Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia; the actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast between the 40th and 46th parallels. The territory was divided into the British colonies that became Canadian provinces and American states; the population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis; the first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613, but it was rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British Siege of Port Royal in 1710.
Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. During the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.
Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are associated with the lands, descendants, or culture of the former French region. It refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots and culture in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine, it can be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, a region referred to as Acadiana. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions. People living in Acadia, sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians later known as Cajuns, the English pronunciation of'Cadiens, after resettlement in Louisiana; the origin of the designation Acadia is credited to the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, who on his 16th-century map applied the ancient Greek name "Arcadia" to the entire Atlantic coast north of Virginia. "Arcadia" derives from the Arcadia district in Greece, which since Classical antiquity had the extended meanings of "refuge" or "idyllic place".
The Dictionary of Canadian Biography says: "Arcadia, the name Verrazzano gave to Maryland or Virginia'on account of the beauty of the trees,' made its first cartographical appearance in the 1548 Gastaldo map and is the only name on that map to survive in Canadian usage." In 1603 a colony south of the St. Lawrence River between the 40th and 46th parallels was chartered by Henry IV, who recognized the territory as La Cadie. In the 17th century, Samuel de Champlain fixed its present orthography with the r omitted. William Francis Ganong, a cartographer, has shown its gradual progress northeastwards, in a succession of maps, to its resting place in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Of note is the similarity in the pronunciation of Acadie and the Míkmawísimk suffix -akadie, which means "a place of abundance." The modern usage is still seen in place names such as Shubenacadie. It is thought that intercultural conversation between early French traders and Mi'kmaq hunters may have resulted in the name l'Arcadie being changed to l'Acadie.
The borders of French Acadia have never been defined, but the following areas were at some time part of French Acadia: Present-day Nova Scotia with as capital Port Royal. Lost to Great Britain in 1713. Present-day New Brunswick, which remained part of Nova Scotia until 1784 until becoming its own colony in 1785. Île-Royale Cape Breton Island, with the Fortress of Louisbourg. Lost to Great Britain in 1763. Île Saint-Jean Prince Edward Island. Lost to Great Britain in 1763; the part of present-day Maine east of the Kennebec River. Became part of the New England Colonies in 1727; the history of Acadia was influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th century. Prior to that time period, the Mi'kmaq lived in Acadia for centuries; the French arrived in 1604. Despite this, the Mi'kmaq tolerated the presence of the French in exchange for favours and trade. Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years. Early European colonists, who would become known as Acadians, were French subjects from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France.
The first French settlement was established by Pierre Dugua des Monts, Governor of Acadia, under the authority of King H
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Lafayette is a city in and the parish seat of Lafayette Parish, located along the Vermilion River in the southwestern part of the state. The city of Lafayette is the fourth-largest in the state, with a population of 127,657 according to 2015 U. S. Census estimates, it is the principal city of the Lafayette, Louisiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a 2015 estimated population of 490,488. The larger trade area or Combined Statistical Area of Lafayette-Opelousas-Morgan City CSA was 627,146 in 2015, its nickname is The Hub City. The Attakapas Native Americans inhabited this area at the time of European encounter. French colonists founded the first European settlement, Petit Manchac, a trading post along the Vermilion River. In the late eighteenth century, numerous Acadian refugees settled in this area, after being expelled from Canada after Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, they intermarried with other settlers, forming what is known as Cajun culture, which continued as French language and Catholic religion.
Jean Mouton, of Acadian descent, donated land to the Catholic church for construction of a small Catholic chapel at this site. In 1824 this area was selected for the Lafayette Parish seat and known as Vermilionville, for its location on the river. In 1836 the Louisiana Legislature granted it incorporation; the area was developed for agriculture sugar plantations, which depended on the labor of numerous enslaved Africans and made up a large percentage of the Antebellum-era population. According to U. S. Census data, 41 percent of the population of Lafayette Parish was enslaved in 1830, that number increased to 49.6 percent by 1860. A percentage of free people of color lived in Lafayette Parish as well, they made up 3 percent to a low of 2.4 percent between 1830 and 1860. In 1884, Vermilionville was renamed for General Lafayette, a French aristocrat who had fought with and aided the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War; the city and parish economy continued to be based on agriculture into the early 20th century.
After the Civil War, most of this work was done by freedmen. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers. In the 1940s, after oil was discovered in the parish, the petroleum and natural gas industries became dominant. Lafayette is considered to be the center of Acadiana, the area of Cajun and Louisiana Creole culture in the state, it developed following the relocation of Acadians after their expulsion by the British from eastern Canada in the late 18th century following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War. There is a strong Louisiana Creole influence in the area, as this mixed-race population became landowners and businesspeople. Lafayette has an elevation of 36 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.2 square miles, of which 49.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Lafayette is located on the West Gulf Coastal Plain; the site was part of the seabed during the earlier Quaternary Period. During this time, the Mississippi River cut a 325-foot-deep valley between what is now Lafayette and Baton Rouge.
