In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie or goalkeeper is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles and hybrid; because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
The goaltender is known as the goalie, goalkeeper, net minder, tender by those involved in the hockey community. In the early days of the sport, the term was spelled with a hyphen as goal-tender; the art of playing the position is called goaltending and there are coaches called the goalie coach who specialize in working with goaltenders. The variation goalie is used for items associated with the position, such as goalie stick and goalie pads. Goaltending is a specialized position in ice hockey. At minor levels and recreational games, goaltenders do switch with others players that have been taught goaltending. A typical ice hockey team may have three goaltenders on its roster. Most teams have a starting goaltender who plays the majority of the regular season games and all of the playoffs, with the backup goaltender only stepping in if the starter is pulled or injured, or in cases where the schedule is too heavy for one goaltender to play every game; the NHL requires. The list provides goaltender options for visiting teams.
These goaltenders are to be called to a game if a team does not have two goaltenders to start the game. An "emergency" goaltender may be called if both roster goaltenders are injured in the same game; some teams have used a goaltender tandem where two goaltenders split the regular season playing duties, though one of them is considered the number one goaltender who gets the start in the playoffs. An example is the 1982-83 New York Islanders with Roland Melanson. Another instance is Grant Fuhr. In an unusual case the 1996-97 Philadelphia Flyers' Ron Hextall and Garth Snow alternated in the playoffs; the goaltender has training that other players do not. He wears special goaltending equipment, different from that worn by other players and is subject to specific regulations. Goaltenders may use any part of their bodies to block shots; the goaltender may hold the puck with his hands to cause a stoppage of play. If a player from the other team hits the goaltender without making an attempt to get out of his way, the offending player may be penalized.
In some leagues, if a goaltender's stick breaks, he can continue playing with a broken stick until the play is stopped, unlike other players who must drop any broken sticks immediately. Additionally, if a goaltender acts in such a way that would cause a normal player to be given a penalty, such as slashing or tripping another player, the goaltender cannot be sent to the penalty box. Instead, one of the goaltender's teammates, on the ice at the time of the infraction is sent to the penalty box in his place. However, the goaltender does receive the penalty minutes on the scoresheet. If the goaltender receives a Game Misconduct or Match penalty, he is removed from the ice and a replacement goaltender is played; the goaltender plays in or near the goal crease the entire game, unlike the other positions where players are on ice for shifts and make line changes. However, goaltenders are pulled if they have allowed several goals in a short period of time, whether they were at fault for the surrendered goals or not, a substituted goaltender does not return for the rest of the game.
In 1995, Patrick Roy was famously kept in net by the head coach as "humiliation" despite allowing nine goals
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276. In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have 60,000 students, its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. For centuries, Graz was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace. Graz was the sole Cultural Capital of Europe of 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008; the name of the city, Graz spelled Gratz, most stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad; the German name'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria, it is about 200 km southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor in Slovenia, about 50 km away. Graz is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and forested area; these towns and villages border Graz: to the north: Gratkorn, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Judendorf-Straßengel Graz is divided into 17 districts: The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the Copper Age.
However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Graz came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs; the royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, most of today's Slovenia, parts of Italy. In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Karl-Franzens-Universität called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions.
Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler lived in Graz for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy, he left Graz to go to Prague. Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion.
With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was assaulted, e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus in 1481, by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry, it has been preserved since 1551, displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austri
Tour skating is recreational long distance ice skating on natural ice. It is popular in the Netherlands, the Nordic countries, Alaska. While Nordic skating involves tours over open ice on marshes, rivers, or sea, in the Netherlands skaters follow marked routes on frozen canals and connected lakes. There are differences in equipment and skating styles between these two regions. Alaskans include winter camping on longer journeys of a hundred miles or more. Nordic skating is a popular activity in Sweden but is becoming more popular in Finland and Norway, where it is called långfärdsskridskoåkning and turskøyting. In Canada and the United States this style is called Nordic skating. Other names used are wild skating. Dutch skating is regarded by some as a sport in its own right. Nordic skating originated during the 1900s in Sweden, it involves choosing your own tours over the open ice, sometimes in groups with safety equipment. Nordic skates differ from the Dutch tour skates. Nordic tour skates are fitted with a blade 50 cm long and are attached with bindings to specialized boots similar to walking boots or cross country skiing boots with a free heel.
