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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of the European continent. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory, as well as a small area of France and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres, a population of 53 million, it is the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".

The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.

The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. In Greek and Roman antiquity, the name Hesperia was used for both the Iberian Peninsula. Since Roman antiquity, Jews gave the name Sepharad to the Peninsula; as they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania.

Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees; the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the River Ebro. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from the present southern Spain to the present southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian."

Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence near the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown. In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names; the Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals

Wild pitch

In baseball, a wild pitch is charged against a pitcher when his pitch is too high, too short, or too wide of home plate for the catcher to control with ordinary effort, thereby allowing a baserunner even the batter-runner on an uncaught third strike, to advance. A wild pitch passes the catcher behind home plate allowing runners on base an easy chance to advance while the catcher chases the ball down. Sometimes the catcher may block a pitch, the ball may be nearby, but the catcher has trouble finding the ball, allowing runners to advance. A related statistic is the passed ball; as with many baseball statistics, whether a pitch that gets away from a catcher is counted as a wild pitch or a passed ball is at the discretion of the official scorer. The benefit of the doubt is given to the catcher if there is uncertainty. If the pitch was so low as to touch the ground, or so high that the catcher has to jump to get to it, or so wide that the catcher has to lunge for it, it is then considered a wild pitch and not a passed ball.

Because the pitcher and catcher handle the ball much more than other fielders, certain misplays on pitched balls are defined in Rule 10.13 as wild pitches and passed balls. No error shall be charged when passed ball is scored. A wild pitch may only be scored. If the bases are empty, or the catcher retrieves the ball and the runner are unable to advance, a wild pitch is not charged. A scored run due to a wild pitch is recorded. A runner who advances on a wild pitch is not credited with a stolen base unless he breaks before the pitcher begins his delivery. Nolan Ryan is the modern-era leader in the category, throwing 277 wild pitches over his 27 years in Major League Baseball, he led his league in the category in six different seasons. However, the all-time record belongs to Tony Mullane, who threw 343 in the early years of the game from 1881 to 1894. After Ryan's 277, the next pitcher on the list is Mickey Welch 274, followed by Tim Keefe's 233. Bill Stemmyer still holds the single-season record, throwing 63 wild pitches in 1886.

Since 1900, the highest total in a season has been 30. The modern record in a single game is 6, held by three different pitchers. R. A. Dickey, Phil Niekro, Walter Johnson, Kevin Gregg all hold the modern-era regular season single inning wild pitch record with four. Rick Ankiel, threw five wild pitches in the 3rd inning of the first game of the 2000 NLDS. Bert Cunningham of the Players' League in 1890 threw five in an inning. Adam Ottavino on June 26, 2017 set the MLB record of five runs scored on four wild pitches; the current active leader as of July 2019 is Félix Hernández, with 154 wild pitches. The only other active pitchers with 100+ wild pitches are Edwin Jackson with 105 and Francisco Liriano with 100. Baseball Reference – MLB Career Leaders and Records for Wild Pitches Baseball Rules See section 10.13

Sette Comuni

The Sette Comuni are seven comuni that formed a Cimbrian enclave in the Veneto region of north-east Italy. Cimbrian, a dialect of Upper German, was the native tongue, the area was ethnically and culturally diverse from the surrounding comuni; the comuni are on a high plateau northwest of Vicenza. They are: The seven comuni formed together into a loose commonwealth in 1310, they were under the suzerainty of the Milanese House of Visconti and under the Republic of Venice. Under both they enjoyed wide political autonomy in exchange for their loyalty; the autonomous status came to an end with the Napoleonic Wars and the demise of the Serenìsima in 1807. Cimbrian has gone extinct in most of the comuni. Only in Robàan and its district Mittebald/Toballe has Cimbrian survived. Robàan has the cultural institute "Agustin Prunner", a repository of the Cimbrian culture and cooperates with other linguistic enclaves in Lusern, Sappada, the Thirteen Communities and Timau. Vestiges of the once dominant language are family and place names, which are still Cimbrian.

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