The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation. The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.7 million, consisting of soldiers and adherents collectively known as Salvationists. Its founders sought to bring salvation to the poor and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs", it is present in 131 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries. The theology of the Salvation Army is derived from that of Methodism, although it is distinctive in institution and practice. A peculiarity of the Army is that it gives its clergy titles of military ranks, such as "lieutenant" or "major", it does not celebrate the rite of Holy Communion. However, the Army's doctrine is otherwise typical of holiness churches in the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition; the Army's purposes are "the advancement of the Christian religion... of education, the relief of poverty, other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole".
The Army was founded in 1865 in London by one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission, can trace its origins to the Blind Beggar tavern. In 1878 Booth reorganised the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure, retained as a matter of tradition, its highest priority is its Christian principles. The current international leader of The Salvation Army and chief executive officer is General Brian Peddle, elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2018; the Salvation Army refers to its ministers as "officers". When acting in their official duties, they can be recognized by the colour-coded epaulettes on their white uniform dress shirts; the epaulettes has the letters. Officers ranks include lieutenant, major and the general. Promotion in rank up to the rank from lieutenant to major depends on years of service; the ordination of women is permitted in the Salvation Army. Salvation Army officers were allowed to marry only other officers.
Husbands and wives share the same rank and have the same or similar assignments. Such officer-couples are assigned together to act as co-pastors and administer corps, Adult Rehabilitation Centers and such; as of 2016 the organisation will not appoint homosexual people to posts as ministers, preferring individuals "whose values are consistent with the church's philosophy". See LGBT clergy in Christianity; the Army has churches located throughout the world. They are known as Salvation Army corps, they may be implemented as part of a larger community center. Traditionally many corps buildings are alternatively called citadels; the Salvation Army is well known for its network of thrift stores or charity shops, colloquially referred to as "the Sally Ann" in Canada and "Salvos Stores" in Australia, which raise money for its rehabilitation programs by selling donated used items such as clothing and toys. Clothing collected by Salvation Army stores that are not sold on location are sold wholesale on the global second hand clothing market.
The Salvation Army's fundraising shops in the United Kingdom participate in the UK government's Work Programme, a workfare programme where benefit claimants must work for no compensation for 20 to 40 hours per week over periods that can be as long as 6 months. When items are bought at the Salvation Army thrift stores, part of the proceeds go towards The Salvation Army's emergency reliefs efforts and programs. Items not sold are recycled and turned into other items such as carpets and rugs, instead of being thrown away in landfills; the Salvation Army helps their employees by hiring ex-felons depending on the circumstances because they believe in giving people second chances. There are many job opportunities available for them nationwide and are able to move their way up to become a manager or work in one of their corporate offices; some shops are associated with an Adult Rehabilitation Centers where men and women make a 6-month rehabilitation commitment to live and work at the ARC residence.
They are unpaid. Many ARCs are male-only; the program is to combat addiction. They work at the store or residence; this is referred to as "work therapy". They attend twelve-step programs and chapel services as a part of their rehabilitation; the Army advertises these programs on their collection trucks with the slogan "Doing the Most Good". The general design pattern is that an ARC is associated with warehouse. Donations are consolidated from other stores and donation sites and sorted and priced and distributed back out to the branch stores. Low-quality donated items are sold at the warehouse dock in a "dock sale". Farmland at Hadleigh in Essex was acquired in 1891 to provide training for men referred from Salvation Army shelters, it featured market gardens and two brickfields. It was mentioned in the Royal Commission report of 1909 appointed to consider Poor Laws. 7,000 trainees had passed through its doors by 1912 with more than 60% subsequently finding employment. It has a Twitter feed @SalArmyHFE and website.
