click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ibn al-Haytham

Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham was an Arab mathematician and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age. Sometimes referred to as "the father of modern optics", he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular, his most influential work being his Kitāb al-Manāẓir, written during 1011–1021, which survived in the Latin edition. A polymath, he wrote on philosophy and medicine. Ibn al-Haytham was the first to explain that vision occurs when light reflects from an object and passes to one's eyes, he was the first to demonstrate that vision occurs in the brain, rather than in the eyes. Further, he was an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be supported by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence—thusly, coming to an understanding of the scientific method, though pioneered by Aristotle in ancient Greece, came five centuries before Renaissance scientists. Born in Basra, he spent most of his productive period in the Fatimid capital of Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises and tutoring members of the nobilities.

Ibn al-Haytham is sometimes given the byname al-Baṣrī after his birthplace, or al-Miṣrī. Al-Haytham was dubbed the "Second Ptolemy" by Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi and "The Physicist" by John Peckham. Ibn al-Haytham paved the way for the modern science of physical optics. Ibn al-Haytham was born c. 965 to an Arab family in Basra, at the time part of the Buyid emirate. He held a position with the title vizier in his native Basra, made a name for himself for his knowledge of applied mathematics; as he claimed to be able to regulate the flooding of the Nile, he was invited to by Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim in order to realise a hydraulic project at Aswan. However, Ibn al-Haytham was forced to concede the impracticability of his project. Upon his return to Cairo, he was given an administrative post. After he proved unable to fulfill this task as well, he contracted the ire of the caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, is said to have been forced into hiding until the caliph's death in 1021, after which his confiscated possessions were returned to him.

Legend was kept under house arrest during this period. During this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics. Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, lived from the proceeds of his literary production until his death in c. 1040. Among his students were Sorkhab, a Persian from Semnan, Abu al-Wafa Mubashir ibn Fatek, an Egyptian prince. Alhazen's most famous work is his seven-volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir, written from 1011 to 1021. Optics was translated into Latin by an unknown scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century, it was printed by Friedrich Risner in 1572, with the title Opticae thesaurus: Alhazeni Arabis libri septem, nuncprimum editi. Risner is the author of the name variant "Alhazen"; this work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. Works by Alhazen on geometric subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sedillot. In all, A. Mark Smith has accounted for 18 full or near-complete manuscripts, five fragments, which are preserved in 14 locations, including one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, one in the library of Bruges.

Two major theories on vision prevailed in classical antiquity. The first theory, the emission theory, was supported by such thinkers as Euclid and Ptolemy, who believed that sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light; the second theory, the intromission theory supported by Aristotle and his followers, had physical forms entering the eye from an object. Previous Islamic writers had argued on Euclidean, Galenist, or Aristotelian lines; the strongest influence on the Book of Optics was from Ptolemy's Optics, while the description of the anatomy and physiology of the eye was based on Galen's account. Alhazen's achievement was to come up with a theory that combined parts of the mathematical ray arguments of Euclid, the medical tradition of Galen, the intromission theories of Aristotle. Alhazen's intromission theory followed al-Kindi in asserting that "from each point of every colored body, illuminated by any light, issue light and color along every straight line that can be drawn from that point".

This however left him with the problem of explaining how a coherent image was formed from many independent sources of radiation. What Alhazen needed was for each point on an object to correspond to one point only on the eye, he attempted to resolve this by asserting that the eye would only perceive perpendicular rays from the object—for any one point on the eye, only the ray that reached it directly, without being refracted by any other part of the eye, would be perceived. He argued, using a physical analogy, that perpendicular rays were stronger than oblique rays: in the same way that a ball thrown directly at a board might break the board, whereas a ball thrown obliquely at the board would glance off, perpendicula

