Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom was the official name used by the U. S. government for the Global War on Terrorism. On October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced that airstrikes targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom refers to the War in Afghanistan, but it is affiliated with counterterrorism operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. After 13 years, on December 28, 2014, President Barack Obama announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom most refers to the U. S.-led combat mission in Afghanistan, a NATO military alliance between the United States, United Kingdom and Afghanistan. OEF is affiliated with counter-terrorism operations in other countries targeting Al Qaeda and remnants of the Taliban, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara through government funding vehicles.
Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, 7 October 2001 – 31 December 2014. Succeeded by Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015 Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom – Pankisi Gorge Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara Operation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan, 18 December 2001 – 3 June 2014 The U. S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan" to describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between 7 October 2001 and 31 December 2014. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel; the operation was called "Operation Infinite Justice", but as similar phrases have been used by adherents of several religions as an exclusive description of God, it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims who are the majority religion in Afghanistan.
In September 2001, U. S. President George W. Bush's remark that "this crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while", which prompted widespread criticism from the Islamic world, may have contributed to the renaming of the operation; the term "OEF-A" refers to the phase of the War in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. Other operations, such as the Georgia Train and Equip Program, are only loosely or nominally connected, such as through government funding vehicles. All the operations, have a focus on counterterrorism activities. Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, a joint U. S. U. K. and Afghan operation, was separate from the International Security Assistance Force, an operation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization nations including the U. S. and the U. K; the two operations ran in parallel. In response to the attacks of 11 September, the early combat operations that took place on 7 October 2001 to include a mix of strikes from land-based B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress bombers, carrier-based F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet fighters, Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.
S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan. The initial military objectives of OEF-A, as articulated by President George W. Bush in his 20 September Address to a Joint Session of Congress and his 7 October address to the country, included the destruction of terrorist training camps and infrastructure within Afghanistan, the capture of al-Qaeda leaders, the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan. In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operations Command Pacific deployed to the Philippines to support the Armed Forces of the Philippines in their push to uproot terrorist forces on the island of Basilan. Of those groups included are Abu Sayyaf Group, al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah; the operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles. In October 2002, the Combined Task Force 150 and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier.
The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the Horn of Africa to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was emphasized, ostensibly to prevent militant organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed; the military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U. S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 billion. The operation continues, with military direction coming from United States Central Command. Seizing upon a power vacuum after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their invasion, the Taliban had the role of government from 1996–2001.
Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television and dancing, enforce harsh judicial penalties. Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing, public exe
11th Marine Expeditionary Unit
The 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force with a strength of about 2,200 personnel; the MEU consists of a command element, a reinforced infantry battalion, a composite helicopter squadron and a logistics combat element. The 11th MEU is based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California with headquarters in Camp Del Mar; the mission of the MEU is to provide geographic combatant commanders with a forward-deployed, rapid-response force capable of conducting conventional amphibious and selected maritime special operations at night or under adverse weather conditions from the sea, by surface and/or by air while under communications and electronics restrictions. Ground Combat Element: 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines Aviation Combat Element: VMM-163 Logistics Combat Element: Combat Logistics Battalion 11 The 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit designated the 17th Marine Amphibious Unit, formed at Camp Pendleton, California on 13 April 1979.
The MAU was created to participate in large-scale amphibious training exercises. In its early days, the unit fulfilled requirements for a west coast based MAU to respond to contingencies, but was activated and deactivated based upon scheduled amphibious landing exercises directed by the Commander, Third Fleet. During this time, the billet of MAU Commanding Officer alternated between Regimental and Aircraft Group Commanders who filled the billet in six-month increments as a secondary duty during their tenures in command. In 1983, the Marine Corps directed a change that resulted in the first renaming of the 17th MAU; the decision was made to "source" the continuously deployed Western Pacific MAUs from I Marine Amphibious Force units in Southern California. Their units came from the 1st Marine Brigade in Hawaii; this resulted in the renaming of the 17th MAU to the 11th MAU on 20 July 1984. A second name change took place on 5 February 1988, when the Marine Corps more defined the multiple capabilities of its Marine Air-Ground Task Forces.