The Salvation Army operates summer camps for children, Silvercrest Residences, adult day care centers. It has headquarter offices internationally and for each territory and division; some of the other facilities include: Homele
Dalhousie University is a public research university in Nova Scotia, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, medical teaching facilities in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, 180 degree programs in twelve undergraduate and professional faculties; the university is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. Dalhousie was established as a nonsectarian college in 1818 by the eponymous Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie; the college did not hold its first class until 1838, until operating sporadically due to financial difficulties. It reopened for a third time in 1863 following a reorganization that brought a change of name to "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University"; the university formally changed its name to "Dalhousie University" in 1997 through the same provincial legislation that merged the institution with the Technical University of Nova Scotia. There are two student unions that represent student interests at the university: the Dalhousie Student Union and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students.
Dalhousie's varsity teams, the Tigers, compete in the Atlantic University Sport conference of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Dalhousie's Faculty of Agriculture varsity teams are called the Dalhousie Rams, compete in the ACAA and CCAA. Dalhousie is a coeducational university with more than 18,000 students and 130,000 alumni around the world; the university's notable alumni include a Nobel Prize winner, 91 Rhodes Scholars, a range of other top government officials and business leaders. Dalhousie was founded as the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie desired a non-denominational college in Halifax. Financing came from customs duties collected by a previous Lieutenant Governor, John Coape Sherbrooke, during the War of 1812 occupation of Castine, Maine; the college was established in 1818, though it faltered shortly after as Ramsay left Halifax to serve as the Governor General of British North America. The school was structured upon the principles of the University of Edinburgh, where lectures were open to all, regardless of religion or nationality.
The University of Edinburgh was located near Ramsay's home in Scotland. In 1821 Dalhousie College was incorporated by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly under the 1821 Act of Incorporation; the college did not hold its first class until 1838. In 1841 an Act of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly conferred university powers on Dalhousie. In 1863 the college opened for a third time and was reorganized by another legislative act, which added "University" to the school's name: "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". Dalhousie reopened with one tutor; when it awarded its first degrees in 1866 the student body consisted of 28 students working toward degrees and 28 occasional students. The first female graduate was Margaret Florence Newcome from Grafton, Nova Scotia, who earned her degree in 1885. Despite the reorganization and an increase in students, money continued to be a problem for the institution. In 1879, amid talks of closure due to the university's dire financial situation, a wealthy New York publisher with Nova Scotian roots, George Munro, began to donate to the university.
Munro is credited with rescuing Dalhousie from closure, in honour of his contributions Dalhousie observes a university holiday called George Munro Day on the first Friday of each February. Located at the space now occupied by Halifax City Hall, the college moved in 1886 to Carleton Campus and spread to Studley Campus. Dalhousie grew during the 20th century. From 1889 to 1962 the Halifax Conservatory was affiliated with and awarded degrees through Dalhousie. In 1920 several buildings were destroyed by fire on the campus of the University of King's College in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Through a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, King's College relocated to Halifax and entered into a partnership with Dalhousie that continues to this day. Dalhousie expanded on April 1, 1997 when provincial legislation mandated an amalgamation with the nearby Technical University of Nova Scotia; this merger saw reorganization of faculties and departments to create the Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and the Faculty of Architecture and Planning.
From 1997 to 2000, the Technical University of Nova Scotia operated as a constituent college of Dalhousie called Dalhousie Polytechnic of Nova Scotia until the collegiate system was dissolved. The legislation that merged the two schools formally changed the name of the institution to its present form, Dalhousie University. On 1 September 2012 the Nova Scotia Agricultural College merged into Dalhousie to form a new Faculty of Agriculture, located in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie has three campuses within the Halifax Peninsula and a fourth, the Agricultural Campus, in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Studley Campus in Halifax serves as the primary campus; the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods. Robie Street divides it from the adjacent Carleton Campus, which houses the faculties of dentistry and other health profession departments; the campus is adjacent to two large teaching hospitals affiliated with the school: the IWK Health Centre and the Queen
Gazell Macy DuBois M. Arch, P. Eng, PP-FRAIC, PP-RCA, FAIA was an American-born Canadian architect who designed several landmark Toronto buildings. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, DuBois earned a Bachelor of Science in Engineering at Tufts University in 1951, served in Europe and Asia with the U. S. Navy from 1951–54. DuBois retired as Lieutenant, Junior Grade and commander of the minesweeper USS Kite with the Korea Service Star and United Nations Battle Star. Uncertain about a career in engineering, DuBois attended an American Institute of Architects conference in Boston, was inspired to attend the Harvard Graduate School of Design, graduating in 1958. In his final year, he entered the Toronto City Hall design competition with three other student collaborators. Selected as one of 8 semi-finalists from a field of 510 entrants, he moved to Toronto to work on the second round and, although his design was not selected, soon relocated permanently. DuBois worked for John B. Parkin and Associates joined Robert Fairfield Associates in 1960, renamed Fairfield+DuBois when he became a partner in 1962.
