Alexandra Palace is a Grade II listed entertainment and sports venue in London, located between Muswell Hill and Wood Green in the London Borough of Haringey. It is built on the site of Tottenham Wood and the Tottenham Wood Farm. Built by John Johnson and Alfred Meeson, it opened in 1873 but following a fire two weeks after its opening, was rebuilt by Johnson. Intended as "The People's Palace" and referred to as "Ally Pally", its purpose was to serve as a public centre of recreation and entertainment. At first a private venture, in 1900, the owners planned to sell it and Alexandra Park for development. A group of neighbouring local authorities managed to acquire it. An Act of Parliament created the Alexandra Park Trust; the Act required the Trustees to maintain the Palace and Park and make them available for the free use and recreation of the public forever. The present trustee is the London Borough of Haringey, whose coat of arms shows lightning bolts depicting the Palace's pioneering role in the development of television.
In 1935, the trustees leased part of the palace to the BBC for use as the production and transmission centre for their new BBC Television. In 1936, it became the home of the BBC's first regular public television service; the broadcasting system was the 405-line monochrome analogue television – the first electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting. Although other facilities soon superseded it after the war, Alexandra Palace continued to be used by the BBC for many years and its radio and television mast is still in use; the original studios'A' and'B' still survive in the south-east wing with their producers' galleries and are used for exhibiting original historical television equipment. The original Victorian theatre with its stage machinery survives; the theatre and stage structure is on English Heritage's Buildings at Risk register. Alexandra Palace became a listed building in 1996, at the instigation of the Hornsey Historical Society. A planned commercial development of the building into a mixed leisure complex including a hotel, replacement ice-skating rink, ten-pin bowling alley and exhibition centre, encountered opposition from public groups and was blocked by the High Court in 2007.
The Great Hall and West Hall are used for exhibitions, music concerts and conferences, operated by the trading arm of the charitable trust that owns the building and park on behalf of the public. There is a pub, ice rink and palm court. In 2013, Alexandra Park was declared a Local Nature Reserve and is a Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade 1; the nearest railway stations are the London Underground station Wood Green on the Piccadilly line and Alexandra Palace with services from Moorgate. Alexandra Palace is served by London Buses route W3; the "Palace of the People" was conceived by Owen Jones in 1859. The Great Northern Palace Company had been established by 1860, but was unable to raise financing for the construction of the Palace. Construction materials were acquired and recycled from the large 1862 International Exhibition building in South Kensington after it was demolished: the Government had declined to take it over. In 1863 Alexandra Park Co. Ltd. acquired the land of Tottenham Wood Farm for conversion to a park and to build the People’s Palace.
Alexandra Park was opened to the public on 23 July 1863. The planned building was named "The Palace of the People"; the Palace of the People, or the People's Palace, remained as alternative names. In September 1865, construction commenced but to a design by John Johnson and Alfred Meeson rather than the glass structure proposed by Jones. In 1871, work started on the Edgware and London Railway to connect the site to Highgate station. Work on both the railway and the palace was completed in 1873 and, on 24 May of that year, Alexandra Palace and Park was opened; the structure covers some 7.5 acres. The palace was built by Kelk and Lucas, who built the Royal Albert Hall in South Kensington at around the same time. Sims Reeves sang on the opening day before an audience of 102,000. Only 16 days Alexandra Palace was destroyed by a fire which killed three members of staff. Only the outer walls survived. With typical Victorian vigour, it was rebuilt and reopened on 1 May 1875; the new Alexandra Palace contained a concert hall, art galleries, a museum, lecture hall, banqueting room and large theatre.
The stage of the theatre incorporated machinery which enabled special effects for the pantomimes and melodramas popular – artists could disappear, reappear and be propelled into the air. The theatre was used for political meetings. An open-air swimming pool was constructed at the base of the hill in the surrounding park; the grounds included a horse racing course with grandstand, London's only racecourse from 1868 until its closure in 1970, a Japanese village, a switchback ride, a boating lake and a 9-hole pitch-and-putt golf course. Alexandra Park cricket and football clubs have played within the grounds since 1888. A Henry Willis organ installed in 1875, vandalised in 1918 and restored and reopened in 1929, survives. In its 1929 restored form, Willi
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; the intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is represented by three or four component intensities such as red and blue, or cyan, magenta and black. In some contexts, pixel refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation, while in yet other contexts it may refer to the set of component intensities for a spatial position; the word pixel is a portmanteau of el. The word "pixel" was first published in 1965 by Frederic C. Billingsley of JPL, to describe the picture elements of video images from space probes to the Moon and Mars. Billingsley had learned the word from Keith E. McFarland, at the Link Division of General Precision in Palo Alto, who in turn said he did not know where it originated. McFarland said it was "in use at the time".
