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Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire

Ibrahim was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Istanbul the son of Ahmed I by Valide Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek named Anastasia, he was called Ibrahim the Mad by 20th-century historians due to his reputed mental condition. Ibrahim was born on 5 November 1615, the son of Sultan Ahmed I and his favorite concubine who became his legal wife, Kösem Sultan; when Ibrahim was 2, his father died, Ibrahim's uncle Mustafa I became the new sultan. By that time, Kosem Sultan and her children, including young Ibrahim had been sent to the Old Palace. After the succession of his brother Murad IV, Ibrahim was confined in the Kafes, which affected his health. Ibrahim's other brothers Şehzade Bayezid, Şehzade Suleiman and Şehzade Kasım had been executed by the order of Sultan Murad IV, because of that Ibrahim feared that he was next in the line. However, after his brother's death, Ibrahim became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. One of the most notorious Ottoman Sultans, Ibrahim spent all of his early life in the close confinement of the Kafes before succeeding his brother Murad IV in 1640.

Four of his brothers had been executed by Murad, Ibrahim lived in terror of being the next to die. His life was saved only by the intercession of mother of Ibrahim and Murad. After Murad's death, Ibrahim was left the sole surviving prince of the dynasty. Upon being asked by Grand Vizier Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pasha to assume the Sultanate, Ibrahim suspected Murad was still alive and plotting to trap him, it took the combined persuasion of Kösem and the Grand Vizier, personal examination of his brother's dead body, to make Ibrahim accept the throne. Kara Mustafa Pasha remained as Grand Vizier during the first four years of Ibrahim’s reign, keeping the Empire stable. With the treaty of Szön he renewed peace with Austria and during the same year recovered Azov from the Cossacks. Kara Mustafa stabilized the currency with coinage reform, sought to stabilize the economy with a new land-survey, reduced the number of Janissaries, removed non-contributing members from the state payrolls, curbed the power of disobedient provincial governors.

During these years, Ibrahim showed concern with properly ruling the empire, as shown in his handwritten communications with the Grand Vizier. Kara Mustafa in turn wrote a memo on public affairs to coach his inexperienced master. Ibrahim’s replies to Kara Mustafa's reports show he had received a good education. Ibrahim traveled in disguise, inspecting the markets of Istanbul and ordering the Grand Vizier to correct any problems he observed. Ibrahim was distracted by recurring headaches and attacks of physical weakness caused by the trauma of his early years. Since he was the only surviving male member of the Ottoman dynasty, Ibrahim was encouraged by his mother Kösem Sultan to distract himself with harem girls and soon fathered three future sultans: Mehmed IV, Suleiman II and Aḥmed II; the distractions of the harem allowed Kösem Sultan to gain power and rule in his name, yet she fell victim to the Sultan's disfavor and left the Imperial Palace. Ibrahim came under the influence of favorite harem ladies such as mistress of the imperial harem Şekerpare Hatun and the charlatan Cinci Hoca, who pretended to cure the Sultan's physical ailments.

The latter, along with his allies Silahdar Yusuf Agha and Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha, enriched themselves with bribes and usurped enough power to secure the execution of Grand Vizier Ḳara Muṣṭafā. Cinci Hoca became Kadiasker of Anatolia, Yusuf Agha was made Kapudan Pasha and Sultanzade Mehmed became Grand Vizier. In 1644, Maltese corsairs seized a ship carrying high-status pilgrims to Mecca. Since the pirates had docked in Crete, Kapudan Yusuf Pasha encouraged Ibrahim to invade the island; this began a long war with Venice that lasted 24 years—Crete would not fall under Ottoman domination until 1669. In spite of the decline of La Serenissima, Venetian ships won victories throughout the Aegean, capturing Tenedos and blockading the Dardanelles. Kapudan Yusuf enjoyed temporary success in conquering Canea, starting a jealous rivalry with the Grand Vizier that led to his execution and the Grand Vizier's deposition. With his cronies in power, Ibrahim's extravagant tendencies went unchecked, he raised eight concubines to the favored position of haseki, granting land.