The firm went through several name changes as partners joined and left becoming The DuBois Plumb Partnership after partnering with Helga Plumb in 1979 until their retirement in 2001. His first major project, begun in 1959, was the combined residence and teaching facility of New College, University of Toronto, with a curved interior courtyard inside a rectilinear facade, it was well received, winning a local architectural design award after completion of phase II, is considered one of the finest buildings on the campus. Having been told soon after arriving in Toronto that exposed concrete "just won't work because of our climate", DuBois determined to prove otherwise in his second significant project, the Central Technical School Arts Centre. Occupied in 1963, it was an internationally recognized success, establishing his reputation designing academic buildings, his most-photographed building was the Ontario pavilion at Expo 67, an irregular tent-like structure made of computer-designed fabric stretched across a steel framework.
A little too imaginative for some, who claimed the model "looks vaguely like a bat strangling under a white sheet" or "a model of a sort of tent city or a mess of paper triangles or mentally disarranged envelopes", it was admired by everyone who saw it. Dubois wanted a natural landscaping for the pavilion and worked with landscape architect Dick Strong on a design featuring massive granite blocks, of differing size. DuBois went on to design many institutional buildings, including a large portion of Lakehead University, win numerous awards. In the modern style, he tempered the brutalism of Le Corbusier, with inspiration from Alvar Aalto, Louis Kahn and Frank Lloyd Wright. To these influences, he added sensitivity to the application and environment, building on a human scale, the use of interior spaces that are useful year-round, his only significant residential project, The Oaklands condominium and townhouse development in Toronto, is an excellent example. Earning a Governor General's Award in 1983, the citation credited "Scale with surroundings well conceived.
As his career matured, DuBois contributed a great deal of time to foster the profession of architecture. His energetic service to the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada earned him the presidency of the society from 1982–83, he served as president of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts from 1988–91, his last public appearance was at the launch of the book Concrete Toronto on November 1, 2007, only a few days before his unexpected death. DuBois received numerous honours and awards for his work, the most notable being: Massey Medal for Central Technical School Arts Centre. Massey Medal for ECE Group Office building, Don Mills Low Energy Building Design Award of Excellence, for the Joseph Shepard Building Governor General's Medal in Architecture, for The Oaklands Condominium and Housing Project. Prominent buildings designed by Macy DuBois include: New College, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario Pavilion at Expo 67, Montreal Lakehead University, Thunder Bay: 20 year master plan Academic building Athletic complex Sciences building Albert Campbell Library, Toronto Trent University Otonabee College, Student Union, Academic Building, Student Residences Peterborough George Brown College of Applied Arts & Technology, Casa Loma Campus, Toronto Ontario Police College, Ontario: Master Plan and Teaching, Dining and Training Facilities Joseph Shepard Federal Office Building, Toronto The Oaklands Condominium and Housing Project, Toronto Ambulance Services Headquarters, Toronto Canadian Embassy Complex, China Windsor Justice Facility, Ontario Michael McClelland and Graeme Stewart.
