"Ich bin ein Berliner" is a speech by United States President John F. Kennedy given on June 26, 1963, in West Berlin, it is regarded as the best-known speech of the Cold War and the most famous anti-communist speech. Kennedy aimed to underline the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after Soviet-occupied East Germany erected the Berlin Wall to prevent mass emigration to the West; the message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U. S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another phrase in the speech was spoken in German, "Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen", addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark at which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed only days later; the speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a notable moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an enclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation.
Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of 120,000, Kennedy said, Two thousand years ago, the proudest boast was civis romanus sum. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner!"... All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner!" Kennedy used the phrase twice in his speech, including at the end, pronouncing the sentence with his Boston accent and reading from his note "ish bin ein Bearleener", which he had written out using English orthography to approximate the German pronunciation. He used classical Latin pronunciation of civis romanus sum, with the c pronounced and the v as. There is a widespread misconception that the phrase was not used and means "I am a doughnut", referring to the Berliner doughnut, it has been embellished into an urban legend, including incorrect claims about the audience laughing at this phrase. Germany's capital, was deep within the area controlled by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Governed in four sectors controlled by the four Allied powers, tensions of the Cold War escalated until the Soviet forces implemented the Berlin Blockade, which the Western allies relieved with the dramatic airlift. Afterward, the sectors controlled by the NATO Allies became an effective exclave of West Germany surrounded by East Germany. Starting in 1952, the border between East and West was closed everywhere but in Berlin. Hundreds of thousands of East Germans defected to the West via West Berlin, a labour drain that threatened East Germany with economic collapse. In 1961, the East German government under Walter Ulbricht erected a barbed-wire barrier around West Berlin called the antifaschistischer Schutzwall; the East German authorities argued that it was meant to prevent spies and agents of West Germany from crossing into the East. However, it was universally known as the Berlin Wall and its real purpose was to keep East German citizens from escaping to the West. Over a period of months the wall was rebuilt using concrete, buildings were demolished to create a "death zone" in view of East German guards armed with machine guns.
The Wall closed the biggest loophole in the Iron Curtain, Berlin went from being one of the easiest places to cross from East Europe to West Europe to being one of the most difficult. The West, including the U. S. was accused of failing to respond forcefully to the erection of the Wall. Berlin was under joint occupation by the four allied powers, each with primary responsibility for a certain zone. Kennedy's speech marked the first instance where the U. S. acknowledged. On July 25, 1961, Kennedy insisted in a presidential address that the U. S. would defend West Berlin, asserting its Four-Power rights, while making it clear that challenging the Soviet presence in Germany was not possible. The Ich bin ein Berliner speech is in part derived from a speech Kennedy gave at a Civic Reception on May 4, 1962, in New Orleans. Today, I believe, in 1962 the proudest boast is to say, "I am a citizen of the United States." And it is not enough to say it. Anyone can say it, but Americans who serve today in West Berlin—your sons and brothers -- are the Americans who are bearing the great burden."
The phrases "I am a Berliner" and "I am proud to be in Berlin" were typed a week before the speech on a list of expressions to be used, including a phonetic transcription of the German translation. Such transcriptions are found in the third draft of the speech, from June 25; the final typed version of the speech does not contain the transcriptions, which are added by hand by Kennedy himself. In practice sessions before the trip, Kennedy had run through a number of sentences paragraphs, to recite in German, it became clear that the president did not have a gift for languages and was more to embarrass himself if he were to cite in German for any length. But there are differing accounts on th
Rowland is a large lunar impact crater, located in the northern part of the Moon, on the far side from the Earth. This is an old, worn formation, overlain by a number of smaller craters; the most notable of these is Rowland Y, attached to the inner wall along the north-northwestern rim. Additional smaller craters are attached to the inner wall along the southeastern and south-southwestern rims, the latter being designated Rowland N. Rowland C forms a double crater with a smaller, bowl-shaped formation in the eastern part of the floor; the outer wall of Rowland has been rounded by a long history of minor impacts, leaving the edge somewhat irregular and rough. The top of the rim has been worn down until it became level with the surrounding terrain, making this a circular depression in the surface; the remains of a terrace can still be discerned in places along the eastern and southeastern inner wall. Attached to the exterior of the eastern rim is the huge walled plain Birkhoff, an older and more worn formation.