After marrying the concubine Telli Haseki, he ordered the palace of Ibrahim Pasha to be carpeted in sable furs and given to her. Mass discontent was caused by the Venetian blockade of the Dardanelles—which created scarcities in the capital—and the imposition of heavy taxes during a war economy to pay for Ibrahim's whims. In 1647 the Grand Vizier Salih Pasha, Kösem Sultan, the şeyhülislam Abdürrahim Efendi unsuccessfully plotted to depose the sultan and replace him with one of his sons. Salih Pasha was executed and Kösem Sultan was exiled from the harem; the next year the members of the ulema revolted. On 8 August 1648, corrupt Grand Vizier Aḥmed Pasha was strangled and torn to shreds by an angry mob, gaining the posthumous nickname "Hezarpare". On the same day, Ibrahim was imprisoned in Topkapı Palace. Kösem gave consent to her son's fall, saying "In the end he will leave neither me alive. We will lose control of the government; the whole society is in ruins. Have him removed from the throne immediately."Ibrahim's six-year-old son Meḥmed was made sultan.

The new grand vizier, Ṣofu Meḥmed Pasha, petitioned the sheikh ul-Islam for a fatwā sanctioning Ibrahim's execution. It was grant

Donte Grantham

Donte Grantham is an American basketball player for the Agua Caliente Clippers of the NBA G League. He played college basketball for Clemson University. Grantham competed for the Clemson Tigers, averaging 8.8 points per game as a freshman and 10.2 points per game as a sophomore. His scoring fell to 7.3 points per game as a junior. He averaged 6.9 rebounds per game as a senior. Grantham suffered a torn ACL in a game against Notre Dame on January 21, 2018, prematurely ending his college career. After going undrafted in the 2018 NBA draft, Grantham signed with the Oklahoma City Thunder on October 10, 2018, but was waived two days later. Grantham was included in the training camp roster of the Oklahoma City Blue. After beginning his professional career with the Oklahoma City Blue of the NBA G League, Grantham was signed to a two-way contract by the Oklahoma City Thunder on December 28, 2018. Grantham made his NBA debut with the Thunder on February 7, 2019, playing in only two minutes of action under a blowout 117–95 win over the Memphis Grizzlies.

On July 25, 2019, Grantham was waived by the Oklahoma City Thunder. For the 2019–20 season, Grantham joined the Agua Caliente Clippers of the G League. Clemson Tigers bio

Vinod Kapoor

Vinod Kapoor is an Indian film actor who works in Hindi cinema and TV serials. He played the role of Dushasana in the Indian TV serial Mahabharat and essayed the role of Vibhishana in the TV serial Vishnu Puran and Ramayan. Vinod Kapoor first appeared in the 1988 Salim Khan and Huma Khan starrer; the movie by itself is little known. It was his second project, he played the role of Dushasana in BR Chopra's Mahabharat. After this he had a steady job in TV serials, most notably BR Chopra's Kanoon in which he played the role of Inspector Shakti Singh, appearing in a good number of episodes. Kapoor is known for his essaying of the role of Vibhishana in the 2008 TV series Ramayan by Sagar Arts as well as in the 2000 TV series Vishnu Puran. 1988 Yeh Pyar Nahin 2004 Alibaba Aur 40 Chor 2010 Rokkk 2013 Mahabharat Aur Barbareek as Dushasana 1988 Mahabharat as Dushasana 1993 Kanoon as Inspector Shakti Singh 1996 Chandrakanta as Barkat Khan/Amarjeet Singh 1996 Yug as Ranjit Basu 1997 Mahabharat Katha as Dushasana 1997 Gul Sanobar 1999 Jai Ganesha as Indra 1999 Jai Mata Ki as Chikshur 2000 Vishnu Puran as Vibishana 2001 Maha Kavya Mahabharat as Drona 2006 Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan 2006 Raavan as Gauthama/Agasthya 2008 Ramayan as Vibishana 2011 Kaala Saaya 2011 Kahani Chandrakanta Ki as Chandilal User talk: Hansi jat 2016 Siya Ke Ram as Sumantra Vinod Kapoor on IMDb Vinod Kapoor on YouTube Vinod Kapoor's Still From Mahabharat Vinod Kapoor Mentioned in TOI Nirbhay Wadhwa Talks About Vinod Kapoor


