Iago is a fictional character in Shakespeare's Othello. Iago is the play's main antagonist, Othello's standard-bearer, he is the husband of Emilia, in turn the attendant of Othello's wife Desdemona. Iago hates Othello and devises a plan to destroy him by making him believe that his wife is having an affair with his lieutenant, Michael Cassio; the role is thought to have been first played by Robert Armin, who played intelligent clown roles like Touchstone in As You Like It or Feste in Twelfth Night. The character's source is traced to Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio's tale "Un Capitano Moro" in Gli Hecatommithi. There, the character is "the ensign". While no English translation of Cinthio was available in Shakespeare's lifetime, it is possible Shakespeare knew the Italian original, Gabriel Chappuy's 1584 French translation, or an English translation in manuscript. Cinthio's tale may have been based on an actual incident occurring in Venice about 1508. While Shakespeare followed Cinthio's tale in composing Othello, he departed from it in some details.
In Cinthio's tale, for example, the ensign suffers an unrequited lust for the Moor's wife, which drives his vengeance. Desdemona dies in an different manner in Cinthio's tale. In gruesome detail, Cinthio follows each blow, when she is dead, the Moor and his ensign place her lifeless body upon her bed, smash her skull, cause the cracked ceiling above the bed to collapse upon her, giving the impression the falling rafters caused her death; the two murderers escape detection. The Moor misses his wife however, comes to loathe the sight of his ensign, he demotes him, refuses to have him in his company. The ensign seeks revenge by disclosing to "the squadron leader", the Moor's involvement in Desdemona's death; the two men denounce the Moor to the Venetian Seignory. The Moor is arrested, transported from Cyprus to Venice, tortured, but refuses to admit his guilt, he is condemned to exile. The ensign escapes any prosecution in Desdemona's death, but engages in other crimes and dies after being tortured.
Iago is a soldier who has fought beside Othello for several years, has become his trusted advisor. At the beginning of the play, Iago claims to have been unfairly passed over for promotion to the rank of Othello's lieutenant in favour of Michael Cassio. Iago plots to manipulate Othello into demoting Cassio, thereafter to bring about the downfall of Othello himself, he has an ally, who assists him in his plans in the mistaken belief that after Othello is gone, Iago will help Roderigo earn the affection of Othello's wife, Desdemona. After Iago engineers a drunken brawl to ensure Cassio's demotion, he sets to work on his second scheme: leading Othello to believe that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio; this plan occupies the final three acts of the play. He manipulates his wife Emilia, Desdemona's lady-in-waiting, into taking from Desdemona a handkerchief that Othello had given her. Once Othello flies into a jealous rage, Iago tells him to look on while he talks to Cassio. Iago leads Othello to believe that a bawdy conversation about Cassio's mistress, Bianca, is in fact about Desdemona.
Mad with jealousy, Othello orders Iago to kill Cassio, promising to make him lieutenant in return. Iago engineers a fight between Cassio and Roderigo in which the latter is killed, but the former wounded. Iago's plan appears to succeed when Othello kills Desdemona, innocent of Iago's charges. Soon afterwards, Emilia brings Iago's treachery to light, Iago kills her in a fit of rage before being arrested, he remains famously reticent when pressed for an explanation of his actions before he is arrested: "Demand me nothing. What you know, you know. From this time forth I never will speak word." Following Othello's suicide, now in charge, condemns Iago to be imprisoned and tortured as punishment for his crimes. Iago is one of Shakespeare's most sinister villains considered such because of the unique trust that Othello places in him, which he betrays while maintaining his reputation for honesty and dedication. Shakespeare contrasts Iago with Othello's integrity. With 1,097 lines, Iago has more lines in the play than Othello himself.
Iago is a Machiavellian schemer and manipulator, as he is referred to as "honest Iago", displaying his skill at deceiving other characters so that not only do they not suspect him, but they count on him as the person most to be truthful. Shakespearean critic A. C. Bradley said that "evil has nowhere else been portrayed with such mastery as in the evil character of Iago", states that he "stands supreme among Shakespeare's evil characters because the greatest intensity and subtlety of imagination have gone into his making." The mystery surrounding Iago's actual motives continues to intrigue readers and fuel scholarly debate. In discussing The Tragedy of Othello, scholars have long debated Iago's role—highlighting the complexity of his character. Fred West contends that Shakespeare was not content with portraying another “stock” morality figure, that he, like many dramatists, was interested in the workings of the human mind. Thus, according to West, who sees nothing wrong with his own behaviour, is “an accurate portrait of a psychopath”, "devoid of conscience, with no remorse".
