The króna or krona is the currency of Iceland. Iceland is the second smallest country by population, after the Seychelles, to have its own currency and monetary policy. Like the Nordic currencies that participated in the historical Scandinavian Monetary Union, the name króna comes from the Latin word corona; the name "Icelandic crown" is sometimes used, for example in the financial markets. The Danish krone was introduced to Iceland in 1874, replacing the earlier Danish currency, the rigsdaler. In 1885, Iceland began issuing its own banknotes; the Icelandic krona separated from the Danish krone after the dissolution of the Scandinavian Monetary Union at the start of World War I and Icelandic sovereignty from Denmark in 1918. The first coins were issued in 1922. Iceland was forced to devalue the Icelandic krona in 1922, by 23% against the Danish krone, which saw the beginning of an independent monetary policy in Iceland, was to be the first of many subsequent devaluations of the krona. In 1925 the krona was pegged to the British pound for the next 14 years until the spring of 1939.
In 1939 the currency was pegged to the US Dollar, maintained until 1949. Iceland's first coins were 10- and 25-aurar pieces introduced in 1922; these were followed in 1925 by 2 krona pieces and in 1926 by 1 -, 2 - and 5-aurar pieces. In 1946, the coins' designs were altered to remove the royal monogram, following Icelandic independence from Denmark in 1944. Starting in 1967, new coins were introduced due to a considerable fall in the value of the krona. 10 krona coins were introduced in that year, followed by 50 aurar and 5 krona pieces in 1969 and 50 krona pieces in 1970. The first notes issued in 1885 by the Landssjóður Íslands were in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 krona. In 1904, the Bank of Iceland introduced 100 krona notes. In 1921, the Ríkissjóður Íslands began issuing paper money, with notes for 1, 10 and 50 krona. In 1928, another bank, the Landsbanki Íslands, took over issuance of denominations of 5 krona and above, with the Ríkissjóður Íslands continuing to issue 1 krona notes until 1947.
The Landsbanki Íslands introduced 500 krona notes in 1935, followed by 25- and 1000-krona notes in 1957. In 1961, the Seðlabanki Íslands became the central bank of Iceland and started issuing paper money, in denominations of 10, 25, 100, 500 krona, they were manufactured in England by De la Rue. In 1981, the Icelandic krona was revalued, due to high inflation, with 100 old krona being worth 1 new krona and a new 500 krona banknote was first put into circulation in 1981; the 1000 krona was put into circulation in 1984 and the 5000 krona in 1986. The 2000 krona banknote was put into circulation in 1995 but never became popular; the 10,000 krona banknote was put into circulation in 2013. Coins of less than one krona have not circulated for many years. In September 2002, Davíð Oddsson, the Icelandic Prime Minister at the time, signed two regulations decreeing that all monetary amounts on invoices and financial claims should be stated and paid in whole krona only and that coins with a value of less than one krona should be withdrawn from circulation.
In 1981, coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 1 krona and 5 krona. These were followed by 10 krona pieces in 1984, 50 krona in 1987 and 100 krona in 1995. Since 2003, Icelandic banks no longer accept any coins denominated in aurar. In 2000, the United States Mint issued a 1,000 krona silver coin commemorating Leif Erikson's discovery of the Americas. Of the authorized mintage limit of 150,000 coins, the Philadelphia Mint produced 15,947; the coins were struck on the same 90% silver planchets as the Leif Ericson Millenium US$1 commemorative coin issued that year. Icelandic banknotes are printed with the dates. In 1981, notes were issued in denominations of 10, 50, 100 and 500 krona based on the law of 29 March 1961. 1000 krona notes were introduced in 1984, followed by 5000 krona notes in 1986 with the same law. 100, 500, 1000 krona notes were reissued in 1994 under the law of 5 May 1986. In the following year, a new denomination of 2000 krona was issued for the first time; the 2000 krona note is subtly different from the other notes.
For example, the underprint pattern extends all the way upward and downward, while the other denominations had white margins on every side. The number 2000 is printed in multi color for 3 of the 4 occurrences, and the numeral 2000 on the lower left corner of reverse is vertical. The "shadow" of the numeral is printed with SÍ in microprint; the 22 May 2001 series, saw substantial changes. The underprint and microprint features of the 2000 krona note were extended to other denominations; the 1000- and 5000-krona notes received metallic foils next to the portrait. In 2013, a new 10,000 krona banknote was introduced; the face of natural scientist and poet Jónas Hallgrímsson appears on the bill, as well as the Eurasian golden plover. Notes of 100 krona or less are no longer in circulation, as they have been withdrawn by the central bank. Iceland does not use the euro; the Icelandic currency is a low-volume world currency managed by its central bank. Its value in terms of other currencies has been swift to change, for example against the US and Canadian dollars, the other Nordic currencies, the euro.