"Amphibious" was changed to "Expeditionary," and the unit was given its current designation – the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit. While the unit's designation has changed, the mission of the 11th MEU has remained unchanged; the MEU is an expeditionary intervention force with the ability to move on short notice, to wherever needed to accomplish conventional or special operations. The strength of the MEU resides in the inherent combined arms capability while operating from forward-deployed amphibious shipping. In order to accomplish this mission, the MEU’s continually train to maintain the required combat readiness, while fulfilling worldwide training and contingency commitments; the 11th MEU has completed several major deployments to the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf. It has participated in numerous training exercises/operations from the coast of California to the shores of Somalia, as far inland as Bujumbura, Burundi and in Central Africa. In 1996 the 11th MEU participated in the exfiltration of General Hussein Kamel Hassan al-Majid and his brother, each of which were married to Saddam's daughters and were his 2nd Cousins.
The families defected under the support and cover of the 11th MEU and were escorted to King Hussein of Jordan. Transfer and delivery of the defectors was at the Jordanian King Faisal Air Force Base, where King Hussein of Jordan kept a personal ready room. During its 1998 deployment, the 11th MEU conducted Operation Safe Departure; this was a Noncombatant Evacuation Operation, which took place in Asmara, Eritrea, on 6 June 1998. The evacuation of noncombatant civilians and third-world nationals was conducted as a precautionary measure to ensure their safety in the midst of a heated border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia. All total, 172 persons, to include 105 Americans, were safely evacuated to Amman, via KC-130 aerial transport. During its 1999 deployment, the 11th MEU supported Operation Stabilise in East Timor from 25 October 1999 to 27 November 1999; the MEU was called on to provide support to International Forces, East Timor delivering more than 1.5 million pounds of food and supplies to the Australian-led peacekeeping forces and East Timorese.
On 24 February 2003, the 11th MEU Command Element deployed to Kuwait in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. On 5 March 2003, the Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force, designated the 11th MEU as Task Force Yankee, named in memory of the victims of the 11 September terrorist attacks; the following units were soon attached to the new task force: 6th Marines. 3, 75th Exploitation Task Force, U. S. Army. S. Army. TFY's responsibilities were challenging, they included: planning and operation of the MEF Enemy Prisoner of War temporary holding facility. The 11th MEU returned to the United States on 20 May. On 31 July 2004 the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit, under the Polish-led Multinational Division Central-South, assumed operational control of the Iraqi provinces of An Najaf and Al Qadisiyah from Task Force Dragon, composed of elements of the
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton is the major West Coast base of the United States Marine Corps and is one of the largest Marine Corps bases in the US. It is located on the Southern California coast, in San Diego County, bordered by Oceanside to the south, Cleveland National Forest, San Clemente, Orange County to the north, Riverside County to the northeast, Fallbrook to the east; the base was established in 1942 to train U. S. Marines for service in World War II. By October 1944, Camp Pendleton was declared a "permanent installation" and by 1946, it became the home of the 1st Marine Division, it was named after Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton, who had long advocated setting up a training base for the Marine Corps on the west coast. Today it is the home to myriad Operating Force units including the I Marine Expeditionary Force and various training commands. In 1769, a Spanish expedition led by Captain Gaspar de Portolá explored northward from Loreto, Baja California Sur, seeking to reach Monterey Bay, something never before done overland by Europeans.
On July 20 of that year, the expedition arrived in the area now known as Camp Pendleton, as it was the holy day of St. Margaret, they christened the land in the name of Santa Margarita; the expedition went on to establish military outposts and Franciscan missions at San Diego and Monterey. During the next 30 years, 21 missions were established, the most productive one being Mission San Luis Rey, just south of the present-day Camp Pendleton. At that time, San Luis Rey Mission had control over the Santa Margarita area. After 1821, following the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, some of the former members of the Portolà expedition who had stayed on were awarded large land grants by Mexican governors; the retired soldiers were joined as rancheros by prominent businessmen and military leaders. They and their children, the Californios, became the landed gentry of Alta California. In 1841, two brothers, Pio Pico and Andrés Pico, became the first private owners of Rancho Santa Margarita. More land was added to the grant, giving it the name of Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, which stayed with the ranch until the Marine Corps acquired it in 1942.
