Ibiza is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern coast of Spain. It is 150 kilometres from the city of Valencia, it is the third largest of an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest settlements are Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària des Riu, Sant Antoni de Portmany, its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa, is 475 metres above sea level. Ibiza has become well known for its association with nightlife, electronic dance music, for the summer club scene, all of which attract large numbers of tourists drawn to that type of holiday. Several years before 2010, the island's government and the Spanish Tourist Office had been working to promote more family-oriented tourism, with the police closing down clubs that played music at late night hours, but by 2010 this policy was reversed. Around 2015 it was resumed. Ibiza is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ibiza and the nearby island of Formentera to its south are called the Pine Islands, or "Pityuses"; the official Catalan name is Eivissa. Its name in Spanish is Ibiza.

In British English, the name is pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish, whereas in American English the pronunciation is closer to Latin American Spanish. Phoenician colonists called the island Iboshim, it was known to Romans as Ebusus. The Greeks called the two islands of Formentera the Pityoûssai. In the 18th and 19th centuries the island was known to the British and to the Royal Navy as Ivica. In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port on Ibiza. With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage a former Phoenician colony; the island produced dye, fish sauce, wool. A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca, such as Na Guardis, "Na Galera" where numerous Balearic mercenaries hired on, no doubt as slingers, to fight for Carthage.

During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 217 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With the Carthaginian military failing on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used, 205 B. C, by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Menorca and to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions and coinage well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and a brief period of first Vandal and Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors in 902, the few remaining locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers came in. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia—the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community—and the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Dénia during some time.

Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian King Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had conquered the cities of Sintra and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily; the island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235. The local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Majorca and elsewhere, Christians arrived from Girona; the island maintained its own self-government in several forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today, the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca and Formentera. Though known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities.

A notable example includes the Renaissance walls of the old town of Ibiza City which were awarded UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1999. They are one of the world's few Renaissance walls that were not demolished, part of the medieval wall is still visible. At "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay there are some of the more traditional Ibizan cultural sites, such as the remains of the first Phoenician settlement at Sa Caleta. Other sites are still under threat from the developers, such as Ses Feixes Wetlands, but this site has now been recognised as a threatened environment, it is expected that steps will be taken to preserve this wetland. Ibiza is a rock island covering an area of 572.56 square kilometres six times smaller than Majorca, but over five times larger than Mykonos or 10 times larger than Manhattan in New York City. Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pitiusas" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera; the Balearic island chain includes over 50 islands.

The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa known as Sa Talaia or Sa T


Hügelsheim is a western German town across the Rhein River border with French Alsace. Two burial places suggest possible settlements dating back as far as the Bronze Age; the "Heilingenbuck", a princely tomb, dates back to the Hallstattian period the 3rd or 4th century BC. The Romans who occupied the area from 69 to 79 AD built a road leading from Strasburg via Kehl, Hügelsheim, Rastatt and Graben to Neuenheim which gave the village its ribbon-built character. In the 3rd century AD the Romans were driven out by the Alemanni tribes. In a document from 788 intended for the Bonifatius convent in Fulda, Hügelsheim is mentioned for the first time as "Hughilaheim"; the population of Hügelsheim earned their livelihood as farmers and barge men, for centuries there was a weekly market ship traveling to Strasbourg. In 1834 the first steamship on the Rhine rang in the end of the Hügelsheim barge men's guild; the Rhine River has always brought not only benefits but harm to the village, reaching into the most recent history.