Pomatiopsidae is a family of small freshwater snails, that have gills and an operculum, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Truncatelloidea. Pomatiopsidae are well known as intermediate hosts of Asian schistosomes. Species in the family Pomatiopsidae occur worldwide; the generic diversity of Pomatiopsinae is high in the Japanese Archipelago, where four of the eight genera, including two endemics, are recorded. The subfamily Triculinae radiated as aquatic snails in freshwater habitats in Southeast Asia; the American malacologist William Stimpson first defined this taxon as Pomatiopsinae in 1865. Stimpson's diagnosis reads as follows: The family Pomatiopsidae consists of 2 subfamilies that follows classification by Davis: Subfamily Pomatiopsinae Stimpson, 1865 - synonyms: Hemibiinae Heude, 1890. Genera within the family Pomatiopsidae include: Spiripockia Simone, 2012 Subfamily Pomatiopsinae Blanfordia Adams, 1863 Cecina A. Adams, 1861 Coxiella E. A. Smith, 1894 Floridiscrobs Pilsbry and McGinty, 1949 Fukuia Abbott & Hunter, 1949 Hemibia Heude, 1890 (species type: Oncomelania hupensis Gredler, 1881 Idiopyrgus Pilsbry, 1911 - synonym: Aquidauania Davis, 1979 Oncomelania Gredler, 1881 Pomatiopsis Tryon, 1862 - the type genus of the family Pomatiopsidae Tomichia Benson, 1851Subfamily Triculinae - there are over 20 genera in Triculinaetribe Triculuni Delavaya Heude, 1889 Fenouilia Heude, 1889 Lithoglyphopsis Thiele, 1928 Tricula Benson, 1843 - type genus of the tribe Triculunitribe Jullieniini Hubendickia Brandt, 1968 Hydrorissoia Bavay, 1895 Jullienia Crosse & P. Fischer, 1876 - type genus of the tribe Jullieniini Karelainia Davis, 1979 Kunmingia Davis & Kuo in Davis, 1981 Neoprososthenia Davis & Kuo in Davis, Hoagland, Yang & Chen, 1984 Pachydrobiella Thiele, 1928 - with the only species Pachydrobiella brevis † Paraprososthenia Annandale, 1919 Saduniella Brandt, 1970 - with the only species Saduniella planispira Brandt, 1970tribe Lacunopsini Lacunopsis Deshayes, 1876 - type genus of the tribe Lacunopsinitribe Pachydrobiini Gammatricula Davis & Liu in Davis, Liu & Chen, 1990 Halewisia Davis, 1979 - with the only species Halewisia expansa Jinghongia Davis in Davis & Kang, 1990 Neotricula Davis in Davis, Subba Rao & Hoagland, 1986 Pachydrobia Crosse & P. Fischer, 1876 - type genus of the tribe Pachydrobiini Robertsiella Davis & Greer, 1980 Wuconchona Kang, 1983Rehderiellinae is not allocated to a subfamily Rehderiella Brandt, 1974 - type genus of the taxon Rehderiellinae The Pomatiopsidae have various life habits: aquatic, littoral, halophilic and terrestrial.

Terrestrial taxa occur only on the Japanese Archipelago located in East Asia. Tomichia and Coxiella include several halophilic species occurring on saline lakes. Pomatiopsidae invaded freshwater habitats from marine ones in two independent lineages, they invaded terrestrial habitats from freshwater habitats in two independent lineages. This article incorporates public domain text from the reference and CC-BY-2.0 from the reference Stimpson W.. "Researches upon the Hydrobiinae and allied forms chiefly made upon materials in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 7: 1-59. Page 4 Davis G. M. Chen C.-E. Wu C. Kuang T.-F. Xing X.-G. Li L. Liu W.-J. & Yan Y.-L.. "The Pomatiopsidae of Hunan, China". Malacologia 34: 143-342. Guan, F.. H.. "Molecular phylogenetics of Triculine snails from southern China". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48: 702–707. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.021. PMID 18502667. Liu, L.. "A phylogeny for the Pomatiopsidae: a resource for taxonomic and biodiversity studies".

BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 29. Doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-29. PMC 4016560. PMID 24548800

Topliff Olin Paine

Topliff Olin "Top" Paine was an American airmail and Army Air Corps pilot. Paine Field, an airport in Snohomish County, Washington, is named for him. Paine was born on April 26, 1893, in Orwell, Ohio, to Lucy Jane Paine; the Paine family moved to Everett, Washington, in 1903, Topliff graduated from Everett High School in 1911. Paine attended the University of Washington for two years, majoring in civil engineering, worked as a park ranger for the United States Forest Service. Paine enlisted in the Army in 1918, undergoing pilot training under the Air Corps and receiving a commission as a second lieutenant. After his discharge in 1919, Paine flew planes for various companies until joining the Air Mail Service in 1920, he and fellow aviator Ray Crozier were granted a license in 1919 to operate the self-described first commercial international mail and passenger air service in North America, between California and Baja California. During his air mail career, Paine became nationally recognized for his accomplishments while flying through rugged terrain and snowstorms in the Rocky Mountains.

