IUCN protected area categories

IUCN protected area categories, or IUCN protected area management categories, are categories used to classify protected areas in a system developed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The enlisting of such areas is part of a strategy being used toward the conservation of the world's natural environment and biodiversity; the IUCN has developed the protected area management categories system to define and classify the wide variety of specific aims and concerns when categorising protected areas and their objectives. This categorisation method is recognised on a global scale by national governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and the Convention on Biological Diversity. A strict nature reserve is an area, protected from all but light human use in order to preserve the geological and geomorphic features of the region and its biodiversity; these areas are home to dense native ecosystems that are restricted from all human disturbance outside of scientific study, environmental monitoring and education.

Because these areas are so protected, they provide ideal pristine environments by which external human influence can be measured. In some cases strict nature reserves are of spiritual significance for surrounding communities, the areas are protected for this reason; the people engaged in the practice of their faith within the region have the right to continue to do so, providing it aligns with the area's conservation and management objectives. Human impacts on strict nature reserves are difficult to guard against as climate and air pollution and newly emerging diseases threaten to penetrate the boundaries of protected areas. If perpetual intervention is required to maintain these strict guidelines, the area will fall into category IV or V. A wilderness area is similar to a strict nature reserve, but larger and protected in a less stringent manner; these areas are a protected domain in which biodiversity and ecosystem processes are allowed to flourish or experience restoration if disturbed by human activity.

These are areas which may buffer against the effects of climate change and protect threatened species and ecological communities. Human visitation is limited to a minimum allowing only those who are willing to travel of their own devices, but this offers a unique opportunity to experience wilderness that has not been interfered with. Wilderness areas can be classified as such only if they are devoid of modern infrastructure, though they allow human activity to the level of sustaining indigenous groups and their cultural and spiritual values within their wilderness-based lifestyles. A national park is similar to a wilderness area in its size and its main objective of protecting functioning ecosystems. However, national parks tend to be more lenient with human visitation and its supporting infrastructure. National parks are managed in a way that may contribute to local economies through promoting educational and recreational tourism on a scale that will not reduce the effectiveness of conservation efforts.

The surrounding areas of a national park may be for consumptive or non-consumptive use but should act as a barrier for the defence of the protected area's native species and communities to enable them to sustain themselves in the long term. A natural monument or feature is a comparatively smaller area, allocated to protect a natural monument and its surrounding habitats; these monuments can be natural in the wholest sense or include elements that have been influenced or introduced by humans. The latter should hold biodiversity associations or could otherwise be classified as a historical or spiritual site, though this distinction can be quite difficult to ascertain. To be categorised as a natural monument or feature by IUCN's guidelines, the protected area could include natural geological or geomorphological features, culturally-influenced natural features, natural cultural sites, or cultural sites with associated ecology; the classification falls into two subcategories: those in which the biodiversity is uniquely related to the conditions of the natural feature and those in which the current levels of biodiversity are dependent on the presence of the sacred sites that have created an modified ecosystem.

Natural monuments or features play a smaller but key ecological role in the operations of broader conservation objectives. They have a high cultural or spiritual value that can be utilised to gain support of conservation challenges by allowing higher visitation or recreational rights, therefore offering an incentive for the preservation of the site. A habitat or species management area is similar to a natural monument or feature, but focuses on more specific areas of conservation, like an identifiable species or habitat that requires continuous protection rather than that of a natural feature; these protected areas will be sufficiently controlled to ensure the maintenance and restoration of particular species and habitats—possibly through traditional means—and public education of such areas is encouraged as part of the management objectives. Habitat or species management areas may exist as a fraction of a wider ecosystem or protected area and may require varying levels of active protection.

Management measures may include the prevention of poaching, creation of artificial habitats, halting natural succession, supplementary feeding practices. A protected landscape or protected seascape covers an entire body of land or ocean


Carapelli is an Italian food company owned by Deoleo, S. A, based in Tavarnelle Val di Pesa, a small town in the Metropolitan City of Florence, most famous for its extra virgin olive oil; the company was started as a home business in 1893 by Costantino Carapelli. Other members of the Carapelli family joined the business and the company grew in size and popularity, to become the most modernised food company in Italy by the 1940s. Today, Carapelli Firenze SpA is the leading Italian extra virgin olive oil company where 30% of its production is exported to Europe and the Americas. On 23 September 1893, the day of their wedding, Cesira & Constantino Carapelli founded the family business with her dowry. With 300 lire the couple bought a warehouse in Montevarchi to trade in grain and other agricultural produce On the eve of war, the Carapelli family set up the most modern wheat mill of the time just outside Florence, in Ponte a Ema. Right next to it they built the first oil-pressing factory; the war and bombardments that destroyed everything did little to curb their efforts and their will to succeed.

Reconstruction started in Novoli, open countryside and over the years, a plant was established. Carapelli moves production to Tavarnelle Val di Pesa in the Chianti region; the Instituto Nutrizionale Carapelli is a non-profit foundation for scientific research into the olive oil sector and the education and spreading of the awareness of the importance of a correct diet. In 2009, Carapelli filed and lost a lawsuit against a German journalist for publishing proof of bad quality and false labelling of Carapelli olive oils. In 2010, when Carapelli's Extra Virgin Olive Oil the olive oils identified as mislabeled as Extra Virgin in a study by researchers at University of California, Davis. In 2015, Carapelli were once again investigated by the Italian authorities and found guilty of passing off lower quality oil as extra virgin olive oil. In 2017, Carapelli responded to the accusations by stating that the news on the fake olive oil, that were based on a study made in 2010 by the University of California Davis Olive Center, were not true and that the study was discredited by the International Olive Council through several statements (see statements in here, since the methodology used was not in line with the IOC standards.

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IMI plc

IMI plc Imperial Metal Industries, is a British-based engineering company headquartered in Birmingham, England. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the Company was founded by Scottish entrepreneur George Kynoch who opened a percussion cap factory in Witton, West Midlands in 1862, trading as Kynoch. The business soon diversified, manufacturing goods ranging from soap and bicycle components to non-ferrous metals, but by the early 20th century it had developed particular expertise in metallurgy. After World War I it merged with Nobel Industries. In 1926 the Company acquired an ammunition business; the Company, by known as Nobel Explosives, was one of the four businesses that merged in 1927 to create Imperial Chemical Industries. The Witton site became the head office of ICI Metals. During the Second World War the Witton site was used for the development and production of uranium for the Tube Alloys project. In the 1950s the company's researchers perfected the process for producing titanium on a commercial basis.

In 1958 ICI Metals bought 50% of Yorkshire Imperial Metals: it acquired the other 50% four years later. The name Imperial Metal Industries Limited was adopted on the 100th anniversary of the firm in 1962; the Company was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1966. ICI retained a majority holding, but in 1978 IMI became independent. In the 1990s the Company disposed of its more basic businesses such as metal smelting and metal founding. In 2003, IMI moved from the Witton site to new headquarters close to Birmingham Airport; the company announced in October 2013 that a decade-long programme of transformation had been completed with the disposal of two non-core subsidiaries to Berkshire Hathaway for £690m. The disposal of the Cornelius Group, a beverage-dispensing machine business, together with the disposal of a marketing intelligence business, would enable the company to focus on its control valve making business; the company now has three business divisions: Critical engineering: Critical engineering division Precision engineering: Precision engineering division Hydronic engineering: Hydronic engineering division Official website An Unofficial History of Kynoch Works