Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun was a leading Tunisian Muslim historiographer and historian. He is considered as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology and demography, he is best known for the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena. The book influenced 17th-century Ottoman historians like Kâtip Çelebi, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and Mustafa Naima, who used its theories to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire. 19th-century European scholars acknowledged the significance of the book and considered Ibn Khaldun to be one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages. Ibn Khaldun's life is well-documented, as he wrote an autobiography in which numerous documents regarding his life are quoted word-for-word. Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun known as "Ibn Khaldūn" after a remote ancestor, was born in Tunis in AD 1332 into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent, the family's ancestor was a Yemeni Arab who shared kinship with Waíl ibn Hujr, a companion of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

His family, which held many high offices in Andalusia, had emigrated to Tunisia after the fall of Seville to the Reconquista in AD 1248. Under the Tunisian Hafsid dynasty, some of his family held political office, his brother, Yahya Khaldun, was a historian who wrote a book on the Abdalwadid dynasty and was assassinated by a rival for being the official historiographer of the court. In his autobiography, Khaldun traces his descent back to the time of Muhammad through an Arab tribe from Yemen the Hadhramaut, which came to the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century, at the beginning of the Islamic conquest: "And our ancestry is from Hadhramaut, from the Arabs of Yemen, via Wa'il ibn Hujr known as Hujr ibn'Adi, from the best of the Arabs, well-known and respected.". However, the biographer Mohammad Enan questions his claim and suggests that his family may have been Muladis who pretended to be of Arab origin to gain social status. Enan mentions a well-documented past tradition that certain Berber groups delusively "aggrandize" themselves with some Arab ancestry.

The motive of such inventions was always the desire for societal ascendancy. Some speculate that of the Khaldun family and elaborate that Ibn Khaldun himself was the product of the same Berber ancestry as the native majority of his birthplace. A point supporting that posits that his unusual focus on and admiration of Maharlika Berbers reveals a deference towards them, born of a vested interest in preserving them in the realm of conscious history. Islamic scholar Muhammad Hozien contends, "The false identity would be valid however at the time that Ibn Khaldun's ancestors left Andulsia and moved to Tunisia they did not change their claim to Arab ancestry. In the times when Berbers were ruling, the reigns of Al-Marabats and al-Mowahids, et. al. the Ibn Khalduns did not reclaim their Berber heritage." Khaldun's tracing of his own genealogy and surname are thought to be the strongest indication of Arab Yemenite ancestry. His family's high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with the best teachers in Maghreb.

He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Quran, which he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics. He received certification for all of those subjects; the mathematician and philosopher Al-Abili of Tlemcen introduced him to mathematics and philosophy, he studied the works of Averroes, Avicenna and Tusi. At the age of 17, Ibn Khaldūn lost both his parents to the Black Death, an intercontinental epidemic of the plague that hit Tunis in 1348–1349. Following family tradition, he strove for a political career. In the face of a tumultuous political situation in North Africa, that required a high degree of skill in developing and dropping alliances prudently to avoid falling with the short-lived regimes of the time. Ibn Khaldūn's autobiography is the story of an adventure, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile. At the age of 20, he began his political career in the chancellery of the Tunisian ruler Ibn Tafrakin with the position of Kātib al-'Alāmah, which consisted of writing in fine calligraphy the typical introductory notes of official documents.

In 1352, Abū Ziad, the sultan of Constantine, defeated it. Ibn Khaldūn, in any case unhappy with his respected but politically meaningless position, followed his teacher Abili to Fez. There, the Marinid sultan, Abū Inan Fares I, appointed him as a writer of royal proclamations, but Ibn Khaldūn still schemed against his employer, which, in 1357, got the 25-year-old a 22-month prison sentence. Upon the death of Abū Inan in 1358, Vizier al-Hasān ibn-Umar granted him freedom and reinstated him to his rank and offices. Ibn Khaldūn schemed against Abū Inan's successor, Abū Salem Ibrahim III, with Abū Salem's exiled uncle, Abū Salem; when Abū Salem came to power, he gave Ibn Khaldūn a ministerial position, the first position to correspond with Ibn Khaldūn's ambitions. The treatment that Ibn Khaldun received after the fall of Abū Salem through Ibn-Amar ʻAbdullah, a friend of Ibn Khaldūn's, was not to his liking, as he received no significant official

Cameron Price

Cameron Price is an Australian journalist, a reporter with Seven News in Sydney. He was a Sydney reporter for Sky News Australia and a Brisbane reporter for Nine News. Price obtained a Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Queensland and early in his career worked as a reporter for WIN Television in Toowoomba as well as Nine News in Brisbane. In 2011 Price was nominated for the Walkley Young Australian Journalist of the Year award, his career at Nine News Queensland came to a controversial end, when he was sacked along with two others for his involvement in the faking of a live news cross during a news bulletin. The event which became known as "choppergate" saw news presenter Eva Milic cross to Price, in a helicopter reported to be "near Beerwah", however it emerged the helicopter was on a Nine Network helipad in Mt Coot-Tha 90 kilometres away. Price began legal action against Nine, however the two parties settled out of court. Price had been due to move to Sydney to take up a position with the Nine Network in the week he was sacked.