This valley is now the Atchafalaya Basin. Lafayette is located on the western rim of this valley; this is part of the southwestern Louisiana Prairie Terrace. Lafayette does not suffer significant flooding problems, outside of local flash flooding. Lafayette has developed on both sides of the Vermilion River. Other significant waterways in the city are Isaac Verot Coulee, Coulee Mine, Coulee des Poches, Coulee Ile des Cannes, which are natural drainage canals that lead to the Vermilion River. Lafayette's climate is described as humid subtropical using Köppen climate classification. Lafayette has year-round precipitation during summertime. Lafayette's highest temperature was 107 °F. Lafayette has hot, moist summers and warm, damp winters; as of the census of 2010, there were 120,623 people, 43,506 households, 27,104 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,316.7 people per square mile. There were 46,865 housing units at an average density of 984.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.23% White, 28.51% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.88% of the population. In 2010, 84.2% of the population over the age of five spoke English at home, 11.5% of the population spoke French or Cajun French, a dialect that developed in Louisiana. There were 43,506 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families. Nearly 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,996, the median income for a family was $47,783.
Males had a median income of $37,729 versus $23,606 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,031. About 11.6%
Shadows-on-the-Teche is a 3,750 square feet historic house and garden located in New Iberia, United States. Built in 1834 for sugarcane planter David Weeks and his wife Mary Conrad Weeks, the National Historic Landmark is owned and operated by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Sited 20 feet above the banks of the Bayou Teche, the construction of Shadows-on-the-Teche, a two-and-a-half-story, sixteen room house, coincided with the apogee of the Greek Revival style in United States architecture; when following this style, builders minimized the installation of superfluous decorative elements such as cornices and trim. Decorations were limited and were designed to blend into and set off the building's handmade red brick construction; the seven bay entrance facade is located on the south front and is made up of eight full-height Tuscan columns of white-plastered brick standing on high square bases, that support a second-floor gallery or veranda, topped by a Doric frieze. An exterior staircase is located on the left side of the front gallery, hidden behind green painted louvered panels that are found on each side of the gallery.
Three pedimented dormers are found on the gabled roof, pierced with two symmetrical brick chimneys on the ridge line that flank the central dormer. The north facing rear facade features a central, two level open loggia, enclosed on three sides by the house, flanked with double fenestrations on each level; the loggia is accessed on the ground floor by triple brick archways, where to the left, a narrow staircase leads to the second level with double white columns helping to support the frieze at the top of the house, enclosed by a banister. Three pedimented dormers are found on the roof identical to the front; the house has a traditional Creole plan on both floors, with three rooms across the front and two rear rooms flanking the loggia. On the first floor, the dining room, with a black and white checkered marble floor, occupies the center of the house. To the right of the dining room is an art studio, to the left is a pantry/service work area, used as a kitchen. None of the ground floor rooms are accessed by interior hallways, must be entered via the front gallery or the loggia in the rear.
On the second floor an ornate parlor is centered in the middle and is flanked by the master bedroom on the left, with adjacent sitting room and secondary bedrooms on the right. The interior walls are covered with wallpaper, while the cypress doors were painted to simulate oak and the fireplaces were finished to appear like marble. Shadows-on-the-Teche was furnished throughout with Federal-style and Empire-style furniture brought in from the U. S. East Coast; the grounds were laid out by Shadows-on-the-Teche's last private owner, William Weeks Hall, who established gardens formed by boxwood hedges and aspidistra walks, that included live oaks, camellias and other plantings. At the northeast corner of the house is located an underground brick cistern, 6 feet deep and 11 feet wide, with a 3-foot-high domed top and a capacity of over 4,000 gallons. To the north, between the house and the bayou, is a summer house built in 1928, as a focal point to the gardens, designed to mimic the arches on the rear facade of the house.
Elsewhere on the grounds is the Weeks family cemetery that contains the remains of four generations of the family, with the last burial for William Weeks Hall who died in 1958. David and Mary Weeks were wealthy growers of sugar cane. Shadows-on-the-Teche was built on a tract of 158 acres on the edge of one of Weeks' plantations in the parish seat of Iberia Parish; as a town house, Shadows-on-the-Teche was designed for social entertainment. It is said that, at the time of its construction, Shadows-on-the-Teche was only the third brick house to be built on Bayou Teche; the Weeks family began to suffer from a series of family tragedies at once after the completion of the house. Planter David Weeks, who became chronically ill while Shadows-on-the-Teche was being built, died in August 1834 in New England while seeking medical attention. Mary Weeks remarried lawyer John Moore but kept her children's property separate from that of her second husband, as she was allowed to do under Louisiana law; this property included the 164 slaves bequeathed to their children under the terms of her first husband's will.