West believes that "Shakespeare had observed that there exist sane people in whom fellow-feeling of
An All-American team is an honorary sports team composed of the best amateur players of a specific season for each team position—who in turn are given the honorific "All-America" and referred to as "All-American athletes", or "All-Americans". Although the honorees do not compete together as a unit, the term is used in U. S. team sports to refer to players. Walter Camp selected the first All-America team in the early days of American football in 1889; the 2010 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans are honorary lists that include All-American selections from the Associated Press, the United States Basketball Writers Association, the Sporting News, the National Association of Basketball Coaches for the 2009–10 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. All selectors choose at least a second 5-man team; the NABC and AP choose third teams, TSN chooses third and fifth teams, while AP lists honorable mention selections. The Consensus 2010 College Basketball All-American team is determined by aggregating the results of the four major All-American teams as determined by the National Collegiate Athletic Association.
Since United Press International was replaced by TSN in 1997, the four major selectors have been the aforementioned ones. AP has been a selector since 1948, NABC since 1957 and USBWA since 1960. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors based on a point system computed from the four different all-America teams; the point system consists of three points for first team, two points for second team and one point for third team. No honorable mention or fourth team or lower are used in the computation; the top five totals plus ties are first team and the next five plus ties are second team. According to this system, Sherron Collins, Wesley Johnson, Scottie Reynolds, Evan Turner and John Wall were first team selections and Cole Aldrich, James Anderson, DeMarcus Cousins, Luke Harangody, Jon Scheyer and Greivis Vasquez were second team selections. Although the aforementioned lists are used to determine consensus honors, there are numerous other All-American lists; the ten finalists for the John Wooden Award are described as Wooden All-Americans.
The ten finalists for the Lowe's Senior CLASS Award are described as Senior All-Americans. Other All-American lists include those determined by Fox Sports, Yahoo! Sports; the scholar-athletes selected by College Sports Information Directors of America are termed Academic All-Americans. The following players are recognized as the 2010 Consensus All-Americans. PG – Point guard SG – Shooting guard PF – Power forward SF – Small forward C – Center The table below details the selections for four major 2010 college basketball All-American teams; the number corresponding to the team designation appears in the table. The following columns are included in the table: Player – The name of the All-American School – Collegiate affiliation AP – Associated Press All-American Team USBWA – United States Basketball Writers Association All-American Team NABC – National Association of Basketball Coaches All-American Team TSN – Sporting News All-American Team CP - Points in the consensus scoring system Notes – Collegiate highlights AP Honorable Mention: On February 22, 2010, CoSIDA and ESPN The Magazine announced the 2010 Academic All-America team, with Cole Aldrich headlining the University Division as the men's college basketball Academic All-American of the Year.
The following is the 2009–10 ESPN The Magazine Academic All-America Men’s Basketball Team as selected by CoSIDA: The ten finalists for the John R. Wooden Award are called Wooden All-Americans; the 10 honorees are as follows: The ten finalists for the Lowe's Senior CLASS Award are called Senior All-Americans. The 10 honorees are as follows: All-American teams from Fox Sports and Yahoo! Sports
The Ikarus 214 was a military aircraft produced in Yugoslavia in the early 1950s. Intended as a light reconnaissance-bomber, it was produced as a trainer and transport aircraft when the testing of the prototype showed it had insufficient performance for the reconnaissance-bomber role. A conventional, low-wing cantilever monoplane with twin tail, the Ikarus 214 was designed by Professor constructor Simo Milutinovic, first flew on 7 August 1949; the aircraft was of wooden construction, twin-engined, with a crew of two to four depending on the mission/role of the aircraft. The main landing gear wheels retracted into the engine nacelles of the two Ranger SVG-770C-B1 inverted V-12 piston engines. Serial production aircraft were powered by 2x Whitney R-1340AN-1 radial engines. Unlike production aircraft, the first prototype had fixed landing gear, due to delays in development of the retractable undercarriage. On the first test flight one engine failed, the pilot, Lieutenant Nikola Simic, attempted to return to the airport at Zemun, but the aircraft lost altitude and crashed near the Ikarus factory, killing the pilot.