The word is a combination of pix, for picture, element. The word pix appeared in Variety magazine headlines in 1932, as an abbreviation for the word pictures, in reference to movies. By 1938, "pix" was being used in reference to still pictures by photojournalists; the concept of a "picture element" dates to the earliest days of television, for example as "Bildpunkt" in the 1888 German patent of Paul Nipkow. According to various etymologies, the earliest publication of the term picture element itself was in Wireless World magazine in 1927, though it had been used earlier in various U. S. patents filed as early as 1911. Some authors explain pixel as picture cell, as early as 1972. In graphics and in image and video processing, pel is used instead of pixel. For example, IBM used it in their Technical Reference for the original PC. Pixels, abbreviated as "px", are a unit of measurement used in graphic and web design, equivalent to 1⁄96 inch; this measurement is used to make sure a given element will display as the same size no matter what screen resolution views it.
Pixilation, spelled with a second i, is an unrelated filmmaking technique that dates to the beginnings of cinema, in which live actors are posed frame by frame and photographed to create stop-motion animation. An archaic British word meaning "possession by spirits", the term has been used to describe the animation process since the early 1950s. A pixel is thought of as the smallest single component of a digital image. However, the definition is context-sensitive. For example, there can be "printed pixels" in a page, or pixels carried by electronic signals, or represented by digital values, or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a digital camera; this list is not exhaustive and, depending on context, synonyms include pel, byte, bit and spot. Pixels can be used as a unit of measure such as: 2400 pixels per inch, 640 pixels per line, or spaced 10 pixels apart; the measures dots per inch and pixels per inch are sometimes used interchangeably, but have distinct meanings for printer devices, where dpi is a measure of the printer's density of dot placement.
For example, a high-quality photographic image may be printed with 600 ppi on a 1200 dpi inkjet printer. Higher dpi numbers, such as the 4800 dpi quoted by printer manufacturers since 2002, do not mean much in terms of achievable resolution; the more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom, therefore has a total number of 640×480 = 307,200 pixels or 0.3 megapixels. The pixels, or color samples, that form a digitized image may or may not be in one-to-one correspondence with screen pixels, depending on how a computer displays an image. In computing, an image composed of pixels is known as a raster image.
The word raster originates from television scanning patterns, has been used to describe similar halftone printing and storage techniques. For convenience, pixels are arranged in a regular two-dimensional grid. By using this arrangement, many common operations can be implemented by uniformly applying the same operation to each pixel independently. Other arrangements of pixels are possible, with some sampling patterns changing the shape of each pixel across the image. For this reason, care must be taken when acquiring an image on one device and displaying it on another, or when converting image data from one pixel format to another. For example: LCD screens use a staggered grid, where the red and blue components are sampled at different locations. Subpixel rendering is a technology which takes advantage of these differences to improve the rendering of text on LCD screens; the vast
Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. The name "Telefunken" appears in: the product brand name "Telefunken". H. System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of Siemens & Halske. H.. KG" in Heilbronn, Germany. L." The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication; the one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the Kaiserliche Marine. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company; when a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged both parties to join efforts, creating Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken joint venture on 27 May 1903, with the disputed patents and techniques invested in it.
On 17 April 1923, it was renamed The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address; the first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military. During World War I, they supplied radio sets and telegraphy equipment for the military, as well as building one of the first radio navigation systems for the Zeppelin force; the Telefunken Kompass Sender operated from 1908 to 1918, allowing the Zeppelins to navigate throughout the North Sea area in any weather. Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets. In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network; this was the first two-stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was developed; the TAB V-72 soon became popular with recording facilities. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the REDD.37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on many of their early recordings.
In 1932, record players were added to the product line. In 1941, Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary. During the Second World War, Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes and radio relay systems, developed Funkmess facilities and directional finders, as part of the German air defence against aerial bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were developed in west of Germany or relocated. Thus, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast and phono. Telefunken was the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec, was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988. In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began.
