The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, the Concertgebouw; the Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague in 1800 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, where it was first located in the Royal Palace and in the Trippenhuis. The current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and first opened in 1885. On 13 April 2013, after a ten-year renovation which cost € 375 million, the main building was reopened by Queen Beatrix. In 2013 and 2014, it was the most visited museum in the Netherlands with record numbers of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors. It is the largest art museum in the country; the museum has on display 8,000 objects of art and history, from their total collection of 1 million objects from the years 1200–2000, among which are some masterpieces by Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer. The museum has a small Asian collection, on display in the Asian pavilion.
In 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance Isaac Gogel argued that a national museum, following the French example of The Louvre, would serve the national interest. On 19 November 1798, the government decided to found the museum. On 31 May 1800, the National Art Gallery, precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened in Huis ten Bosch in The Hague; the museum exhibited around 200 paintings and historic objects from the collections of the Dutch stadtholders. In 1805, the National Art Gallery moved within The Hague to the Prince William V Gallery, on the Buitenhof. In 1806, the Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte. On the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum moved to Amsterdam in 1808; the paintings owned by that city, such as The Night Watch by Rembrandt, became part of the collection. In 1809, the museum opened in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. In 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis; the Trippenhuis turned out to be unsuitable as a museum.
In 1820, the historical objects were moved to the Mauritshuis in The Hague and in 1838, the 19th-century paintings "of living masters" were moved to king Louis Bonaparte's former summer palace Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem. In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the Rijksmuseum, but none of the submissions was considered to be of sufficient quality. Pierre Cuypers participated in the contest and his submission reached the second place. In 1876, a new contest was held and this time Pierre Cuypers won; the design was a combination of renaissance elements. The construction began on 1 October 1876. On both the inside and the outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch art history. Another contest was held for these decorations; the winners were B. van Hove and J. F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G. Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W. F. Dixon for the stained glass; the museum was opened at its new location on 13 July 1885. In 1890, a new building was added a short distance to the south-west of the Rijksmuseum.
As the building was made out of fragments of demolished buildings, the building offers an overview of the history of Dutch architecture and has come to be known informally as the'fragment building'. It is known as the'south wing' and is branded the Philips Wing. In 1906, the hall for the Night Watch was rebuilt. In the interior more changes were made between the 1920s and 1950s - most multi-coloured wall decorations were painted over. In the 1960s exposition rooms and several floors were built into the two courtyards; the building had some minor renovations and restorations in 1984, 1995–1996 and 2000. A renovation of the south wing of the museum known as the'fragment building' or'Philips Wing', was completed in 1996, the same year that the museum held its first major photography exhibition featuring its extensive collection of 19th-century photos. In December 2003, the main building of the museum closed for a major renovation. During this renovation, about 400 objects from the collection were on display in the'fragment building', including Rembrandt's The Night Watch and other 17th-century masterpieces.
The restoration and renovation of the Rijksmuseum are based on a design by Spanish architects Antonio Cruz and Antonio Ortiz. Many of the old interior decorations were restored and the floors in the courtyards were removed; the renovation would have taken five years, but was delayed and took ten years to complete. The renovation cost € 375 million; the reconstruction of the building was completed on 16 July 2012. In March 2013, the museum's main pieces of art were moved back from the'fragment building' to the main building; the Night Watch returned at the end of the Hall of Fame. On 13 April 2013, the main building was reopened by Queen Beatrix. On 1 November 2014, the Philips Wing reopened with the exhibition Modern Times: Photography in the 20th Century. Cornelis Sebille Roos Cornelis Apostool Jan Willem Pieneman Johann Wilhelm Kaiser Frederik Daniël Otto Obreen Barthold Willem Floris van Riemsdijk Frederik Schmidt-Degener David Röell Arthur F. E. van Schendel Simon Levie Henk van Os Ronald de Leeuw Wim Pijbes Taco Dibbits The building of the Rijksmuseum was designed by Pierre Cuypers and opened in 1885.
It consists of two squares with an atrium in each centre. In the central axis is a tunnel with the entrances at ground level and the Gallery of Honour at the first floor; the building a
Charles James Fox
Charles James Fox, styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and, the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, a leading Whig of his day, had been the great rival of Pitt's famous father William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, he rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical to be aired in the Parliament of his era. Fox became a staunch opponent of George III, whom he regarded as an aspiring tyrant. Serving as Britain's first Foreign Secretary in the ministry of the Marquess of Rockingham in 1782, he returned to the post in a coalition government with his old enemy Lord North in 1783.
However, the King forced Fox and North out of government before the end of the year, replacing them with the twenty-four-year-old Pitt the Younger, Fox spent the following twenty-two years facing Pitt and the government benches from across the Commons. Though Fox had little interest in the actual exercise of power and spent the entirety of his political career in opposition, he became noted as an anti-slavery campaigner, a supporter of the French Revolution, a leading parliamentary advocate of religious tolerance and individual liberty, his friendship with his mentor Burke and his parliamentary credibility were both casualties of Fox's support for France during the Revolutionary Wars, but he went on to attack Pitt's wartime legislation and to defend the liberty of religious minorities and political radicals. After Pitt's death in January 1806, Fox served as Foreign Secretary in the'Ministry of All the Talents' of William Grenville, before he died on 13 September 1806, aged 57. Fox was born at 9 Conduit Street, the second surviving son of Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, Lady Caroline Lennox, a daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond.
Henry Fox was rival of Pitt the Elder. He had amassed a considerable fortune by exploiting his position as Paymaster General of the forces. Fox's elder brother, Stephen became 2nd Baron Holland, his younger brother, had a distinguished military career. Fox was the darling of his father, who found Charles "infinitely engaging & clever & pretty" and, from the time that his son was three years old preferred his company at meals to that of anyone else; the stories of Charles's over-indulgence by his doting father are legendary. It was said that Charles once expressed a great desire to break his father's watch and was not restrained or punished when he duly smashed it on the floor. On another occasion, when Henry had promised his son that he could watch the demolition of a wall on his estate and found that it had been destroyed, he ordered the workmen to rebuild the wall and demolish it again, with Charles watching. Given carte blanche to choose his own education, in 1758 Fox attended a fashionable Wandsworth school run by a Monsieur Pampellonne, followed by Eton College, where he began to develop his lifelong love of classical literature.
In life he was said always to have carried a copy of Horace in his coat pocket. He was taken out of school by his father in 1761 to attend the coronation of George III, who would become one of his most bitter enemies, once more in 1763 to visit the Continent. On this trip, Charles was given a substantial amount of money with which to learn to gamble by his father, who arranged for him to lose his virginity, aged fourteen, to a Madame de Quallens. Fox returned to Eton that year, "attired in red-heeled shoes and Paris cut-velvet, adorned with a pigeon-wing hair style tinted with blue powder, a newly acquired French accent", was duly flogged by Dr. Barnard, the headmaster; these three pursuits – gambling and the love of things and fashions foreign – would become, once inculcated in his adolescence, notorious habits of Fox’s life. Fox entered Hertford College, Oxford, in October 1764, but left without graduating, being rather contemptuous of its "nonsenses", he went on several further expeditions to Europe, becoming well known in the great Parisian salons, meeting influential figures such as Voltaire, Edward Gibbon, the duc d'Orléans and the marquis de Lafayette, becoming the co-owner of a number of racehorses with the duc de Lauzun.
For the 1768 general election, Henry Fox bought his son a seat in Parliament for the West Sussex constituency of Midhurst, though Charles was still nineteen and technically ineligible for Parliament. Fox was to address the House of Commons some 254 times between 1768 and 1774 and gathered a reputation as a superb orator, but he had not yet developed the radical opinions for which he would become famous, thus he spent much of his early years unwittingly manufacturing ammunition for his critics and their accusations of hypocrisy. A supporter of the Grafton and North ministries, Fox was prominent in the campaign to punish the radical John Wilkes for challenging the Commons. "He thus opened his career by speaking in behalf of the Commons against the people and their elected representative." Both Fox and his brother, were insulted and pelted with mud in the street by the pro-Wilkes London crowds. However, between 1770 and 1774, Fox's promising career
St Matthew's Church, Northampton
St Matthew's Church, Northampton is a Church of England parish church in Northampton, within the Diocese of Peterborough. The church is a Grade II* listed building, it was erected in memory of Pickering Phipps, beside the Kettering Road. The architect was Matthew Holding. Canon John Rowden Hussey was vicar from its consecration in 1893 to 1937. Walter Hussey, vicar from 1937 to 1955 succeeding his father, was a patron of the arts. In the north transept is a stone sculpture, "Madonna and Child", by Henry Moore and in the south transept a painting of the Crucifixion by Graham Sutherland; the triptych in the Lady Chapel is by C E Buckeridge. A more recent addition is a bronze statue of St Matthew by Ian Rank-Broadley. A 1956 oil and watercolour painting of St Matthew's Church by John Piper is in the collection of the Northampton Museum and Art Gallery. St Matthew's follows an Anglican service with Catholic traits; the church celebrates two Eucharistic services on a Sunday including a Parish Mass at 10.15am, Choral on Feast Days.
The Parish Mass is'pro populo' on the Nave Altar and the Lectern has been moved from the Chancel step to the High Altar to make way for a traditional statue of St Matthew. Choral Evensong is sung twice a month with Benediction following the service on the third Sunday of each; the church maintains a daily Eucharist service and has done since its founding in 1893. The Daily Offices of Morning & Evening Prayer are said publicly every day of the year. Music has long been an important part of the life of St Matthew's, both liturgically and through links forged with local educational and professional ensembles. For many years St Matthew's had an all-male choir, disbanded in the early 2000s; the choir now consists of girl and boy choristers aged 8–18 and adult Altos and Basses who sing two services each Sunday. The church choir is supported by The St Matthew's Singers, a choir of local amateur singers, who sing Choral Mass on mid-week Feast Days; the whole music department is overseen by a Director of Parish Organist and Organ Scholar.
The choir has undertaken a tour each year since 2012. These have included week-long trips to sing at St Davids, Carlisle and Chester, Ely and Germany; the choir has released two CDs in recent years. St Matthew's is a concert venue in Northampton; the church is home to the Northampton Bach Choir who were founded by Denys Pouncey in 1935 and for many years had St Matthew's Director of Music as its Director. The church has links with the Northampton Music and Performing Arts Trust, the Northampton Philharmonic Choir, the Northampton Chamber Choir and many other groups. St Matthew's houses a manual organ built by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd in 1895. Regular organ recitals take place. Many of the previous St Matthew's Directors of Music have gone on to hold important positions in Church Music; these have included Kings College, Wells Cathedral, Norwich Cathedral, Blackburn Cathedral, Llandaff Cathedral, York Minster, the Cathedral of St John the Divine, New York City. Andrew Reid, a St Matthew's Organ Scholar, is now Director of the Royal School of Church Music.
Charles J. King 1895 – 1930 –???? Philip Pfaff 1930 – 1934 Denys Pouncey 1934 – 1936 Alec Wyton 1946 – 1950 Robert Henry Joyce 1950 – 1958 John Bertalot 1958 – 1964 Michael Nicholas 1964 – 1971 Stephen Cleobury 1971 – 1974 Timothy Day 1974 – 1976 David Ponsford 1976 – 1979 Derek Gillard 1979 – 1985 Andrew Shenton 1986 – 91 Andrew King 1991 – 1998 Ian Frank Clarke 1998 – 2001 John Malcolm Tyler 2001 – 2004 Jonathan Starmer January – September 2005 Sebastian Thomson 2005 – 2009 Ben Horden 2009 – 2010 Stephen Moore 2010 – 2016 Simon Toyne September – December 2016 Justin Miller 2017 – A list of musical commissions of St Matthew's Church is here below: 1943 – Benjamin Britten – Rejoice in the Lamb 1943 – Michael Tippet – Fanfare No 1 for 10 Brass Instruments 1944 – Edmund Rubbra – The Revival 1945 – Lennox Berkeley – Festival Anthem 1946 – Gerald Finzi – Lo, the full, final sacrifice 1946 – Benjamin Britten – Prelude and Fugue on a Theme of Vittoria 1948 – Christopher Headington – Festival Anthem: Supreme Bliss 1949 – John Rose – Festival Hymn 1950 – Malcolm Arnold – Laudate Dominum 1954 – James Butt – Bless the Lord 1956 – David Barlow – Who shall ascend the hill of the Lord 1958 – George Dyson – Hail universal Lord 1959 – Elizabeth Poston – Festal Te Deum 1960 – Peter Dickinson – Justus Quidem Tu Es, Domine 1962 – Brian Judge – Ambrosian Prayer 1964 – Christopher Le Fleming – Communion Service in D 1965 – Kenneth Leighton – Let all the world in every corner sing 1966 – John McCabe – A Hymne to God the Father 1967 – Richard Rodney Bennett – Five Christmas Carols 1968 – Gordon Crosse – The Covenant of the Rainbow 1968 – Herbert Howells – One thing have I desired of the Lord 1968 – Robert Walker – Fanfare 1973 – William Mathias – Missa Brevis 1977 – Sebastian Forbes – Quam Dilecta 1983 – Philip Moore – At the round earth's imagined corners 1986 – Herbert Sumsion – The spacious firmament on high 1987 – Geoffrey Burgon – The song of the creatures 1988 – John Tavener – The Call 1988 – Simon Lole – Carol for Advent 1989 – Richard Shephard – St Matthew's Mass 1989 – Alan Ridout – Toccata 1989 – Ivan Moody – Canticle of Simeoon 1990 – Paul Edwards – God that madest heaven and earth 1990 – Trevor Hold – Verses from St Matthew 1991 – Alec Wyton – A Prayer for Church Musicians and Artists 1993 – Diana Burrell – Heil'ger Geist in's Himmels Throne 2008 – David Briggs – Toccata for St Mat
Royal Society of Sculptors
The Royal Society of Sculptors is a centre for contemporary sculpture, headquartered on Old Brompton Road, South Kensington, London. It is the oldest and largest organisation dedicated to sculpture in the UK. Established in 1904, RBS is a registered charity, with a selective membership of around 600 professional sculptors, which promotes excellence in the art and practice of sculpture, it aims to inspire and engage people of all ages and backgrounds with sculpture, to support sculptors’ development of their practice to the highest professional standards. 1905 – Began as the Society of British Sculptors, with 51 sculptor members in its first year 1911 – Received royal patronage, was renamed the Royal Society of British Sculptors 1963 – Gained charitable status in recognition of its educational activities 1976 – Received donation of 108 Old Brompton Rd from the late sculptor Cecil Thomas 2003 – Became Royal British Society of Sculptors in recognition of growing international membershipIn 2017 the organisation was renamed the Royal Society of Sculptors.
RBS is an independent artist-led organisation. Its governing body is the elected Council, who are the Trustees of the registered charity and the Directors of the limited company. Membership of RBS is selective and the sculptor members of Council meet to review applications and select new members. Presidents of the organisation receive the post-nominal letters PRBS. Since 2014 the designation "Associate" of the Society has been replaced by "Member". Queen Elizabeth II is the Patron of the Royal British Society of Sculptors. Ten bursaries are awarded each year to emerging sculptors judged to be of outstanding talent and potential. Open to sculptors of any age or nationality, the awards provide opportunities and support to enable them to make the transition to full professional practice; the winners receive free RBS membership for two years and opportunities to exhibit, present talks, apply for residencies, participate in training seminars, attend events and access the RBS mentoring scheme. The bursary awards are supported by the Gilbert Bayes Charitable Trust.
Two annual scholarships for RBS members to experiment with stone or bronze under instruction from master craftsmen in Pietrasanta, Italy. The three-month residencies enable sculptors to learn the technical aspects of the carving or casting process; the awards are supported by the Brian Mercer Charitable Trust. A public art award, designed to offer sculptors an opportunity to extend their practice into competing for public art commissions. Open to all sculptors working in any style. Launched in 2013, Sculpture Shock encourages surprising site-specific spatial interventions in non-traditional spaces outside the confines of a gallery. Three sculptors are awarded a three-month residency in Kensington; the artists exhibit in one of three environments: Subterranean and Historic. Sculpture Shock is supported by private philanthropists. For many years the RBS awarded the Otto Beit medal, named after and funded by the philanthropist Sir Otto Beit. Winners of the medal include Media related to Royal British Society of Sculptors at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18