Concrete Toronto: A guidebook to Concrete Architecture from the Fifties to the Seventies. Coach House Books. Pp. 88–111. ISBN 978-1-55245-193-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Anthony Jackson. "DuBOIS, Macy". Contemporary Architects. Chicago: St. James Press. P. 247. ISBN 0-912289-26-0
Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine
The Faculty of Medicine at Dalhousie University known as Dalhousie Medical School, is a Canadian medical school and faculty of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Faculty of Medicine has operated continuously since 1868 and is one of the oldest medical schools in Canada, after Laval, McGill, Queen's; the Faculty of Medicine teaches the MD degree at two campuses: Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, Carleton Campus Saint John Regional Hospital Dalhousie's postgraduate medical faculty offers 53 residency programs at teaching hospitals located across Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1868, it graduated its first woman in 1894. The school's main teaching location is the Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, a 15-story high-rise building that opened in 1965 on Dalhousie University's Carleton Campus. Today, the Tupper Medical Building houses the administrative offices of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Health Sciences, as well as the Kellogg Health Sciences Library, lecture theatres, a large cadaveric anatomy laboratory, most of the basic science laboratories in the Faculty of Medicine.
It adjoins the CRC, the Clinical Research Centre, via "The Tupper Link" corridor, the location of many state-of the art lecture halls equipped with teleconferencing technology. The CRC houses the Dean of Medicine's office as well as affiliated administrative offices; the Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in the Maritime Provinces and as such is affiliated with the healthcare systems operated by the Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of New Brunswick and the Government of Prince Edward Island. This region has a combined population of 1.8 million people with teaching hospitals located in various locations across the three provinces, as well as the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and IWK Health Centre and the Saint John Regional Hospital in the immediate vicinity of the medical school's 2 campuses. The Doctor of Medicine program admits 108 students per year. Of these, 78 matriculants attend the Halifax Campus and 30 attend the New Brunswick campus in St John, New Brunswick.
In 2010, the average undergraduate GPA of accepted applicants was 3.8, 24 percent of the entering class held graduate degrees. Dalhousie awards the MD degree to students completing "the Tupper Trail," a new curriculum developed by the Faculty of Medicine; this program incorporates early exposure to clinical skills and clinical electives from Year 1, as well as collaboration projects with students in other health professions. In 2010, it was reported that Dalhousie medical students placed first in Canada on the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination, the school-leaving exam written by all Canadian MD candidates. Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre IWK Health Centre Nova Scotia Hospital Saint John Regional Hospital Moncton Hospital Dr. Everett Chalmers Hospital Queen Elizabeth Hospital Dartmouth General Hospital Cape Breton Regional Hospital Colchester Regional Hospital South Shore Regional Hospital Valley Regional Hospital Cobequid Community Health Centre Hants Community Hospital Sir Charles Tupper, dean of Dalhousie Medical School, prime minister of Canada in 1896, first president of the Canadian Medical Association.
Annie Isabella Hamilton, the first woman in Nova Scotia to receive an M. D. Jock Murray and medical historian in the history of neurology Shane Neilson, Canadian physician and poet Ron Stewart, Former Nova Scotian Minister of Health, a pioneer of the specialty of Emergency Medicine. Ban Tsui, Professor of Anesthesiology at University of Alberta, pioneered the Tsui Test Walter C. Mackenzie, Professor of Surgery and Dean of Medicine at the University of Alberta. William A. Cochrane, Professor of Pediatrics at Dalhousie Medical School, Physician in Chief, Children's Hospital, founding Dean of Medicine at the University of Calgary, third President of the University of Calgary; the Undergraduate Medical Program for the MD degree was initiated in 1868, graduating its first students in May 1900. At present, 108 students are admitted to the program each year; the Dalhousie Medical Research Foundation oversees more than $2 million in medical research a year, with a growth of 27% in the past year. For 2008, total medical student enrollment was 397, distributed across the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia campuses.