The design of the ranch's cattle brand is seen in the base's logo today. In 1863, an Englishman named John Forster paid off Pico's gambling debts in return for the deed to the ranch. During his tenure as owner of the ranch, he expanded the ranch house, first built in 1827, developed the rancho into a thriving cattle industry. Forster's heirs, were forced to sell the ranch in 1882 because of a string of bad luck, which included a series of droughts and a fence law that forced Forster to construct fencing around the extensive rancho lands, it was purchased by wealthy cattleman James Clair Flood and managed by Irishman Richard O'Neill, rewarded for his faithful service with half ownership. Under the guidance of O'Neill's son, the ranch began to net a profit of nearly half a million dollars annually, the house was modernized and furnished to its present form. In the early 1940s, both the Army and the Marine Corps were looking for land for a large training base; the Army lost interest in the project, but in February 1942 it was announced that the 122,798 acres of Rancho Santa Margarita y Los Flores was about to be transformed into the largest Marine Corps base in the country.
It was named for Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton who had long advocated the establishment of a West Coast training base. Construction began in April but the base was considered a temporary facility so it was built to minimum standards of wood frame construction. After five months of furious building activity, the 9th Marine Regiment, under Colonel Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr. marched from Camp Elliott in San Diego to Camp Pendleton to be the first troops to occupy the new base. On September 25, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the base. Wartime training facilities at the base included landing craft school, amphibious tractor school, beach battalion school, amphibious communications school, a medical field service school at the naval hospital at Santa Margarita Ranch; this facility was used as a base for discharging soldiers returning from Europe and Asia after World War II ended in 1945, for the processing of their discharge documents for same. During the Korean War, $20 million helped expand and upgrade existing facilities, including the construction of Camp Horno.
When Camp Pendleton trained the country's fighting force for the Korean and Vietnam Wars 200,000 Marines passed through the base on their way to the Far East. Beginning in 1954, Camp Pendleton has hosted a variation of Basic Training familiarization for teenagers age 14 to 17; this training, called "Devil Pups", promotes physical fitness, instills discipline and promotes love of country and the Marine Corps. The camp's stables display a plaque and statue commemorating a horse, Sergeant Reckless, which served with the Marine Corps in Korea. In 1975 Camp Pendleton was the first military base in the U. S. to provide accommodations for Vietnamese evacuees in Operation New Arrivals. Camp Pendleton has continued to grow through renovations, replacing its original tent camps with more than 2,626 buildings and over 500 miles of roads. Efforts today continue to preserve the heritage of Camp Pendleton's founders and the Marine Corps' history; the original ranch house has been declared a National Historic Site as well as the Las Flores Adobe.
The base's diverse geography, spanning over 125,000 acres, plays host to year-round training for Marines
Radio Battalions are tactical signals intelligence units of the United States Marine Corps. There are three operational Radio Battalions in the Marine Corps organization: 1st, 2nd, 3rd. In fleet operations, teams from Radio Battalions are most attached to the command element of Marine Expeditionary Units. A Radio Battalion consists of signals intelligence and electronic intelligence operators organized into smaller tactical units with different roles. Basic collection teams consist of 4–6 operators using specialized equipment based in HMMWVs. A variation on this is the MEWSS, an amphibious light armored vehicle equipped with similar electronic warfare equipment. MEWSS crews serve dual roles as LAV crewmen. Radio Reconnaissance Platoons serve in a special operations role where the use of standard collection teams is not possible, such as covert infiltrations or tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel. In June 1943, 2nd Radio Intelligence Platoon was activated at California; the unit took part in the Battle of Peleliu.
The 3rd Radio Intelligence Platoon was formed in June 1943 and took part in the Battles of the Kwajalein Atoll and Okinawa. From World War II until the early 1960s, various units performed radio intercepts, growing from platoon to company and, in 1964, to 1st Radio Battalion. Sub-units of the battalion were deployed to Vietnam from 1967 to 1975, including participation in evacuation efforts during the Fall of Saigon. In the early 1980s, 2nd Radio Battalion was part of the multinational peacekeeping force in Beirut, Lebanon. More Radio Battalions served in Operation Desert Storm, Kosovo, the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the 2004 Operation Phantom Fury in Fallujah. Radio Battalions send detachments to augment intelligence efforts at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, at other bases throughout the world. In Afghanistan, Radio Battalion has proven effective against improvised explosive devices. 1st Radio Battalion, reformed in August 2004, is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton and supports the I Marine Expeditionary Force.