Al-Mahdi Abbas

Al-Mahdi Abbas was an Imam of Yemen who ruled in 1748–1775. He belonged to the Qasimid family, descended from the Prophet Muhammad, which dominated the Zaidi imamate of Yemen in 1597–1962. Abbas bin al-Husayn was the son of the Imam al-Mansur al-Husayn II; when the father died in 1748, his son Ali was expected to succeed to the imamate. However, the mother of Abbas, an African slave, prepared the way for her own son. With the help of an influential qadi, the soldiery and principal governors were made to accept Abbas as the new imam, he took. Ali was put in confinement and died in 1759. According to his younger contemporary, the renowned scholar Muhammad ash-Shawkani, al-Mahdi Abbas possessed an excellent character, being intelligent, diplomatic and just, with a good disposition to scholars, he abolished several abuses, such as irregular impositions. Among the Qasimid imams, he appears to have come closest to the Zaidi ideal of the imam as a pious and generous warrior-king; the German explorer in Danish service, Carsten Niebuhr, visited Yemen in 1762-1763 at the head of a scientific expedition.

He met al-Mahdi Abbas whom he described in racialist terms: "Had it not been for some negro traits, his countenance might have been thought a good one". The imam wore green robes with flowing sleeves, embroidered with gold lace. On his head he wore a large turban. Niebuhr and the other Europeans were permitted to kiss his robe. In a subsequent interview, Niebuhr was allowed to show the imam their scientific instruments, al-Mahdi Abbas posed several questions about European manners and learning. Niebuhr relates that the minister of the king's court, who held the title of nasi of the Jewish community and comptroller of the customs, as well as surveyor-general of the royal buildings and gardens, Rabbi Shalom Cohen ʿIraqi, known as al-ʾOusṭā, fell into disrepute with the king and was imprisoned for two years in 1761 after having served under two kings for twenty-eight years; that same year, the king demolished twelve synagogues out of a total of fourteen in the city of Sana'a. Rabbi Shalom Cohen ʿIraqi was released only after paying a high ransom.

At the same time, writs issuing from the king forbade Jews in the city from building their houses higher than fourteen cubits. As for the king's jurisdiction over outlying districts, Niebuhr related that a number of areas in Yemen were autonomous or independent of imamic rule by this time: Aden under its own ruler. Kawkaban under a Sayyid lord; the Hashid and Bakil tribes under several shaykhs in a confederation. Abu Arish under a Sharif. Khawlan or Bani Amir under a shaykh. Sa'dah under a Sayyid and some independent shaykhs. Najran under the Makrami. Qahtan. Nihim. Khawlan east of San'a under four independent shaykhs. Jawf or Marib under a Sharif and independent shaykhs. Yafa under the sultans of Rassas-Maidabah and Qarah. Al-Mahdi Abbas preserved the shrunk borders of the Zaidi state vigorously, his reign was punctuated by a series of internal conflicts. In spite of the autonomous position of the Hashid and Bakil tribes, the imam kept several regiments of tribesmen, paid them better than others. In 1750 a certain magician Ahmad al-Hasani attacked Hashid and Bakil forts but was slain.

In 1759 a raid by Bakil tribesmen was defeated, as was a revolt by Barat tribes in 1770. Religious opposition to the imam's rule surfaced in 1768; some qadis propagated revolt against the imam's governors since the people of San'a acted in a heretic way. They did not gain a following, however. In San'a itself, the scarcity of corn caused a rebellion in 1772. Al-Mahdi Abbas led a force. At his help he had a French renegade of military experience; the account of Niebuhr testifies to the relative economic decline of the Zaidi state. While the revenue in the 17th century had been as much as 830,000 riyals per year, it decreased drastically to 300,000 under the reign of al-Mansur al-Husayn II. Under al-Mahdi Abbas the annual revenue again rose to 500,000 riyals, still far below the record years before the 1720s, conditioned by the lucrative coffee trade. Al-Mahdi Abbas was a wealthy prince, who erected several public buildings and mosques in San'a. Al-Mahdi Abbas died in 1775, the imamate was claimed by his son al-Mansur Ali I.