The construction of the Iffezheim Lock has caused irreparable damage to pastures and in its wake brought considerable financial disadvantages to the community. A lawsuit against the Federal Government in this matter lasted for nearly a decade. Hügelsheim was granted a 1 million Deutsch Mark compensation for the loss in its industrial gravel pits. Hügelsheim has its own water supply and purification plant, natural gas is supplied by the public utility works of the city of Baden-Baden

Gadag Junction railway station

Gadag Junction is a "B" Category Station under South Western Railway in Gadag district, Karnataka. It serves Gadag-Betageri; the station consists of 3 platforms. The station lies on Guntakal–Vasco da Gama section HDN-7A and as well as it connects Gadag-Hotgi railway line; the Gadag-Hotgi railway line was converted from meter gauge to broad gauge in December 2008. Amenities at Gadag railway station include: computerized reservation office, waiting room, retiring room, free Wi-Fi facility and non-vegetarian refreshments, book stall. In 1881 the Bombay Eastern Deccan Railway was under construction with William Michell the Engineer-in-Charge; this line upon opening became the Bijapur Branch of the Southern Mahratta Railway. The Southern Mahratta Railway was founded in 1882 to construct a metre gauge railway between Hotgi and Gadag, one of the "famine lines" set up with a guarantee. In the same year, it was contracted by the Indian State of Mysore to work the several metre gauge lines that the Mysore State had built or was in the course of construction.

In 1888, a line was extended from Londa towards the Portuguese colony of Goa where it connected with the Marmagao line at Castle Rock. By 1890, this line extended from Londa eastwards via Guntakal to Bezwada, northwards to Poona, turning the SMR from an assortment of branches to a real railway network. In 1908, the SMR merged with the Madras Railway to form the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway In August 2017, Ministry of railways had sanctioned 56 km of rail line between Gadag Jn and Yalvigi. In the year 2013-14, Ministry of railways had sanctioned 252 km of rail line between Gadag Jn and Wadi Jn Physical Survey completed and Report is under preparation Survey for Conducting Reconnaissance Engineering cum Traffic Survey for new line between Gadag to Krishnar via Kotumachagi, Gajendragarh, Hanumapur and Lingasugur. Gadag-Hotgi Rail Doubling is sanctioned in the year 2014-15 Doubling for part length of this project, i.e. from Hotgi-Kudgi is taken up under Customer Funding Model. For this purpose NTPC have deposited Rs.946 cr. with Railway.

New Crossing station @ Kudgi with 4 lines for giving connectivity to NTPC was commissioned on 29.01.2017. Work is in progress in the section between Minchinal-Lachyan is targeted for commissioning during 2017-18. Gadag-Hotgi Section is sanctioned for Electrification and tenders are floated for the same. Gadag Junction will be Complete Double Electric Line Station as Hospet- Vasco Da Gama rail line getting Doubled & Electrified in phases. Hospet -Hubli-Londa-Vasco-da-gama DL sanctioned in the year 2010-11; this project is being executed by RVNL. So far 67 km. has been commissioned. Further 36 km is targeted for commissioning in 2017-18. Hospet-Tinai ghat Rail Electrification Tender is floated. Trains those run through/From Gadag Junction are: Amaravati Quarterly Express-Vasco to Howrah Gol Gumbaz Express Haripriya Express Hampi Express Hubballi - Secunderabad Express Hubballi - Varanasi Weekly Express Hubli- LTT weekly Express Amaravati Express Barmer-Yasvantpur AC Weekly Express Yesvantpur–Bikaner Express Mumbai CSMT - Gadag Express* Solapur - Hubballi Intercity Express Vasco Da Gama -Tirupati Weekly Express Vasco Da Gama -Hyderabad Weekly Express Kacheguda - Hubballi Prasanti Nilayam Triweekly Express Manuguru - CSMT Kolhapur Express Mysuru - Sainagar Shirdi Weekly Express Kacheguda - Vasco Da Gama Quarterly Express Ajmer - Bengaluru City Garib Nawaz weekly Express Bhagat Ki Kothi−Bangalore City Express Tirupati/Hyderabad- Vasco Da Gama Weekly Express Solapur - Gadag DEMU Passenger Solapur - Dharwad Passenger Vijayapura - Hubballi Passenger Ballari - Dharwad Passenger Tirupati - Hubballi Fast Passenger Hubballi - Vijayawada Passenger Chikkabenakal - Hubli Fast Passenger