For example, during the first half of 2006, the Icelandic krona ranged between 50 and 80 per US dollar. Prior to the currency's collapse in October 2008, the krona was considered overvalued. I
Nuro Tualibudane is a retired footballer from Mozambique is last known to have competed for Đà Nẵng of the Vietnamese V. League 1. Wearing the colours of Jomo Cosmos from 1996 to 2001, Tualibidane hit in 9 goals in 30 appearances before going to Cyprus in 1997. But, in 1999, Manning Rangers cast aspersions on Tualibudane and Zimbabwean Morgan Nkathazo, insisting that they were in South Africa illegally and did not have possess work permits; this proved to be false and the Mozambican went on to strike 25 goals in 62 starts after returning from Cyprus, including a hat-trick as Cosmos bettered Free State Stars 3-1 in 2000 and a brace in a 3-1 dispatching of Hellenic the same year. Turning out for Đà Nẵng F. C. of the Vietnamese V. League 1, the retiree hit 3 goals within 15 minutes upon recovering form injury in 2003 as they dispatched Hà Nội ACB 4-1, scoring 6 goals by the seventh round of the 2004 V-League. However, he was temporarily dropped from the squad for underperformance in 2005 and was unable to participate in the 2006 AFC Champions League clash at home to Dalian swing to intestinal problems.
Eugene Leslie Roberts, Jr. is an American journalist and professor of journalism. He has been a national editor of The New York Times, executive editor of The Philadelphia Inquirer from 1972 to 1990, managing editor of The New York Times from 1994 to 1997. Roberts is most known for presiding over The Inquirer's "Golden Age", a time in which the newspaper was given increased freedom and resources, won 17 Pulitzer Prizes in 18 years, displaced The Philadelphia Bulletin as the city's "paper of record", was considered to be Knight Ridder's crown jewel as a profitable enterprise and an influential regional paper. Roberts was born in Pikeville in North Carolina Metropolitan Area, he grew up in North Carolina and worked for newspapers in Goldsboro, N. C.. C.. He covered the Kennedy Assassination in Dallas for the Detroit Free Press and subsequently covered the Civil Rights Movement as a correspondent for The New York Times, where he served as Saigon bureau chief in 1968 during the Vietnam War. After serving as national editor at The Times from 1969 to 1972, he was hired by John S. Knight to head The Inquirer.
He retired in 1990 and returned to the Times as managing editor from 1994 to 1998. Roberts taught journalism from 1991 to 1994 and from 1998 to 2010 at the Philip Merrill College of Journalism, University of Maryland, he is on the board of directors of the Committee to Protect Journalists and served five years as its chairman. Roberts is viewed by his peers as among the most influential late 20th-century editors of daily newspapers in large American cities.. He is credited with reviving The Inquirer and leading it from a second-place daily to one of the best regional newspapers in the country, he did it by recruiting young, talented journalists and giving them a free hand both in time and space to write compelling investigative stories under the tutelage of senior editors. Such nationally known writers as Mark Bowden and Richard Ben Cramer worked at The Inquirer; the most famous and longest lasting investigative team — Jim Steele and Don Barlett — flourished under Roberts. The Inquirer had never won any Pulitzer Prize before Roberts became executive editor but won them under his leadership.
1975, national reporting 1976, editorial cartoons 1977, local reporting 1978, public service journalism 1979, international reporting 1980, local reporting 1985, investigative reporting 1985, feature photography 1986, feature photography 1986, national reporting 1987, feature writing 1987, investigative reporting 1987, investigative reporting 1988, national reporting 1989, national reporting 1989, feature writing 1990, public service journalism Roberts and Hank Klibanoff, managing editor of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for History recognizing their book The Race Beat as the year's best published in the U. S. In it, Roberts and Klibanoff chronicled the civil rights struggle in America and the role the press played in bringing it to the forefront; the book's major contributions were an analysis of Gunnar Myrdal and Ralph Bunche's 1944 treatise, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, which had explained the problem of racial inequality and its possible resolution, a close examination of the contribution of the black press to the Civil Rights Movement.
Roberts received the National Press Club's Fourth Estate Award for Distinguished Contributions to Journalism in 1993. Roberts was awarded the Order of the Long Leaf Pine by the state of North Carolina on January 30, 2015. Roberts earned an Associate degree from Mars Hill College in North Carolina, he went on to receive his B. A. in Journalism from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1954 and was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. The Censors and the Schools, by Roberts and Jack Nelson Assignment America: A Collection of Outstanding Writing from the New York Times, eds. Roberts and David Jones Leaving Readers Behind: the age of corporate newspapering, editor-in-chief, with Thomas Kunkel and Charles Layton Breach of Faith: a crisis of coverage in the age of corporate newspapering, editor-in-chief, with Thomas Kunkel The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, the Awakening of a Nation, by Roberts and Hank Klibanoff Gene Roberts at Library of Congress Authorities, with 7 catalog records Appearances on C-SPAN