Due north of Rowland, within one crater diameter, is Sommerfeld. To the west-southwest is the smaller crater Chappell. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Rowland
"Too Hurt to Cry, Too Much in Love to Say Goodbye" is a 1963 song and single written and composed by Motown's main production team Holland–Dozier–Holland. Credited to the Darnells the performers on both sides of the singles were in fact the Andantes, Holland–Dozier–Holland, Mary Wilson of the Supremes, members of the Marvelettes, the Four Tops, the Temptations. Nobody involved with the production on either side was pleased with the false credit. Whatever the reason it was done, it didn't work as the single only peaked at 17 on the Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 charts; the song on the A-Side has the narrator the audience of the emotional pain she experiences after seeing her lover kissing and holding another girl across the room. The A-Side is now considered both a Marvelettes single, the first of two official singles by the Andantes by the Motown company. Marvelettes lead singer Gladys Horton is the main lead on the song, with her groupmate Wanda Young and Andantes member Louvain Demps on harmony co-lead.
For the Marvelettes this recording would be similar to some of their songs, in which the only group members heard on the songs are the ones singing lead. In the Andantes' case Demps' harmony vocals on this song, her group's backing chime-offs on Mary Wells's "My Guy" and Marvin Gaye's "Ain't That Peculiar" and solo speaking lines on Barbara McNair's "Fancy Passes", would be the closest any member of the group would get to front any recording at Motown; the Supremes would record their own version in 1965, intended for their album More Hits by The Supremes, but it wouldn't be released until 1987, when it was placed on their compilation album, The Never-Before-Released Masters. Lead vocals by Gladys Horton, Wanda Young and Louvain Demps Background vocals by The Andantes: Jackie Hicks, Marlene Barrow, Louvain Demps Instrumentation by The Funk Brothers Lead vocals by Diana Ross Background vocals by Florence Ballard and Mary Wilson Instrumentation by The Funk Brothers The B-side to "Too Hurt to Cry, Too Much in Love to Say Goodbye" was "Come On Home", written and composed by Motown's main production team Holland–Dozier–Holland with Eddie Holland's predecessor Janie Bradford.
It was credited to Holland–Dozier and was the B-Side to their single "What Goes Up Must Come Down". Now a Holland–Dozier/Andantes single, two versions of the song were released. First was a version with just instrumentation by the Funk Brothers, the second version was led by Dozier and featured the Holland brothers, the Andantes, Supremes member Mary Wilson, various members of the Four Tops and the Temptations all singing backing vocals, it is unclear if both the instrumental version and the vocal version were released on different copies of the first single, but the vocal version was the only one releasesd on the second one. Lead vocals by Lamont Dozier Background vocals by Holland–Dozier–Holland, Mary Wilson, The Andantes, The Four Tops and The Temptations Instrumentation by The Funk Brothers "Too Hurt to Cry, Too Much in Love to Say Goodbye" -by The Darnells - Song Review from the "Motown Junkies" website
Sidewinder 1 is a 1977 American action film directed by Earl Bellamy and written by Nancy Voyles Crawford and Thomas A. McMahon; the film stars Marjoe Gortner, Michael Parks, Susan Howard, Alex Cord, Charlotte Rae and Barry Livingston. The film was released on September 1977, by AVCO Embassy Pictures. Aging motorcycle racer J. W. Wyatt is approached by rich industrialist and racing enthusiast Packard Gentry to endorse his own custom-designed cycle, the Sidewinder 1. Wyatt brings in a team, including young and reckless Digger, to test and augment the protypical bike; when Gentry dies in a motocross accident, Wyatt must persuade Gentry's unenthusiastic and corporate-minded sister Chris to continue backing the project. Marjoe Gortner as Digger Michael Parks as J. W. Wyatt Susan Howard as Chris Gentry Alex Cord as Packard Gentry Charlotte Rae as Mrs. Holt Barry Livingston as Willie Holt Bill Vint as Jerry Fleming Byron Morrow as Gentry Executive Sidewinder 1 on IMDb Sidewinder 1 at the TCM Movie Database
The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary is a U. S. National Marine Sanctuary located 100 nautical miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Underlying salt domes forced the seafloor upward in various areas of the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the formation of rises and banks. Conditions of the Gulf of Mexico were conducive to reef-building, which started ten to fifteen thousand years ago. Two reefs, East Flower Garden Bank and West Flower Garden Bank, made up Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary when it was created in 1992. In 1996, Stetson Bank was added to the sanctuary; the three banks are not contiguous. The sanctuary contains many aquatic species. Three hundred species of fish and over twenty species of coral are found in the sanctuary along with a wide variety of crustaceans and plants. FGBNMS provides habitat for many protected and/or threatened species including marine mammals, sharks and sea turtles. Many fish species important to commercial fisheries inhabit the banks.