Analysis concluded that the accident was caused by a combination of failure of the propeller feathering mechanism, high drag to the landing gear, small fin area, asymmetric thrust and limited engine power. The second prototype with the same engines, retractable landing gear and increased vertical tail surfaces flew in 1951; this aircraft was used, after flight test was completed, by the JRV until 10 October 1957. The revised version for photo-reconnaissance, designated Ikarus 214F, flew until 1959 when it was written off after an accident. A total of 22 aircraft, two prototypes and series production of only 20 meant the Ikarus 214 was not used, flight testing having revealed that the 214 could not meet the requirements of a light twin-engine bomber; the Ikarus 214AS trainer was used as a crew trainer for bomber pilots and navigators. The Ikarus 214D transport variant of the aircraft could carry up to 8 parachutists. Naval reconnaissance versions were limited, by a lack of suitable equipment, to mission in daylight and good weather conditions.
Two aircraft were equipped to carry out maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare as the Ikarus 214PP, Ikarus 214AM2. All Ikarus 214 aircraft were withdrawn from military service by 1967. Six aircraft were donated to the Aeronautical Union of Yugoslavia, continuing to fly in aero-clubs at Ljubljana, Novi Sad, Vrsac and Sarajevo, for transport and parachute jumps. All civilian 214s were withdrawn from service during the 1970s. Although not successful in its intended role the Ikarus 214 gained a good reputation from parachute jumpers at the aero-clubs. A single Ikarus 214 has been preserved at the Museum of Aviation at Belgrade Airport. Ikarus 214 prototype with Ranger SVG-770C-B1 inline engines, Ikarus 214D with Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 radial engines, Ikarus 214AS training aircraft, Ikarus 214F reconnaissance aircraft for photoreconnaissance, Ikarus 214PP anti-submarine aircraft, Ikarus 214АМ2 improved version of the anti-submarine aircraft. YugoslaviaYugoslav Air Force 570th Anti-Submarine Aviation Squadron 571st Anti-Submarine Aviation Squadron 679th Transport Aviation Squadron Data fromGeneral characteristics Crew: One or two pilots Capacity: 8 passengers Length: 11.20 m Wingspan: 16.20 m Height: 3.95 m Wing area: 29.80 m2 Empty weight: 3,965 kg Gross weight: 5,025 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1, 450 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 365 km/h Range: 1,080 km Service ceiling: 7,000 m Armament Sima Milutinović Aircraft of comparable role and era Siebel Si 204 Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 430. Уголок неба Бојан Б. Димитријевић "Југословенско ратно ваздухопловство 1942.-1992." Жутић. Н. И Бошковић. Л. Икарус - Икарбус: 1923 - 1998, Икарбус, Београд, 1999. Златко Рендулић, Авиони домаће конструкције после Другог светског рата, Лола институт, Београд, 1996. Год. Ђокић, Небојша. Домаћи авион "214". Аеромагазин. YU-Београд: ББ Софт. 59: 33–36. ISSN 1450-6068. Ikarus 214 Photos at Уголок неба www.ikarbas.rs www.mysity-military.com/Avijacija-i-PVO/Licna-karta-Ikarus-214.html www.aeroklub-sarajevo.ba/911.htm www.muzejrv.mod.gov.rs/pages_files/expo_files/motori.html www.aeroflight.co.uk/waf/yugo/af2/types/ikarus.htm
Staff colleges train military officers in the administrative and policy aspects of their profession. It is usual for such training to occur at several levels in a career. For example, an officer may be sent to various staff courses: as a captain they may be sent to a single service command and staff school to prepare for company command and equivalent staff posts; the success of staff colleges spawned, in the mid-twentieth century, a civilian imitation in what are called administrative staff colleges. These institutions apply some of the principles of the education of the military colleges to the executive development of managers from both the public and private sectors of the economy; the first and best-known administrative staff college was established in Britain at Greenlands near Henley, Oxfordshire and is now renamed Henley Management College. The first modern staff college was that of Prussia. Prussian advanced officer education began under the reign of Frederick the Great in 1710; the Seven Years' War demonstrated the inadequacy of the education that generals had at that time, but it was not until 1801 that staff training in a modern sense began when Gerhard von Scharnhorst became the director of the Prussian Military Academy.