Price joined Sky News in 2011 as a producer, before accepting a role as on-air Sydney reporter. Price left Sky News in the following month joined Seven News as a reporter, he occasionally files reports for Sunrise. Cameron Price on Youtube

Azokh Cave

The Azokh Cave or Azykh Cave is a six-cave complex known as a habitation site of prehistoric humans. It lies near to the village of Azokh in Nagorno-Karabakh; the cave was discovered by the "Palaeolithic Archaeological Expedition" of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Mammadali Huseynov in 1960 and is considered to be the site of one of the most ancient locations of proto-human presence in Eurasia. A Neanderthal-like jaw bone found in 1968 is assumed to be over 300,000 years old and thus one of the oldest proto-human remains found in central Asia, its discovery gave rise to the term Azykh Man. Archaeologists have suggested that the finds from the lowest layers are of a pre-Acheulean culture, that resembles the Olduwan culture named after Tanzania's Olduvai Gorge in many respects; the poor quality of the 1960s excavation, in which no taphonomic data was collected, led to uncertainties over the chronological sequence of the layers. Excavations resumed in the mid 1990s.

In 2002 an international research team headed by Tanya King discovered undisturbed entrances to the cave as well as fauna and stone tools. Fossil assemblages recovered from the excavations between 2002 and 2009 found Pleistocene-era remains of bears accumulated as a result of hibernation, but no evidence for simultaneous occupation of the cave by bears and hominins. Other faunal remains herbivores, had been brought to the cave by hominins, but butchering had taken place somewhere else, not at the rear of the cave where the remains were found; when cave sediments reached close to the cave roof, the cave ceased to be used by hominins. During the Holocene, the upper sediments were eroded by water, opening up the cave to renewed human use; the cave is now considered to have housed some of the earliest groups of proto-humans in Eurasia. Using uranium isotopes as a speleothem dating method, the minimum date for the formation of the cave, thus the earliest hominid deposits, have been dated to 1.19 ±0.08 million years.

Archaeological layers registered in the Azykh Paleolithic Cave during archaeological excavations are as follows: The first layer is composed of black sediments, sometimes yellow mixed soil. During the archaeological excavations, clay dishes belonging to medieval times were found. During the archaeological excavations carried out in 1962-1965, parts of clay dishes belonging to the Middle Ages, Bronze Age and Eneolithic period were found. However, during archaeological excavations in subsequent years, the material remains belonging to the Eneolithic period were not registered; the total thickness of the layer was 77–125 cm. consists of light-yellowish clay soil. During the archeological investigations, piece of individual rock and clay dishes were registered inside the layer. Clay dishes has belonged to medieval and Eneolithic periods; the total thickness of the layer was 90-180 sm. The third layer consists of gray soil. According to different features, three stratums were identified in third layer during the archeological excavations conducted between 1973 and 1974: The first stratum consists of dark-gray soil.

Parts of small rock are found inside of stratum. For the first time, stone products and hunted animal bones belonging to Mousterian were found in this stratum; the second stratum consists of clay soil. Inside the stratum, rock fractures falling from the ceiling of the cave were registered. At the same time, several large rock stones were discovered inside the stratum; the third stratum consists of light gray clay rocks. The lower part of the stratum consists of yellow soil. During the archeological excavations conducted in 1973 for the first time, 20 tools like axe belonging to Mousterian were found in the lower stratum of the third layer; these were the one of the rarest findings of the Mousterian excavations, because these tools were characterising Acheulean period. The overall thickness of the third stratum was 90–145 cm; the fourth layer consists of dark-brown clay soil. There are small rock fractures on the strata; these fractures are made of stalagmites, stalagmitic pieces. No material culture examples from the fourth layer have been registered until the 1973 archaeological excavations.

However, during the archeological excavations carried out in 1973, several stone items and hunted animal bones belonging to the last Acheulean were found in the fourth layer. The total thickness of the layer reaches 1-1.2 m. The fifth layer consists of yellow soil; the richest and thickest sediment in the stratigraphy of the Azykh cave is in the fifth layer. During the 1963-1969 and 1971–1986 years according to archeological excavations carried out on the fifth layer, numerous hunted animal bones and 300 pieces of stone were found. In the fifth layer of the Azykh cave, which has the richest stratigraphy within the Greater Caucasus paleolithic caves, fireplaces for cooking, primary building installations and saved bear skulls were found. In the entire research season, the following smaller stratum were discovered in the fifth layer: The first stratum consists of dark-brown clay soil. In addition to archeological findings, rock fractures have been found; the thickness of the stratum is 30–43 cm.

The second stratum consists of light-brown clay soil. Stones products and fauna remains; the thickness of the stratum was 28–44 cm. The third stratum consists of light-yellow clay soil. During the archaeological excavations, plenty of hunted animal bones were found along with stone products; the thickness of the stratum was 48–62 cm. The fourth stratum consists of dark yellow clay soil. Along with archaeological materials, small rock fractures h