From 1920 to 1922, Paine flew out of Cheyenne and Salt Lake City, for the Air Mail Service, becoming one of the top fliers in the Western Division. On April 30, 1922, Paine died of an accidental gunshot wound to the head sustained at his home in Salt Lake City. Paine was buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Everett. In 1941, the Army Air Corps renamed the Snohomish County Airport in his honor. A bust of Paine was installed at the base's clubhouse in 1955, but disappeared. A life-size statue of Paine was unveiled in 2019 at the airport's new passenger terminal

Lai King station

Lai King is an MTR rapid transit station in the suburb of Lai King in the Kwai Tsing District. The station is located above ground on a viaduct and is an interchange for the Tsuen Wan and Tung Chung lines; the Chinese name of the station uses the classical character of 茘 instead of the contemporary version of 荔. The former is regarded as orthodox per the Kangxi dictionary; the same goes for Lai Chi Kok station. Lai King was opened on 10 May 1982 as an intermediate stop on the Tsuen Wan Line; the station was built to serve the adjacent public housing complex and the container terminal on the coast. When the rail link to Lantau Island was announced, Lai King was chosen to be the interchange between the Tsuen Wan Line and the proposed Tung Chung Line. During the construction of the Tung Chung Line platforms, the layout of the station was altered. New tracks were added above the existing tracks to provide a cross-platform interchange between the Tung Chung and Tsuen Wan Lines; the outbound Tsuen Wan Line trains now stops on the same level as the outbound Tung Chung Line trains, the same goes for the inbound services.

Another pair of tracks was added to allow the Airport Express trains to bypass Lai King. The station is made up of six tracks with four platforms; the station has opened a toilet on 31 October 2019. Outbound passengers on the Tung Chung Line can walk across the platform at Lai King to board the Tsuen Wan Line trains for destinations in Kwai Chung and Tusen Wan; those who are travelling to Central and Hong Kong Island from Kwai Chung and Tsuen Wan can transfer at Lai King, across the platform, for an express service on the Tung Chung Line. Given both the Tseun Wan Line and Tung Chung Line trains terminate at the Central & Hong Kong Station complex, most passenger opt for the latter as it makes fewer stops; as a result, the station is crowded at peak hours given the amount of transfer passengers. A1: Lai King Hill Road A2: Yin Lai Court A3: Lai King Estate B: Kwai Chung Container Terminal C: HKEAA Lai King Assessment Centre At the bus stops outside / opposite Exit A1: 30: Allway GardensCheung Sha Wan 42: Cheung Hong ↔ Shun Lee 45: Lai Yiu ↔ Kowloon City Ferry 46: Lai Yiu ↔ Jordan 46X: Mei FooHin Keng 269M: Tin Yan Estate ↔ Cho Yiu N241: Cheung HangHung Hom Station Outside Yin Lai Court Shopping Centre: 46M: Highland Park → Lai King MTR Station Circular 90M: Mei Foo → Highland Park 91A: Highland Park → Kwai Fong 93: Wah Yuen Chuen → Tsuen Wan 93A: Wonderland Villas → Tsuen Wan 313: Princess Margaret Hospital → Tsuen Wan 407: Princess Margaret Hospital → Cheung Wang 407A: Princess Margaret Hospital → Kwai FongOpposite Yin Lai Court Shopping Centre: 47M: Wonderland Villas → Lai King MTR Station Circular 90M: Highland Park → Mei Foo 91A: Kwai Fong → Highland Park 93: Tsuen Wan → Wah Yuen Chuen 313: Tsuen Wan → Princess Margaret Hospital 407: Cheung Wang → Princess Margaret Hospital 407A: Kwai Fong → Princess Margaret HospitalThe MTR provides a 50¢ interchange discount for passengers changing from minibus route 407A to the MTR at Lai King or Kwai Fong stations, or vice versa