Prussian defeats by Napoleon I led to the creation of the Allgemeine Kriegsschule with a nine-month programme covering mathematics, strategy, staff work, weapons science, military geography, physics and administration. The German staff courses have been used as a basic templates for other staff courses around the world. Nations have taken a wide variety of approaches to the form and status of staff colleges, but have much in common with the Prussian courses of the early 19th Century; some courses act as filters for entry into a specialist staff corps. The length of courses varies from three months to three years, with some having entrance and/or exit examinations; the more senior the course, the more that it will include strategic and joint aspects, with junior courses focusing on single service and tactical military aspects of warfare. Certain terms of art or idiom have developed in staff colleges over time, been used in wider college or university settings and everyday usage, including: staff refers to the professional personnel and employees of the college.
A "pink" is the Staff College's staff answer to a particular issue. Pinks and whites referred to the color coding of course material where problems and information for use of students was printed on standard white sheets of papers while material intended for use by directing staff was produced on pink sheets; this practice originates from staff colleges of British origins. The tradition survives across several Commonwealth staff colleges such as the Command and Staff College, Quetta; the following is an incomplete list of staff colleges, by continent by country: Ghana Ghana Armed Forces Command And Staff College Military Academy And Training Schools, AccraKenya Defense Staff College, NairobiNigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji in Kaduna StateUganda Uganda Senior Command and Staff College, Kimaka in Jinja District Uganda Junior Staff College, Jinja in Jinja District Escuela Superior de Guerra "Teniente General Luis María Campos". Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Oficiais Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas Escola de Instrução Especializada Escola de Guerra Naval Escola de Comando e Estado Maior da Aeronáutica Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Oficiais da Aeronáutica Canadian Army Command and Staff College Canadian Forces College Air University, HQ at Maxwell AFB, Alabama Air War College School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Air Command and Staff College Squadron Officer School Air Force Institute of Technology U.
S. Army War College (Carlisle Barracks, PA Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS School for Command Preparation School of Advanced Military Studies Command and General Staff School School for Advanced Leadership and Tactics U. S. Army Warrant Officer Career College, Fort Rucker, AL Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island College of Naval Warfare Maritime Advanced Warfighting School College of Naval Command and Staff Naval Postgraduate School Marine Corps University, Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA Marine Corps War College School of Advanced Warfighting Marine Corps Command and Staff College Expeditionary Warfare School Defense Acquisition University - five campuses - HQ at Fort Belvoir, Virginia National Defense University in Washington D. C. National War College Industrial College of the Armed Forces Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, BangladeshDefence Services Command And Staff College Mirpur People's Liberation Army National Defense University Nanjing PLA Army Command College Shijiazhuang PLA Army Command College PLA Naval Command College PLA Air Force Command College PLA Artillery Command College Second Artillery Corps Command College National Defence College for One Star officers and Civil servants Defence Services Staff College College of Defence Management Military Institute of Technology is
The 2010 NCAA Division III Men's Ice Hockey Tournament was the culmination of the 2009–10 season, the 27th such tournament in NCAA history. It concluded with Norwich defeating St. Norbert in the championship game 2-1 in overtime. All First Round and Quarterfinal matchups were held at home team venues, while all succeeding games were played at the Herb Brooks Arena in Lake Placid, New York; the following teams qualified for the tournament. Automatic bids were offered to the conference tournament champion of seven different conferences. Four at-large bids were available for the highest-ranked non-conference tournament champions. ECAC West, which had fewer than the number of requisite teams to qualify for an automatic bid for several years, lost its automatic bid; the tournament featured four rounds of play. All rounds were Single-game elimination; the top four teams were arranged so that were they all to reach the national semifinal, the first overall seed would play the fourth seed while the second seed would play the third seed.