Dalhousie University, Faculty of Medicine Admissions and Student Affairs About Dalhousie Medical School
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
A children's hospital is a hospital which offers its services to children and adolescents. Most children's hospitals can serve children from birth up to the age of 18, or in some instances, children's hospitals' doctors may treat children until they finish high school; the number of children's hospitals proliferated in the 20th century, as pediatric medical and surgical specialties separated from internal medicine and adult surgical specialties. Children's hospitals are characterized by greater attention to the psychosocial support of children and their families; some children and young people have to spend long periods in hospital, so having access to play and teaching staff can be an important part of their care. With local partnerships this can include trips to local botanical gardens and public libraries for instance. In addition to psychosocial support, children's hospitals have the added benefit of being staffed by professionals who are trained in treating children. A medical doctor that undertakes vocational training in paediatrics must be accepted for membership by a professional college before they can practice paediatrics.
These include the Royal Australasian College of Physicians RACP, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health RCPCH, the American Board of Pediatrics. In New Zealand the RACP offers vocational training in paediatrics. Once RACP training is completed the doctor is awarded the Fellowship of the RACP in paediatrics. While many normal hospitals can treat children adequately, pediatric specialists may be a better choice when it comes to treating rare afflictions that may prove fatal or detrimental to young children, in some cases before birth. Many children's hospitals will continue to see children with rare illnesses into adulthood, allowing for a continuity of care. Prior to the 19th century hospital reforms, the well-being of the child was thought to be in the hands of the mother. There were however centres which focused on helping abandoned children and offering care in hopes that these children might survive into adulthood; some examples include orphanages and foundling hospitals. Florence's Hospital of the Innocent was a charity based orphanage which opened in 1445.
A example and better established institution whose goal it was to help rehabilitate infants was the Foundling Hospital founded by Thomas Coram in 1741. Foundling hospitals were set up to receive abandoned infants, nurse them back to health, teach them a trade or skill, integrate them back into society. Coram's foundling hospital was revolutionary because it was one of the United Kingdoms first children charities. Moreover, it was made successful by the powerful people who donated money to the hospital. Coram's hospital would be faced with the fact that the number of infants needing care outweighed their hospitals capacity. In order to accommodate the number of children in need, there were attempts to set up similar hospitals throughout the UK. Dispensaries which were funded by donations were being opened in order to provide medicine and medical attention to those who could not afford private care. Dispensaries and foundling hospitals were the earliest forms of what would become children's hospitals.
The establishing of the Foundling Hospital by Thomas Coram was a direct response to the high infant mortality rate in London, England. Although foundling hospitals acknowledged the high infant mortality rate, infant mortality would not be addressed in a wide spread way until the early 19th century when children's hospitals would begin to open in Vienna, Prague and various other major cities throughout Europe. In America, by the mid-19th century middle-class women and physicians became concerned about the well-being of children in poor living conditions. Although infant mortality had begun to decline, it still remained a prominent issue. Social reformers blamed the emergence of the industrial society and poor parents for not properly caring for their children. In response and physicians founded children's hospitals across the country. Early children's hospitals were set up in converted houses not only to help the children transition from leaving their home to being in a hospital, but because it was the only space available.
Early children's hospitals focused more on short-term care and treating mild illnesses rather than long-term intensive care. Treating serious diseases and illnesses in early children's hospitals could result in the disease spreading throughout the hospital which would drain their limited resources. A serious disease outbreak in a children's hospital would result in more deaths than lives saved and would therefore reinforce the previous notion that people died while in the hospital. Like those found in the United States, children's hospitals in the United Kingdom in the 19th century resembled middle-class homes. British children's hospitals introduced rules to which patients and their families were expected to adhere. British children's hospitals, like their American and Canadian counterparts, relied on donations from the rich. Donations came in the form of money, food and clothes for the children; the United Kingdom's children's hospitals were soon faced with the reality that their small and vulnerable patient would soon outnumber their resources.
In order to maintain the cost of
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen