Iarnród Éireann known as Irish Rail in English, is the operator of the national railway network of Ireland. Established on 2 February 1987, it is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann, it operates all internal InterCity, Commuter, DART and freight railway services in the Republic of Ireland, jointly with Northern Ireland Railways, the Enterprise service between Dublin and Belfast. In 2019, IÉ carried 50 million passengers, up from 48 million in 2018, a record peak; until 2013 Ireland was the only European Union state that had not implemented EU Directive 91/440 and related legislation, having derogated its obligation to split train operations and infrastructure businesses, allow open access by private companies to the rail network. A consultation on the restructuring of Iarnród Éireann took place in 2012; the derogation ended on 14 March 2013 when the company was split in 2 sectors: Railway Undertaking and Infrastructure Manager. At the time of its establishment, the company referred to itself as Irish Rail and adopted the four rails IR logo.
In 1994, the company brought the Irish form of its name to the fore, introducing a logo and corporate branding based on the letters IÉ corporate branding and logo. However, both languages remained part of the official company name. In 2013, new bilingual branding was introduced. Operationally, services are divided across four regional areas: Northern and Eastern services are managed from Connolly Southern and Western services are managed from Heuston IÉ's passenger services are branded under three main names. InterCity services are long-distance routes radiating from Dublin; the Belfast – Dublin service, jointly operated with Northern Ireland Railways, is branded separately as Enterprise. Dublin's two main InterCity stations are Heuston. Intercity services run to/from Cork, Tralee, Galway, Rosslare Europort, Westport and Ballina. Dublin's third major station, Pearse, is the terminus for much of the suburban network in the Greater Dublin area. An additional InterCity service runs from Limerick to Waterford.
This service operated through to Rosslare Europort but services between Waterford and Rosslare Europort ceased after the last train on 18 September 2010. Bus Éireann now operates route 370 through the affected towns as replacement transport. A new service began on 31 March 2010 from Limerick to Galway, as part of the Western Rail Corridor, reopening the long-closed line. A January 2012 national newspaper article suggested that Iarnród Éireann was expected to seek permission in the near future from the National Transport Authority to close the Limerick–Ballybrophy railway line and the Limerick–Waterford line; the majority of Commuter services are based in Dublin, which has four commuter routes: Northern, South-Western and South-Eastern. See Dublin Suburban Rail for more details; the Cork Suburban Rail has three Commuter services: to Mallow and Cobh, a third service to Midleton which became operational on a part of the disused Youghal branch line on 30 July 2009. Limerick Suburban Rail consists of two lines to Ennis and Nenagh, with shuttle services to Limerick Junction.
A Commuter service operates between Galway to Athenry. Commuter trains operate on shuttle duty for branches from the main InterCity services from Mallow to Tralee and from Manulla Junction to Ballina, as well as acting as InterCity trains for Dublin – Rosslare and some Dublin – Sligo services, as the aforementioned Limerick – Limerick Junction – Waterford service; the North-South route along Dublin's eastern coastal side is host to DART, Ireland's only electrified heavy-rail service. The DART consists of many classes, the oldest and most famous one being the 8100 class which still operates, now extensively refurbished; the following is a simplified table of weekday off-peak services, various irregular calling patterns have been omitted for clarity. Iarnród Éireann has responsibility for running freight services on the Irish network through its Freight Division – which recorded a tonnage decrease of 11.8% in 2018, as of 2019 there are 3 freight flows running throughout the country. This operates both Railfreight trains and a network of road haulage through various distribution nodes throughout the country.
Iarnród Éireann Freight is subdivided into three sections: Bulk Freight – specialises in operating full trainloads of freight bulk movements of single products such as cement, mineral ore or timber. Intermodal – container trains operated between Waterford Port and Ballina and Dublin Port and Ballina. Navigator – the freight forwarding division associated with the transport of automotive stock parts; the Enterprise route is well regarded. However, it is only double track and serves both local and intermediate Commuter as well as InterCity traffic. Hence any delay has knock-on effects. There is limited platform availability at Connolly Station in Dublin. There was a persistent problem with engine overloading, as Enterprise locomotives supplied coach power. However, since September 2012, additional power is provided by separate Mark 3 generator vans; the Cork-Dublin route was the "premier line" of the Great Southern and Western Railway, one of the biggest pre-CIÉ operators. Rolling stock on this route consists of Mark 4 trains, which were built in Spain, complete with DVTs for faster turn-around.