Imams of Yemen History of Yemen Husain ibn Abdullah al-Amri, The Yemen in the 18th and 19th Centuries. London 1985

Gunns Loop

Gunns Loop is a station and turning loop at the western terminus of the 512 St. Clair streetcar line of the Toronto Transit Commission, it is located at the northwest corner of St. Clair Avenue West and Gunns Road, a block west of Keele Street, in Toronto. Prior to construction of the dedicated right-of-way, the terminus of the 512 St. Clair route had been at the Keele Loop, just north of St. Clair Avenue where Weston Road merges with Keele Street; the loop is named for nearby Gunns Road, which in turn is named after Gunns Limited, a West Toronto abattoir founded by Donald Gunn. The old loop was closed and service began to the new loop in 1981. Signs on westbound 512 St. Clair streetcars still indicate Keele as the destination, when they are coming to Gunns. A small building provides washroom facilities for TTC operators. There is a platform and upgraded new design shelter for people waiting for streetcars, while bus passengers have a regular bus shelter; as well as being the terminus for the 512 St. Clair streetcar, the loop is served by a bus route called 189 Stockyards which provides service farther west along St. Clair Avenue to Scarlett Road and south on Keele Street to Keele and High Park subway stations.

Media related to Gunns Loop at Wikimedia Commons Extend the 512 Streetcar to Jane Street "New Addition to Gunn's Loop". Councillor Frances Nunziata. 8 October 2013. Today the TTC completed the installation of a new sign at Gunn’s Loop identifying the St. Clair West Village Area; this sign was requested back when the loop was under construction and I am pleased to see that it has been installed

Mark Godbeer

Mark Godbeer is an English bare-knuckle boxer and former mixed martial artist. A professional MMA competitor from 2009 until 2018, he competed for the UFC, Bellator MMA, Absolute Championship Akhmat, BAMMA, he is the former BAMMA Heavyweight Champion. In bare-knuckle boxing, he is a heavyweight champion for the Valor Bare Knuckle promotion. Starting training in MMA late at the age of 25, Godbeer ran his own plastering business before focusing on mixed martial arts. Godbeer made his professional MMA debut on 7 August 2009 with a TKO victory over Sam Hooker. While fighting for numerous regional promotions, he amassed a record of 7-1 with all victories coming by way of knockout or submission. Following this, he was signed by BAMMA in 2012 to compete in their heavyweight division. Between March 2012 and May 2016, Godbeer would remain undefeated in the BAMMA cage. During this time, he signed on with Bellator MMA and would make a single appearance for the promotion, facing notable heavyweight Cheick Kongo on 4 October 2013 at Bellator 102.

Following that loss, Godbeer would claim three straight victories in BAMMA, including winning the heavyweight title against Paul Taylor on 13 June 2015. During this run he would announce a brief retirement from MMA due to injury, but ended that retirement in May 2016 to defend the BAMMA heavyweight title. Godbeer signed with the UFC in September 2016, he made his promotional debut on 19 November 2016 against Justin Ledet at UFC Fight Night 99. He would lose the bout via submission in the first round. Godbeer was expected to face Todd Duffee on 4 March 2017, at UFC 209. However, Duffee pulled out of the fight in mid-February for undisclosed reasons, he was replaced by promotional newcomer Daniel Spitz. Godbeer got his first ufc win under coach Brian Martin Gallacher and the Scottish hit squad team by unanimous decision. Godbeer was expected to face Walt Harris on 7 October 2017 at UFC 216 before a fight-day injury to Derrick Lewis took him out of his scheduled fight with Fabricio Werdum; as a result, Harris was moved on to face Werdum, Godbeer was pulled from the event.

The bout with Harris was rescheduled for 4 November 2017 at UFC 217. Godbeer won the fight via disqualification after Harris hit Godbeer with a head kick following the referee called a time out due to a groin strike. Godbeer was expected to face promotional newcomer Dmitry Poberezhets on 17 March 2018 at UFC Fight Night 127. However, it was announced on 25 January 2018 Poberezhets was injured and he was replaced by Dmitriy Sosnovskiy. Godbeer lost the fight via submission in the second round. Godbeer was scheduled to face Luis Henrique in his return to light heavyweight division on September 22, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 137. However, Godbeer pulled out of the fight in early August citing injury and was replaced by promotional newcomer Ryan Spann. On September 25, 2018, Godbeer announced his retirement. Mark Godbeer, while retired from MMA, transitioned over to bare-knuckle boxing and entered Ken Shamrock's newly founded Valor Bare Knuckle for its debut event, VKB: 1. Godbeer knocked out BAMMA veteran Jack "The Outlaw" May.