Since tour skating involves walking between lakes or around sections not suitable for skating, the fact that the blades can be removed from the boots is convenient. In addition the following safety equipment is recommended: ice prods or ice claws - a pair of metal spikes with handles like sharpened screwdrivers for hauling yourself out of holes in the ice ice pike or hansa pole - a pole with a metal spike like a sturdy ski pole used to test ice thickness throwing line - a rope to be pulled out of the water by backpack with waistband and groin strap containing a change of clothes in dry bags; this acts as a buoyancy aid. Knee and elbow pads and a helmet are commonly used. In late autumn/early winter the small lakes freeze first, sometimes as early as October. Next the somewhat larger lakes freeze and become skateable. Light snow does not prevent skating and in some places tracks are ploughed to keep them open. In January–February parts of the archipelago in the Baltic sea freeze; this is the time.
Tours of 60–80 km in one day are not uncommon - some skate over 150 km. Sweden's largest tour skating association is "The Stockholm Ice Skate Sailing and Touring Club". Finland's largest tour skating association is Finland's Tour Skaters. Several associations in Sweden, Norway, U. S. A. are members of Skridskonätet. Through Skridskonätet, the members of the various associations share information on where ice suitable for skating can be found. Skridskonätet maintains a list of tour skating clubs in Sweden and the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, the Dutch skating is called Toerschaatsen, where skaters follow marked routes on frozen canals and lakes, which are coordinated by the Royal Netherlands Skating Union. Despite its maritime climate in which real cold winters are rare, skating is traditionally the most popular winter pastime in the Netherlands if many speed skating competitions have been moved indoors. Thousands of Dutch leap at the chance in cold winters to tie up their skates and glide across frozen lakes and canals, sports stores all over the country sell out their skates.
The skaters use common such skates with long blades or speed skates, with long blades rigidly attached to the skating shoes. Ice-poles and other safety equipment are not carried; the Netherlands is home of Elfstedentocht, a 200 km distance skating race of which the tracks leads through the 11 different cities in Friesland, a northern province of the Netherlands. Skate tracks on natural ice are maintained by the towns and communities, who take care of the safety of the tracks. In Canada, outdoor skating on natural frozen lake and ponds is common but not as a method of travel or tourism, rather people with skate in a circular route around the lake, or create an improvised ice hockey rink for a game of "shinny". However, starting in 1971, the section of the Rideau Canal that runs through the centre of Ottawa, the national capital, has been used as a skating corridor; this has become a major tourist attraction and a popular method of commuting in with Ottawa's locals. In 2011 932,331 people used the skateway.
Starting in the 1990s The Forks area of Winnipeg, where two rivers join, has been used as a skating trail, by 2008 was longer than the Rideau skateway. Due to natural variations in ice conditions, the Assiniboine Credit Union River Trail, as it is called varies in length each year. Similar plans to turn Montreal's Lachine Canal into a skating venue have been discussed since 2000, but were still awaiting the needed funding in 2012. In Joliette, two parallel skating tracks, of 4 km each, on the L'Assomption River are linked to form a loop running through the center of the town. In Invermere, British Columbia, there is a 15 km skating track on Windermere Lake. Arrowhead Provincial Park Ice Skating Trail Jasper Park Lodge Oval Trail Lac-des-Loups Lake Windermere Whiteway MacGregor Point Park Ice Skating Loop Magog Skating Trail Red River Mutual Trail Rideau Canal Skateway Shipyards Park Skating Loop Skateway on the Rivière l’Assomption Long distance skating on lakes and rivers in eastern Canada and north-eastern
An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, rink bandy, broomball, speed skating, figure skating, ice stock sport and curling as well as exhibitions and ice shows. There are two types of rinks in prevalent use today: natural, where freezing occurs from cold ambient temperatures, artificial, where a coolant produces cold temperatures in the surface below the water, causing the water to freeze. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics. Rink, a Scottish word meaning ` course', was used as the name of a place; the name uses. Early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were first made in the'rink mania' of 1841–44; as the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Eliakim Littell's Living Age headed "The Glaciarium" reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon.
The area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". By 1844, these venues fell out of fashion, as customers grew tired of the'smelly' ice substitute, it was only thirty years that refrigeration technology developed to the point that natural ice could be feasibly used in the rink; the world's first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established; the rink was based with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water; the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, patented it as early as 1870.
Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps; the rink proved a success, Gamgee opened two further rinks in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the "Floating Glaciarium" at Charing Cross in London, this last larger at 115 by 25 feet. The Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition, it operated for two months. Ten years a larger rink was permanently installed on the same site; the oldest indoor artificial ice rink still in use is the one in Boston's Matthews Arena, on the campus of Northeastern University. Many ice rinks consist of, or are found on, open bodies of water such as lakes, ponds and sometimes rivers. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing a level area of ground, filling it with water, letting it freeze.
Snow may be packed to use as a containment material. A famous example of this type of rink is the Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa, Canada, estimated at 1,782,000 square feet and 7.8 kilometres long, equivalent to 90 Olympic size skating rinks. The rink is prepared by letting the canal water freeze; the rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow and flooding it with water from below the ice. The rink is recognized as the "world's largest frozen ice rink" by the Guinness Book of World Records because "its entire length receives daily maintenance such as sweeping, ice thickness checks and there are toilet and recreational facilities along its entire length"; the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway. The frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres. In any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space; this consists of a bed of sand or a slab of concrete, through which pipes run. The pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze.
This method is known as'artificial ice' to differentiate from ice rinks made by freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors, although both types are of frozen water. A more proper technical term is'mechanically frozen' ice. A famous example of this type of rink is the outdoor rink at Rockefeller Center in New York. Modern rinks have a specific procedure for preparing the surface. With the pipes cold, a thin layer of water is sprayed on the concrete to seal and level it; this thin layer is painted pale blue for better contrast.
Figure skating jumps
Figure skating jumps are an element of three competitive figure skating disciplines—men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating but not ice dancing. Different jumps are identified by the take-off edge, direction of movement, the number of revolutions completed. There are six kinds of jumps counted as jump elements in ISU regulations. Three are edge jumps—the Salchow and Axel—and three are toe jumps which use the toe picks on the front of the blade—the toe loop and Lutz; the Axel is the most difficult due to an extra half rotation. Each jump receives a score according to its base grade of execution; the GOE is weighted according to the jump's base value. Quality of execution, height, speed and ice coverage are considered by the judges. An under-rotated jump is "missing rotation of more than ¼, but less than ½ revolution" and receives 70% of the base value. A downgraded jump is "missing rotation of ½ revolution or more". A triple, downgraded is treated as a double, while a downgraded double is treated as a single jump.
The ISU defines a fall as a loss of control with the result that the majority of the skater's body weight is not on the blade but supported by hands, knees, or buttocks. An edge violation occurs; the hollow is a groove on the bottom of the blade which creates two distinct edges and outside. The inside edge of the blade is closest to the center of the body, on the arch-side of the foot; the outside edge is on the outer edge of the foot. A flat refers to skating on both edges at the same time, discouraged. An unclear edge or edge violation is indicated with an'e' and reflected in the GOE according to the severity of the problem. Flutz and lip are the colloquial terms for a Lutz and a flip jump with an edge violation, respectively. In 1982, the International Skating Union enacted a rule stating that a skater may perform each type of triple only once, or twice if one of them is incorporated into a combination or sequence. For a set of jumps to be considered a combination, each jump must take off from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or change of edge in between jumps.
Toe loops and loops are performed as the second or third jump in a combination because they take off from the right back outside edge. To perform a Salchow or flip on the back end of a combination, a half loop may be used as a connecting jump. In contrast, jump sequences are sets of jumps which hops. Sequences are worth. Jumps may be rotated in counter-clockwise direction. Most skaters are counter-clockwise jumpers; each jump has a base value, adjusted if the jump is under-rotated, if the jump has wrong edge,and a grade of execution from +5 to −5, weighted according to the base value. The current scale of values is: Jumps may be performed with either clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation; the vast majority of skaters spins in the same direction. All jumps are landed on a back outside edge; the type and number of steps before a jump do not affect the jump's definition, but certain jumps have common and recognizable set-ups that help the skater do the element and that help spectators in identifying the jumps.
Jumps are classified as either edge jumps or toe jumps. An edge jump takes off directly from the edge without assist from the other foot. Most jumps have a natural rotation. A few jumps, notably including the Lutz and Walley, are counter-rotated, with the approach edge having an opposite rotational sense to the rotation in the air and landing curve. In the modern jumping technique first developed by Gus Lussi and his pupil Dick Button, skaters are taught to jump up first, assume a back spin position in the air to complete the rotation. For a jump with counterclockwise rotation, the left leg should be crossed in front of the right at the ankles, with the feet together, the arms pulled into the chest and the head turned to look over the left shoulder. If the legs are crossed above the knee, it is referred to as a wrap, is considered poor technique, not only because it looks unattractive but because it interferes with the jump's mechanics. For multi-rotational jumps, it is important that the skater assume a "tight" position in the air by holding the arms close to the body, to concentrate their body mass around the axis of rotation and minimize the rotational moment of inertia.