The first recorded discovery of the areas comprising FGBNMS did not occur until 1936, when EFGB, WFGB, Stetson Bank were included in a hydrographic survey of the Gulf of Mexico conducted by the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey; the survey provided valuable information about the geological and topographical characteristics of the banks. These initial surveys, along with additional surveys conducted in the 1950s, led researchers to conclude that the banks originated when salt domes forced overlaying sediments upward to form underwater mountains. Dr. Thomas Pulley, Director Emeritus of the Houston Museum of Natural Science, led a team of professional and volunteer amateur explorers to investigate EFGB and WFGB in the early 1960s; the presence of coral reefs off the Texas coast was still being debated at that time. Some researchers predicted the area would be too cold, or too turbid to support any extensive coral reef development; these scuba diving explorations, revealed that EFGB and WFGB did indeed support extensive, pristine coral reef systems.
In the late 1960s, Robert Alderdice and James Covington established the Flower Gardens Ocean Research center, heralding a period of intense interdisciplinary research which continues to this day. Results of this on-going research prompted U. S. government agencies to begin discussing the need to protect the banks from increasing human activities, including oil and gas extraction, anchoring on the reefs, harvesting fish and other invertebrates. With passage of the Marine Research and Sanctuaries Act in 1972, researchers began discussing the Flower Garden Banks as a candidate for designation as a National Marine Sanctuary. During the 1980s, recreational divers were discovering the Flower Garden Banks; the Houston Underwater Club led a movement to have the banks designated as sanctuaries by submitting a formal letter of nomination in 1979. Due to a number of issues, eleven years passed before the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary was established. President George H. W. Bush authorized Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary as the 10th National Marine Sanctuary on January 17, 1992.
Stetson Bank was added to the sanctuary in 1996. The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary administrative offices and laboratories are located in a renovated historic building, a part of the former Fort Crockett, in Galveston, Texas. Research Vessel MANTA is located in Galveston, provides a working platform for researchers. A system of mooring buoys, which reduces resource impacts from anchoring, is maintained by FGBNMS staff. Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Gulfbase.org - Flower Garden Banks
Bibi Osterwald was an American actress. Osterwald was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the daughter of Dagmar and Rudolf August Osterwald, a hotel owner; as a student, Osterwald appeared in the Catholic University semi-pro revue in Washington, D. C. in August 1942.. She gained acting experience in five years of work in summer stock theatre in Maryland, she starred in Ten Nights in a Barroom at the Willard Hotel for 8 weeks starting in mid-August 1943. She pursued a career on the New York stage; the Central Opera House, seating 2000, introduced Osterwald leading in Broken Hearts of Broadway in June 1944. "Miss Osterwald is on Broadway as one of the outstanding participants in'Sing Out, Sweet Land.' What is more, next to stars Alfred Drake and Burl Ives, she has received the loudest praise of those critics who saw the play out of town. Its road tour Included Hartford and Philadelphia." -December 28, 1944. Osterwald went on to appear in such Broadway shows as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Bus Stop, The Golden Apple, for which she won an Outer Critics Circle Award in 1953.
Starting in the 1940s, Osterwald appeared on television, continuing to do so through the end of the 1990s. She was best known for her television role of Stella O'Brien, the cranky housekeeper for the Hathaway family on the soap opera, Where the Heart Is in the 1970s and as Mrs. Sophie Steinberg, the mother of David Birney and mother-in-law of Meredith Baxter on thecomedy series, Bridget Loves Bernie.:136 In 1982, she originated the role of Nanny McTavish, Holly Sutton's long-time confidante, on General Hospital. Her other roles included Mrs. Nakamura on The Absent-Minded Professor, she was a regular on The S. S. Holiday,:1008 The Imogene Coca Show,:499 Captain Billy's Showboat:159 and Front Row Center.:370In the years just prior to her death in 2002, she was a voice actress for the cartoon series Rugrats. She appeared in several films, including Parrish, The World of Henry Orient, A Fine Madness, Bank Shot, Caddyshack II and As Good as It Gets. On January 2, 2002, Osterwald died of a lung ailment in a hospital in Burbank, California, at age 81.
Bibi Osterwald on IMDb Bibi Osterwald at the Internet Broadway Database Bibi Osterwald at Find a Grave