Mrs. Frances Weeks Pruett and her children Mary Ida Magill and Augustine Magill were vacationing at Last Island, Louisiana where they died in the 1856 Last Island hurricane disaster; the children were buried on the grounds. The Shadows-on-the-Teche household was economically and physically dependent on Louisiana slavery. Mary Weeks and John Moore supported slavery and supported the political changes which they thought were necessary to save it; this political status and viewpoint made the household vulnerable during the Civil War. Federal troops requisitioned occupancy of the property, officers of the occupying army quartered themselves in it. Mary Weeks died in December 1863 in Shadows-on-the-Teche while part of the house was being used by Union troops as officers' quarters; the house was inherited by David and Mary Weeks' eldest son, William F. Weeks, who restored the family fortunes during Reconstruction. However, after his death in 1895, the property was passed to his daughters Lily and Harriet, who were compelled to sell off much of the land surrounding the house to meet their living expenses, reducing the grounds from 158 acres to 2 1/2 acres.
Lily's only child, William Weeks Hall, moved into the Shadows-on-t
Iberville Parish, Louisiana
Iberville Parish is a parish located south of Baton Rouge in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,387, its seat is Plaquemine. The parish was formed in 1807. Iberville Parish is part of LA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the parish is named for Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. A few archeological efforts have been made in the Parish to excavate the Native American burial mounds that have been identified there; the first expedition, led by Clarence B. Moore, was an attempt at collecting data from a couple of the sites, it set the groundwork for projects. Moore was interested in the skeletal remains of the previous inhabitants, rather than excavating for archeological items. Archeologists are interested in these sites because of their uniformity and size; some of the mounds are a hundred feet wide and six feet tall. Most of them contain human remains. Iberville Parish is represented in the Louisiana State Senate by a Republican, attorney Rick Ward, III, a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, who has served in the Senate since 2012.
The parish is represented in the state House by Democrat Major Thibaut of Oscar in Pointe Coupee Parish. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 653 square miles, of which 619 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water. Interstate Highway 10 Louisiana Highway 1 Louisiana Highway 30 Louisiana Highway 69 Louisiana Highway 75 Louisiana Highway 76 Louisiana Highway 77 Pointe Coupee Parish West Baton Rouge Parish East Baton Rouge Parish Ascension Parish Assumption Parish Iberia Parish St. Martin Parish Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 33,387 people residing in the parish. 49.3% were Black or African American, 48.8% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 2.0% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 33,320 people, 10,674 households, 8,016 families residing in the parish; the population density was 54 people per square mile. There were 11,953 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the parish was 49.26% White, 49.70% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. 1.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,674 households, 36.20% of which contained children under age 18, 49.60% of which were married couples living together, 20.40% of which had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 21.90% of the households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.29. 26.20% of the population was under age 18. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $29,039, the median income for a family was $34,100. Males had a median income of $32,074 versus $20,007 for females.
The per capita income for the parish was $13,272. About 19% of families and 23% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30% of those under age 18 and 18% of those age 65 or over; the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections operates two prisons, Elayn Hunt Correctional Center and Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, in St. Gabriel in Iberville Parish. LCIW houses the female death row. Iberville Parish School Board operates the public schools within Iberville Parish. Iberville Parish Library operates libraries in the parish; the Parish Headquarters Library is located in Plaquemine. Branches include Bayou Pigeon, Bayou Sorrel, East Iberville, Grosse Tete, Rosedale, White Castle; the Gillis W. Long Center, located on the outskirts of Carville, LA, is operated by the Louisiana Army National Guard; this post is home to the 415TH MI Battalion, the 241ST MPAD, the 61st Troop Command. The 415TH MI is a subunit of the 139TH RSG. Plaquemine St. Gabriel Maringouin White Castle Grosse Tete Rosedale Bayou Goula Crescent Alhambra Bayou Pigeon Bayou Sorrel Dorcyville Iberville Indian Village Seymourville National Register of Historic Places listings in Iberville Parish, Louisiana Moon Griffon, radio talk show host born in Iberville Parish in 1961 Jessel Ourso, sheriff of Iberville Parish from 1964-1978.