Goddbeer knocked May out in less than a minute. He faced current Road FC Open-weight Champion Mighty Mo in the main event for the tournament championship. Godbeer defeated Mo when after a series of punches Mo was knocked down and unable to get up in time for the 10 count, winning the VKB tournament. BAMMA BAMMA Heavyweight Championship Valor Bare Knuckle VKB:1 Heavyweight Tournament Winner List of current UFC fighters List of male mixed martial artists List of male kickboxers Official UFC Profile Professional MMA record for Mark Godbeer from Sherdog

Henry, Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg

Henry, Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg was the son of Margrave Rudolf I of Hachberg-Sausenberg and his wife Agnes, the daughter and heiress of Otto of Rötteln. In 1312, when he was still a minor, he inherited his father's possessions. After he came of age in 1315, his uncle Lüthold II of Röttlen gave him the Lordship of Rötteln. Lüthold II died in 1316. Henry died young, in 1318, at the age of 18. After his death, his younger brothers Rudolf II and Otto took up the reign of the Lordships Rötteln and Sausenberg. Margraviate of Baden List of rulers of Baden Fritz Schülin: Rötteln-Haagen, Beiträge zur Orts-, Landschafts- und Siedlungsgeschichte, Lörrach, 1965, p. 65 Karl Seith: Die Burg Rötteln im Wandel ihrer Herrengeschlechter, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte und Baugeschichte der Burg, Röttelbund e. V. Haagen, p. 6. 3, issue 1, 1931"

Ruben Varona

Ruben Varona is a Colombian author and literary critic, specialized in crime and historical fiction. Born in Popayán, he teaches in the Department of Portuguese at Miami University, he has a Ph. D. in Hispanic Literature from Texas Tech University, a bilingual M. F. A. in Creative Writing from the University of Texas at El Paso. He is the co-founder of the Revista Cultural La Mandrágora in Popayán, his deep interest in crime fiction has gained him recognition, being elected Vice-President for Latin American of the International Association of Crime Writers AIEP-IACW. Rubén Varona's writing explores the potential for individual resistance, his literary and academic work reveal structural problems in fictional societies raising awareness of conflicting perspectives of social justice. For example, his coauthored novel La secta de los asesinos, approaches today’s terrorism from a historical perspective that humanizes the political and religious tensions between East and West; this work was a finalist for the Premio Planeta-Casa de América award, the media credited it for anticipating to the foundation of the Islamic State.

Varona’s writing style uses the brutality and crime to expose the dark skeleton of reality, to reveal the ugliness implicit in our canon of beauty. For example, about his novel La hora del cheesecake, the critic has highlighted the “intensity of language that forces the reader to place themselves in different planes and levels for the reconfiguration of both time and discourse”, how it masterfully mixes the high and low culture, as well as the thriller and the corrosive satire without using the Anglo-Saxon models, he has been chosen for several collections and anthologies of short stories: “Hospital psiquiátrico” en Desierto en escarlata: cuentos criminales de Ciudad Juárez. “Meninas Club” en Short Story anthology: Latein-Amerika, “Punto Negro” en Céfiro: Enlace Hispano Cultural y Literario, “Der Lackierte Spazierstock” en Crime fiction anthology: Zurich, Ausfahrt Mord. Switzerland. “El olor de los jazmines” en Rio Grande Review, “Un vuelo de algo con alas de polvo.” Señales de Ruta. Antología del cuento colombiano.

“Los restos del patriarca” en El Fungible. Especial de relatos para España y América Latina. and “Cábala en re menor” in the anthology Al filo de las palabras. La secta de los asesinos La hora del cheesecake El sastre de las sombras Espérame desnuda entre los alacranes www.rubenvarona.com News about the novel El sastre de las sombras International Association of Crime Writers – AIEP