Jumps may be performed with variations in the arm positions in the air to add difficulty. These variations include one or both arms overhead, both hands on the hips, or arms folded in front of the chest; the variation with one arm overhead is called a Tano position, after Brian Boitano, who performed a triple Lutz in this position as one of his signature moves. When landing a jump, skaters uncross the free leg from in front of the landing leg and swing it to the rear. Extending the arms and free leg checks the rotation and allows the skater to flow out of the jump on a strong edge. Ideally, a skater should exit the jump with ju
Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, marathon speed skating. In the Olympic Games, long-track speed skating is referred to as just "speed skating", while short-track speed skating is known as "short track"; the ISU, the governing body of both ice sports, refers to long track as "speed skating" and short track as "short track skating". An international federation was founded in the first for any winter sport; the sport enjoys large popularity in the Netherlands and South Korea. There are top international rinks in a number of other countries, including Canada, the United States, Italy, Japan and Kazakhstan. A World Cup circuit is held with events in those countries plus two events in the Thialf ice hall in Heerenveen, Netherlands; the standard rink for long track is 400 meters long, but tracks of 200, 250 and 3331⁄3 meters are used occasionally.
It is one of the one with the longer history. International Skating Union rules allow radius of curves. Short track speed skating takes place on a smaller rink the size of an ice hockey rink, on a 111.12 m oval track. Distances are shorter than in long-track racing, with the longest Olympic individual race being 1500 meters. Event are held with a knockout format, with the best two in heats of four or five qualifying for the final race, where medals are awarded. Disqualifications and falls are not uncommon. There are variations on the mass-start races. In the regulations of roller sports, eight different types of mass starts are described. Among them are elimination races, where one or more competitors are eliminated at fixed points during the course. Races have some rules about disqualification if an opponent is unfairly hindered. In long track speed skating any infringement on the pairmate is punished, though skaters are permitted to change from the inner to the outer lane out of the final curve if they are not able to hold the inner curve, as long as they are not interfering with the other skater.
In mass-start races, skaters will be allowed some physical contact. Team races are held. Relay races are held in short track and inline competitions, but here, exchanges may take place at any time during the race, though exchanges may be banned during the last couple of laps. Most speed skating races are held on an oval course. Oval sizes vary. Inline skating rinks are between 125 and 400 metres, though banked tracks can only be 250 metres long. Inline skating can be held on closed road courses between 400 and 1,000 metres, as well as open-road competitions where starting and finishing lines do not coincide; this is a feature of outdoor marathons. In the Netherlands, marathon competitions may be held on natural ice on canals, bodies of water such as lakes and rivers, but may be held on artificially frozen 400 m tracks, with skaters circling the track 100 times, for example; the roots of speed skating date back over a millennium to Scandinavia, Northern Europe and the Netherlands, where the natives added bones to their shoes and used them to travel on frozen rivers and lakes.
In contrast to what people think, ice skating has always been an activity of joy and sports and not a matter of transport. For example, winters in the Netherlands have never been stable and cold enough to make ice skating a way of travelling or a mode of transport; this has been described in 1194 by William Fitzstephen, who described a sport in London. In Norway, King Eystein Magnusson King Eystein I of Norway, boasts of his skills racing on ice legs; however and speed skating was not limited to the Netherlands and Scandinavia. It was iron-bladed skates. By 1642, the first official skating club, The Skating Club Of Edinburgh, was born, and, in 1763, the world saw its first official speed skating race, on the Fens in England organized by the National Ice Skating Association. While in the Netherlands, people began touring the waterways connecting the 11 cities of Friesland, a challenge which led to the Elfstedentocht. By 1851, North Americans had discovered a love of the sport, indeed the all-steel blade was developed there.
The Netherlands came back to the fore in 1889 with the organization of the first world championships. The ISU was born in the Netherlands in 1892. By the start of the 20th century and speed skating had come into its own as a major popular sporting activity. Organized races on ice skates developed in the 19th century. Norwegian clubs hosted competitions with races in Christiania drawing five-digit crowds. In 1884, the Norwegian Axel Paulsen was named Amateur Champion Skater of the World after winning competitions in the United States. Five years a sports club in Amsterdam held an ice-skating event they called a world championship, with participants from Russia