The battalion maintains four companies: Alpha, Charlie and H&S Companies. 1st Radio Battalion was first based at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kāneʻohe Bay, operated out of there for several decades until it was reformed at Camp Pendleton. Chronology and Summary of Operations 2nd Radio Intelligence Platoon What is now 1st Radio Battalion began as 2nd Radio Intelligence Platoon, activated during World War II on 14 June 1943 at Camp Linda Vista, Camp Elliott, California. 14 June 1943 Activated and designated 2nd Radio Intelligence Platoon December 1943 Relocated to Pacific Theater January 1944 Participated in the Solomon Islands 31 July 1944 Reassigned to the 1st Marine Division, Fleet Marine Forces August 1944 Relocated to the Carolina Islands September 1944 Participated in the Battle of Peleliu 2nd Radio Separate Intelligence Platoon 20 October 1944 Redesignated 2nd Separate Radio Intelligence Platoon November 1944 Relocated to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory 8 March 1945 Deactivated 24 May 1945 Reactivated at Wahiawa, Hawaii Territory 28 September 1945 Deactivated After deactivation on 28 September 1945, personnel were assigned to other Radio Intercept Platoons, which were located in Naval Radio Stations in Guam and in China.
They remained there during part of the early China Occupation, most of them returned to the United States near the end of January and February 1946. 1st Radio Company 15 September 1958 Reactivated at Camp Smith, Territory of Hawaii as 1st Radio Company. June 1959 Relocated from Camp Smith to Marine Corps Air Station. 1st Composite Radio Company 8 September 1959 Redesignated as 1st Composite Radio Company. 2 January 1962 Deployed to Pleiku, South Vietnam as Detachment One under the command of Captain John K. Hyatt, Jr. 17 September 1963 Redesignated as 1st Radio Company, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. 1st Radio Battalion 14 July 1964 Redesignated as 1st Radio Battalion, FMF at Kaneohe Bay under the command of Major Henry Vod der Heyde. February 1967 Deployed to South Vietnam as Sub-Unit One. 1 March 1969 Sub-Unit one merged into 1st Radio Battalion, FMF, Camp Horn, South Vietnam October 1970 Elements assisted US Army unit in Udorn, Thailand. An Army Unit Commendation was authorized. April 1971 Redeployed to Marine Corps Station, Hawaii.
April 1971 Sub-Unit 2, 1st Radio Battalion deactivated and merged back into 1st Radio Battalion, FMF, Hawaii. Major L. K. Russell was in command of Sub-Unit 2 and LtCol Ed Resnick was the 1st Radio Battalion Commander. Shortly thereafter, date unknown, LtCol John K. Hyatt, Jr. took command. April 1972 Elements returned to South Vietnam in support of the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade under the command of Brigadier General Miller abroad the U. S. S Blue Ridge and other naval ships. Several members were authorized the Combat Action Ribbon during this period. April 1975 Elements participated in evacuations in Southeast Asia. May 1975 Elements participated in the recovery of the SS Mayaguaez. Unit Commanders 1stLt Marcus J. Couts 09112/0200 USMC 14 June 1943 – 5 May 1944 2ndLt Walter C. Smith 010462/0225 USMC 6 May 1944 – 27 January 1945 2ndLt Jack Evans 043139/0225 USMC 28 February 1945 – 8 March 1945 Capt Marcus J. Couts 09112/0225 USMC 28 May 1945 – 28 September 1945 LtCol John K. Hyatt, Jr.?-1973 LtCol Carl W. Kachaukas 1973-?