Because only one western team could have received a bye into the quarterfinals, all western teams played in the first round in order to prevent lower-seeded teams from having to travel long-distances in the first two rounds. The other first round participants were the two lowest-seeded eastern teams; the winners of the two western first round matches would play one another in the quarterfinals. The top eastern seed would play the winner of the eastern first round game while the other two quarterfinal matches were played between eastern teams as follows: the second-seeded eastern team played the fifth-seeded team while the third-seed played the fourth-seed; the higher-seeded team served as host for quarterfinal meetings. Note: * denotes overtime period G: Ryan Klingensmith G: B. J. O'Brien* D: Steve Coon D: Sam Tikka F: Chad Anderson F: Pier-Olivier Cotnoir F: Johan Ryd * Most Outstanding Player Division III Men's Ice Hockey Record Book
Gasparo da Salò is the name given to Gasparo Bertolotti, one of the earliest violin makers and an expert double bass player. Around 80 of his instruments are still in existence: violins and tenor violas, viols and double basses, violas with only a pair of corners, ceteras. In 1542, Gasparo was born in Salò on Lake Garda, in a family with legal, artistic and craft interests, his grandfather Santino, a land and flock owner who it is believed produced musical gut strings, moved from Polpenazze to Salò, capital of the Riviera del Garda in search of the greater opportunities available in Salò, whose music scene was rich and vibrant. Gasparo was the son and nephew of two accomplished musicians and Agostino, who were violin players and composers of the highest professional level, distinguished enough to be referred to in surviving documents as the "violì” or in extended form, to avoid doubts, the "violini."In addition to being an expert in musical instruments, Gasparo's uncle Agostino was the first Kapellmeister of Salò and his son Bernardino, Gasparo's cousin, was a virtuoso musician, who worked in Ferrara at the Este music court, in Mantua for Vincenzo I Gonzaga, during which time he was a contemporary of Monteverdi, in Rome as "Musician of His Holiness the Pope in the Castle of S. Angel."
Gasparo's musical education took place during a period of growing refinement and professionalism among the musicians and violin players of Salò and Brescia, many of whom played in the Basilica of St. Mark in Venice, as among the musicians of many European courts from the early 1540s onward, his deep education in musical performance, undertaken by his noted musical family, is evidenced in a document found in Bergamo concerning music in San Maria Maggiore dated 1604, in which Gasparo is cited as a talented violone player. When his father died, around 1562, he moved to Brescia, it appears Gasparo rented a house and set up shop in the neighborhood hub of musical life, the Contrada Antegnati, known for the presence of a famous dynasty of organ builders and other skilled multi-instrumentalists, from 1528 granted from the Brescia City Council, with a professional patent, all of whom were located in the Second Quadra St. John, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio del Podestà. From his ability immediately to rent a house with a shop in this sought-after neighborhood, considering the slight possibility of a substantial inheritance, given his conspicuously large number of brothers and sisters, we can surmise that Gasparo was enjoying some measure of success in the family's traditional string making trade.
His business was successful enough to allow him to marry Isabetta Cassetti, the daughter of an artisan potter and glassmaker three years later. During this time Gasparo cultivated a deep relationship with Girolamo Virchi, one of the most prominent artist-craftsmen of the city, cited in a 1563 document as "maestro de musica instrumentis". In 1565 Virchi became godfather to Gasparo's child Francesco, the first of six others, three sons named Marcantonio, two of whom died in infancy, three daughters. In addition, in that neighborhood there lived two organists of Brescia Cathedral, Fiorenzo Mascara and his successor Costanzo Antegnati, a noted violin player, Giuseppe Biagini. Like many other Brescian virtuosi multi-instrumentalists, Mascara was an excellent viola da gamba player; this direct knowledge of, friendship with and Antegnati's work opened up new artistic horizons resulting in improvements to the sound and design of strings and stringed instruments. An Appraisal of the Policy of 1568 testifies to a flourishing business, which continued to grow significantly.
In 1575 he bought a house in the Cossere district, his historic headquarters, subsequently manufactured many instruments. His workshop became one of the most important in Europe in the second half of the 16th century for the production of every type of stringed instrument of the time. Gasparo developed the art of string making to a high level, passed on this tradition to five known students: his eldest son Francisco, the Frenchman Alexandro de Marsiliis, Giovanni Paolo Maggini from Botticino in the surroundings of Brescia, Jacomo de Lafranchini from Valle Camonica, a maker known only as Baptista. Exports reached Rome and France, as is clear from the Policy of 1588, where is written the export in France and other documents; the business allowed him to acquire extensive landholdings in the territory of Calvagese, with adjoining manor houses and farmhouses. Gasparo is known to have provided substantial assistance to his sister Ludovica, acted as guardian to the three sons of his wife's brother, Rocco Cassetti, presumed dead, along with his own wife, in the plague of 1577.
He died April 14, 1609. The short but significant death act survives and reads: "Messer Gasparo Bertolotti maestro di violini is dead & buried in Santo Joseffo"; the exact location where his remains lie among the graves of the Brescian musical pantheon, in company with Antegnati Costanzo, Don Cesare Bolognini and Benedetto Marcello, is not known. One of his most famous double basses, with a rapidity of response similar to that of a violin (owned by the 18th - 19th century virtuoso D