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Interstate 49 is a north–south Interstate Highway that exists in multiple segments: the original portion within the state of Louisiana with an additional signed portion extending from Interstate 220 in Shreveport to the Arkansas state line, four newer sections in Arkansas, a new section that opened in Missouri. Its southern terminus is in Lafayette, Louisiana, at Interstate 10 while its northern terminus is in Kansas City, Missouri at Interstate 435 and Interstate 470. Portions of the remaining roadway in Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas, which will link Kansas City with New Orleans, are in various stages of planning or construction. Although not part of the original 1957 interstate highway plan, residents of Missouri and Louisiana began campaigning for the highway in 1965 via the "US 71 - I-29 Association." The campaign called for Interstate 29 to be extended south from Kansas City to New Orleans following much of the route along US 71. The plan called for creating a limited access expressway from New Orleans to the Canadian border and on to Winnipeg.
The highway is not named Interstate 29 because of interstate naming rules. The rules state that north-south roads are odd numbered and the highways are named in increasing order from west to east. Since there are an Interstate 35 and an Interstate 45 to the west and an Interstate 55 to the east Interstate 49 was chosen for the name; the current southern terminus of I-49 is located at a cloverleaf interchange with I-10 and US 167 in the southern Louisiana city of Lafayette. Southbound motorists continue through the interchange onto the Evangeline Thruway, which transitions from a limited-access portion of US 167 to a major divided thoroughfare that picks up the US 90 corridor heading through the heart of Lafayette. I-49 begins its journey concurrent with US 167 as it travels northward through Carencro, Grand Coteau, Opelousas. US 167 departs from the interstate's alignment at exit 23 between Opelousas and Washington, I-49 begins to take a northwesterly path through the wooded rural terrain. Various state highways provide access to the small towns and cities located along the parallel US 71 and US 167 corridors, such as Lebeau, Ville Platte and Cheneyville.
After crossing US 167, I-49 travels between US 71 and US 165 into the Alexandria metropolitan area in central Louisiana. I-49 travels through downtown Alexandria doubling as US 71 Byp. and is concurrent with portions of US 167 and LA 28. Major interchanges with US 167 and US 71 lead to bridges that cross the Red River into the neighboring city of Pineville. Continuing northwest from Alexandria, I-49 parallels the Red River and LA 1 through Boyce and passes just west of the historic city of Natchitoches, reached via LA 6 at exit 138. Between Natchitoches and Shreveport, I-49 travels between LA 1 and US 171 and has junctions with US 371 and US 84, connecting with Coushatta and Mansfield, respectively. In Shreveport, the interstate heads directly into the downtown area and terminates at I-20, a route which facilitates eastbound traffic. However, through traffic bound for I-20 west and the northern segment of I-49 is directed to transfer onto LA 3132 at an interchange located about 5.5 miles south of this terminus.
LA 3132 is a western freeway bypass of Shreveport known as the Inner Loop Expressway that becomes I-220 upon intersecting I-20. On the north side of town, motorists may exit I-220 and follow the next segment of I-49, which parallels US 71 into Arkansas; the heaviest traffic on I-49 occurs within the cities of Opelousas. The stretch of freeway in Shreveport sees an average of 70,000 vehicles per day, while the stretch of freeway between Lafayette and Carencro sees an average of 55,000 vehicles per day, the stretch of freeway through Opelousas sees an average of 45,000 vehicles per day between the Judson Walsh Drive and Creswell Lane exits; the southern segment of I-49 enters Arkansas from Louisiana. It progresses northward to a temporary terminus at US 71 and US 59 at the Texas state line north of Texarkana; the northern segment of I-49 in Arkansas signed as part of I-540, begins at I-40 in Alma and runs north to Northwest Arkansas through the Boston Mountains. The freeway passes through steep, sparsely populated terrain before entering the Bobby Hopper Tunnel in Washington County.
Entering Northwest Arkansas, I-49 has seven exits for Fayetteville and three exits for Springdale before entering Benton County. The route serves as the boundary between Bentonville and Rogers, with seven exits for the two cities before terminating at US 71; the roadway continues as a divided highway with stoplights into Bella Vista, although a bypass is under construction. I-49 is designated as the Boston Mountains Scenic Loop between Fayetteville; the I-49 designation replaced the I-540 designation through Northwest Arkansas in March 2014. I-49 begins in Pineville, it passes through several smaller communities before reaching Neosho shortly before Joplin. In Joplin, I-49 junctions with I-44 and begins a short concurrency with I-44 for exits 11 through 18. Just a few miles east of Joplin, I-49 enters Carthage. I-49 passes through Nevada and other communities before reaching the Kansas City area. I-49 intersects with I-470 and I-435, which provides connection to I-70 and I-35 and I-29. In south Kansas City, at Bannister Road just north of the Grandview Triangle, the I-49 designation ends, the expressway continues as US 71, which proceeds into downtown Kansas City as Bruce R. Watkins Memorial Drive.
The original plans for the Interstate Highway System did not include a north–south connection between Interstates 10 and 20 within Louisiana. In 1965, Governor John McKeithen proposed a toll