James O'Reilly was an Irish Roman Catholic clergyman who, after arriving in the United States and serving as a priest, became the second Bishop of Fargo. Born in the County Cavan townland of Lisgrea, O'Reilly was educated at All Hallows College in Dublin, where he was ordained to the priesthood on June 24, 1882, his initial American placement was in Minnesota in the Archdiocese of St. Paul where he served as pastor of the parishes in Goodhue County's Belle Creek and Lake City as well as Washington County's Stillwater. In 1886, he was chosen as pastor of St. Anthony of Padua Church in Minneapolis. On December 18, 1909, O'Reilly was appointed the second Bishop of Fargo, North Dakota, by Pope Pius X, he received his episcopal consecration on May 19, 1910 from Archbishop John Ireland, with Bishops James McGolrick and James Trobec serving as co-consecrators. He served as bishop for the next twenty-four years, until his death just over two months past his 79th birthday
Umm Batin is a Bedouin village in southern Israel. Located in the northern Negev desert, 12 km northeast of Beersheba and adjacent to the highway 60, it falls under the jurisdiction of al-Kasom Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 4,093; the village name derives from the Arabic words for mother and hidden, batin. Translated, Umm Batin can mean either Hidden Mother of the Hidden; the historical origins of the village name are not well-documented. Prior to the establishment of Israel, the Negev Bedouins were a semi-nomadic society, through a process of sedentariness since the Ottoman rule of the region. During the British Mandate period, no legal framework was established to justify and preserve land ownership, thus Israel’s land policy was adopted to a large extent from the Ottoman land regulations of 1858 as the only legal precedent. Israel has continued the Ottoman policy of sedentarization of Negev Bedouins. In the 1950s Israel re-settled two-thirds of the Negev Bedouin in an area, under a martial law.
Several townships were built for them, offering better living conditions, sanitation and education, municipal services. As of today, according to the information of Israel Land Administration, over 60% of the Negev Bedouin live in seven settlements in the Negev desert with approved plans and developed infrastructure: Hura, Lakiya, Ar'arat an-Naqab, Shaqib al-Salam, Tel as-Sabi and the city of Rahat, the largest among them; these townships cannot resolve the issue of high population density and illegal construction in the Negev so besides expanding existing towns, the Israeli government has decided to construct 13 additional settlements with modern infrastructure for the Negev Bedouin, Umm Batin is one of them. The village was established following Government Resolution 881 on 29 September 2003, which created eight new Bedouin settlements, it was recognized in 2004. In early December 2016, Israel’s Transport Ministry without any previous warning or explanation removed the village’s only bus stop, thus isolating villagers who do not have private vehicles.
Part of the Abu Basma Regional Council, Umm Batin falls under the jurisdiction of al-Kasom Regional Council. On November 5, 2012 the Israeli Ministry of Interior abolished Abu Basma, splitting it into two smaller regional councils, al-Kasom and Neve Midbar. Prior to its division, Abu Basma Regional Council represented 30,000 people spread across eleven newly recognized Bedouin villages. Along with the dismantling of Abu Basma, the Israeli Interior Minister postponed regional council elections for Al-Kasom and Neve Midbar until 2017. From its inception in 2003 until its division in 2012, Abu Basma Regional Council had been headed by an official appointed by the Interior Minister; the elections -, mandated in a ruling by the Israel Supreme Court to take place in December 2012 - would have represented the first democratically elected leadership of the Council. It is accepted to give all the newly established councils a four-year trial period before elections are held. According to the amendment to the Regional Councils’ Law passed in 2009, that period can be extended by the Israeli Ministry of Interior indefinitely.
Following a decision taken by the Kneset’s Interior Committee in 2010 to force the government to present a detailed timeline for the council’s development the date for the first elections in the Abu Basma Regional Council was set as 2012. But due to the unpreparedness and low level of municipal services these elections were delayed once again and never took place due to the regional council's abolition; the residents are of two tribes: Abu Kaf and Abu Assa. Umm Batin has four schools, serving kindergarten through twelfth grade: Abu Kaf and Al-Sanabel Elementary Schools, Awrat Secondary School, ORT Umm Batin High School. There were a total of 2,163 students enrolled in Umm Batin schools in 2012; the nearest university is Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Be'er Sheva. There is an acting "The English in Umm Batin" program, a result of cooperation between the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Medical School for International Health, the community of Umm Batin, the students of ORT Umm Batin High School.
Arab localities in Israel Bedouin in Israel Negev Bedouin Sedentarization Umm Batin Abu Basma Regional Council ORT Umm Batin and the High School for Environmental Studies in the Negev Lands of the Negev, a short film by Israel Land Administration describing the challenges in providing land management and infrastructure to the Negev Bedouin Bedouin information Israel Land Administration Seth Frantzman, Presentation to Regavim about Negev