSCW, while access to the Internet is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, geographically dispersed users still face challenges of differing network conditions. For instance, web conferencing can be challenging if some members have a very slow connection
Most lecturers typically hold permanent contracts at their academic institution. This is a tenure-track or tenured position, although UK tenure has eroded since 1988, in most research universities in the United States, the title of lecturer requires a doctorate or equivalent degree. In Australia, the term lecturer may be used informally to refer to anyone who conducts lectures at a university or elsewhere, the academic ranks in Australia are similar to those in the UK, with the rank of associate professor roughly equivalent to reader in UK universities. The academic levels in Australia are, A) associate lecturer, senior lecturer, associate professor, in India, one can appear for interviews for a post of a lecturer after passing the competitive exam of National Eligibility Test conducted by the University Grants Commission. The position is equivalent to assistant professor in the US system, the term is not universally applied, with some universities preferring the lecturer/reader /professor titles, while others work with the assistant professor/associate professor/professor title.
As such, most lecturers position can be considered tenure track, in many states of India, the term lecturer or Post Graduate Teacher is used for the intermediate college teachers. The intermediate colleges are equivalent to secondary schools. Such lecturers are subject experts specifically engaged to teach a subject in higher classes, in the UK, the term lecturer is ambiguous and covers several academic ranks. The key distinction is between permanent/open-ended or temporary/fixed-term lectureships, a permanent lecturer in UK universities usually holds an open-ended position that covers teaching and administrative responsibilities. Permanent lectureships are tenure-track or tenured positions that are equivalent to an assistant or associate professorship in North America, after a number of years, a lecturer may be promoted based on his or her research record to become a senior lecturer. This position is below reader and professor, research lecturers are the equivalent in rank of lecturers and senior lecturers, but reflect a research-intensive orientation.
Research lecturers are common in such as medicine, engineering. In contrast, fixed-term or temporary lecturers are appointed for specific short-term teaching needs and these positions are often non-renewable and are common post-doctoral appointments. In North American terms, a fixed-term lecturer can hold an equivalent rank to assistant professor without tenure, longer contracts denote greater seniority or higher rank. Some universities refer to students or others, who undertake ad-hoc teaching for a department sessional lecturers. Like adjunct professors and sessional lecturers in North America, these non-permanent teaching staff are very poorly paid. These varying uses of the term lecturer cause confusion for non-UK academics, as a proportion of UK academic staff, the proportion of permanent lectureships has fallen considerably. This is one reason why permanent lectureships are usually secured only after years of post-doctoral experience
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Mads Tofte is a Danish computer scientist who has contributed in particular to functional programming and the Standard ML programming language. Tofte was born in Lyngby and grew up in Holbæk and he studied computer science and mathematics at the University of Copenhagen where he obtained an MSc degree in 1984, at University of Edinburgh where he obtained a PhD degree in 1988. He is doctor honoris causa 2007 from Kingston University and this has close connections to self-application in partial evaluation. In his PhD thesis he developed and proved correct the first sound system for ML-style polymorphic references. Moreover, he formalized a variant of the system of the Standard ML programming language. Mads Tofte is a co-author of the Definition of Standard ML and he co-developed the ML Kit, an implementation of Standard ML whose structure closely follows the Definition. Subsequently he developed the notion of region inference, a program analysis and this work was first published in POPL1994 and in 2005 it earned the Association for Computing Machinery POPL1994 Most Influential Paper Award.
In the late nineties he co-developed a type system and a tool called AnnoDomini for mitigation of the Year 2000 problem in COBOL software. The tool analyses legacy programs to all data fields that are used as dates. This work was presented in a POPL1999 invited keynote, in April 1999 he was appointed the first managing director of the IT University of Copenhagen. He oversaw the creation of the university from scratch, the hiring of faculty/staff, recruitment of students, the first students started 5 months in September 1999. Since 2003 he has been chancellor of the IT University of Copenhagen. 2002 The IDG IT award, for leadership of the IT University of Copenhagen 2005 The ACM POPL94 Most Influential Paper Award, CV at http, //www. itu. dk/people/tofte/cv/cv. pdf ML Kit with Regions at http, //www. itu. dk/research/mlkit/index. php/Main_Page
Aalborg University is a Danish university located mainly in Aalborg, Denmark with campuses in Aalborg and Copenhagen. Aalborg University was established in 1974 under Aalborg University Center, Aalborg University is the fifth largest university in Denmark based on the number of enrolled students. In Aalborg, the university is located on the main campus in the eastern part of the city. Currently, Aalborg University has approximately 21,606 students and 3,479 employees, in 2011, Aalborg University experienced the largest increase in applicants in Denmark, as the number of new students increased by 31 per cent. At its establishment in 1974, AUC had a Faculty of Humanities, a Faculty of Social Science, in 1994, AUC changed name to Aalborg University. The Surveying and Mapping programme still exists at Aalborg University and is offered both in Aalborg and at the department in Copenhagen. Aalborg Universitys roots can be traced back to e. g, since its establishment in 1974, AAU has been characterised by a problem-based and project-oriented teaching method.
The rector is appointed by the university board, the rector in turn appoints deans and deans appoint heads of departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, hence the university has no faculty governance. Aalborg University has five faculties with a number of departments, centres, the librarys primary mission is to support research and education at Aalborg University by providing appropriate information and documentation. The University Library is geographically located at Langagervej 2 in Aalborg, Aalborg Universitys largest campus is situated in the Eastern part of the city of Aalborg. Located on campus is the fitness centre UniFitness as well as some restaurants, other divisions of AAUs campus in Aalborg can be found various places in the city centre. Aalborg University Esbjerg is the name of the Esbjerg department of Aalborg University, Aalborg University Esbjerg offers both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes and courses mainly in engineering sciences.
Aalborg University Esbjerg is located at Niels Bohrs Road 8, Aalborg University Copenhagen is the name of Aalborg Universitys department in Copenhagen. Aalborg University Copenhagen offers 8 undergraduate and 21 postgraduate programmes and courses, Aalborg University Copenhagen is currently located at A. C. Meyers Vænge 15 in southwest Copenhagen. AAU conducts research within all faculties, AAU has established centres for telecommunication at Birla Institute of Technology in India, at Bandung Institute of Technology in Indonesia, and at the University of Rome. Furthermore, AAU has established a centre for health technology at Xian Jiaotong University in China. AAU has conducted experiments in the field of CubeSat technology