Casualties World War II Wounded in Action Name Keith K. Bean Carter D. Bucy Edward W. Clark Glenn C. E
Unified Task Force
The Unified Task Force was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December, 1992 – 4 May 1993. A United States initiative, UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country. After the killing of 20-25 Pakistani peacekeepers, the Security Council changed UNITAF's mandate issuing the Resolution 837 that establishes that UNITAF troops could use "all necessary measures" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia, exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992. However, the complete intransigence of the local faction leaders operating in Somalia and their rivalries with each other meant that UNOSOM I could not be performed; the mission never reached its mandated strength.
Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to worsen. Factions were splintering into smaller factions, splintered again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another; some elements were opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies and private, were subject to threats and extortion. By November, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to defy the Security Council formally and demand the withdrawal of peacekeepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments. In the face of mounting public pressure and frustration, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented several options to the Security Council. Diplomatic avenues having proved fruitless, he recommended that a significant show of force was required to bring the armed groups to heel.
Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations allows for "action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security." Boutros-Ghali believed the time had come for moving on from peacekeeping. However, Boutros-Ghali felt that such action would be difficult to apply under the mandate for UNOSOM. Moreover, he realised that solving Somalia’s problems would require such a large deployment that the UN Secretariat did not have the skills to command and control it. Accordingly, he recommended that a large intervention force be constituted under the command of member states but authorised by the Security Council to carry out operations in Somalia; the goal of this deployment was "to prepare the way for a return to peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building". Following this recommendation, on 3 December 1992 the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 794, authorizing the use of "all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia".
The Security Council urged the Secretary-General and member states to make arrangements for "the unified command and control" of the military forces that would be involved. UNITAF has been considered part of a larger state building initiative in Somalia, serving as the military arm to secure the distribution of humanitarian aid. However, UNITAF cannot be considered a state building initiative due to its ‘specific and palliative aims, which it nonetheless exercised forcefully’; the primary objective of UNITAF was security rather than larger institution building initiatives. Prior to Resolution 794, the United States had approached the UN and offered a significant troop contribution to Somalia, with the caveat that these personnel would not be commanded by the UN. Resolution 794 did not identify the U. S. as being responsible for the future task force, but mentioned "the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary-General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 concerning the establishment of an operation to create such a secure environment".
Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 3 December 1992, they welcomed the United States offer to help create a secure environment for humanitarian efforts in Somalia. President George H. W. Bush responded to this by initiating Operation Restore Hope on 4 December 1992, under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794. CIA Paramilitary Officer Larry Freedman from their Special Activities Division became the first US casualty of the conflict in Somalia when his vehicle struck an anti-tank mine, he had been inserted prior to official US presence on a special reconnaissance mission, serving as a liaison between the U. S. Embassy and the arriving military forces. Freedman was a former Army Delta Force operator and Special Forces soldier and had served in every conflict that the US was involved in both and unofficially since Vietnam. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star for extraordinary heroism; the first Marines of UNITAF landed on the beaches of Somalia on 9 December 1992 amid a media circus.
The press "seemed to know the exact time and place of the Marines' arrival" and waited on the airport runway and beaches to capture the moment. Critics of US involvement argued that the US government was intervening so as to gain control of oil concessions for American companies, with a survey of Northeast Africa by the World Bank and UN ranking Somalia second only to Sudan as the top prospective producer. However, no US and UN troops were deployed in proximity to the major oil explora
Command element (United States Marine Corps)
In the United States Marine Corps, the command element is the command and control force of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force. It provides C3I for the MAGTF; the Command Element, a headquarters unit organized into a MAGTF headquarters group, that exercises command and control over the other elements of the MAGTF. The HQ group consists of communications, intelligence and law enforcement detachments and battalions, reconnaissance, liaison platoons and companies; the size of the CE varies in proportion to the size of the MAGTF. A Marine Expeditionary Force has a MEF Information Group the size of a regiment. A Marine Expeditionary Brigade holds a battalion-sized MEB Information Group; the various Marine Expeditionary Units command a company-sized MEU Information Group. MEF postings are permanent, while MEBs and MEUs rotate their GCE, ACE, LCE twice annually. CE of I Marine Expeditionary Force CE of II Marine Expeditionary Force CE of III Marine Expeditionary Force Force Headquarters Group Marine Expeditionary Force Marine Air-Ground Task Force This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.