The works was expanded several times, in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed 2,500 employees. In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, renamed to AEG-Telefunken. In the beginning of the 1960s, Walter Bruch developed the PAL-colour television system for the company, in use by most countries of the western Hemisphere. PAL is established i.e. in the United Kingdom and, except France, many other European countries - in Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz, including the first ball-based mouse named Rollkugel in 1968; the computers were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company; the production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG.
When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name. In 1995, Telefunken was sold to Tech Sym Corporation for $9 million. However, Telefunken remained a German company. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Telefunken was instrumental in the development of high quality audio noise reduction sy
Walter Bruch was a German electrical engineer and pioneer of German television. He is the inventor of Closed-circuit television, he invented the PAL colour television system at Telefunken in the early 1960s. In addition to his research activities Walter Bruch was an honorary lecturer at Hannover Technical University, he was awarded the Werner von Siemens Ring in 1975. He was born in Neustadt German Empire. At his father's request he attended a business school, but trained as a machinist apprenticeship in a shoe factory. From 1928 he attended the university of applied science Hochschule Mittweida in Saxony. After that, he was a guest student at the Technical University of Berlin, where he met Manfred von Ardenne and the Hungarian inventor Dénes von Mihály. From the early 1930s Bruch was involved in the development of television technology: in 1933 he presented a "people's television receiver" with a self-built telecine. In 1935 he started work as a technician in the Television and Physics research Department of Telefunken, headed by Professor Fritz Schröter and where Emil Mechau developed a special television camera for the 1936 Summer Olympics.
The Summer Olympic Games of 1936 in Berlin became a milestone for audiovisual technology and Bruch was able to field test the first Iconoscope camera, developed by Emil Mechau based on a tube by Walter Heimann. One year at the Paris International Exposition, he introduced an iconoscope television unit that he had designed. During World War II he operated a closed-circuit television system installed at the Peenemünde launch site, so that the V-2 rocket launches could be watched at a safe distance from a bunker. In 1950 Telefunken commissioned him to develop the first post-war television receivers; some time he returned to physics research and colour television. He studied and tested the American NTSC system and what would become the French SECAM system, his work led him and co-workers like Gerhard Mahler and Dr. Kruse to devise a new colour television system that automatically corrected for the differential phase distortion that can occur along the transmission channel. On 3 January 1963 he gave the first public presentation of the Phase Alternation Line System to a group of experts from the European Broadcasting Union in Hannover.
This is considered to be the date of birth of the PAL-Telefunken system, adopted by more than thirty countries. When interviewed by German talk show host Hans Rosenthal on why he had named it the "PAL system", Bruch replied that no German would want to have a "Bruch-System" had his family name been used as the eponym, he received the David Sarnoff Medal from the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers in 1971 and the Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor from the German Eduard Rhein Foundation in 1981. 1967: Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. La electrónica. Barcelona: Salvat. ISBN 84-345-7458-6. Http://www.radiomuseum.org/forum/45_years_anniversary_of_walter_bruchs_pal_color_television.html https://www.hs-mittweida.de/index.php?id=1698
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid. Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase and a continuous phase. To qualify as a colloid, the mixture must be one that does not settle or would take a long time to settle appreciably; the dispersed-phase particles have a diameter between 1 and 1000 nanometers. Such particles are easily visible in an optical microscope, although at the smaller size range, an ultramicroscope or an electron microscope may be required. Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal foams, colloidal dispersions, or hydrosols; the dispersed-phase particles or droplets are affected by the surface chemistry present in the colloid. Some colloids are translucent because of the Tyndall effect, the scattering of light by particles in the colloid.
Other colloids may have a slight color. Colloidal suspensions are the subject of colloid science; this field of study was introduced in 1845 by Italian chemist Francesco Selmi and further investigated since 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham. Because the size of the dispersed phase may be difficult to measure, because colloids have the appearance of solutions, colloids are sometimes identified and characterized by their physico-chemical and transport properties. For example, if a colloid consists of a solid phase dispersed in a liquid, the solid particles will not diffuse through a membrane, whereas with a true solution the dissolved ions or molecules will diffuse through a membrane; because of the size exclusion, the colloidal particles are unable to pass through the pores of an ultrafiltration membrane with a size smaller than their own dimension. The smaller the size of the pore of the ultrafiltration membrane, the lower the concentration of the dispersed colloidal particles remaining in the ultrafiltered liquid.
The measured value of the concentration of a dissolved species will thus depend on the experimental conditions applied to separate it from the colloidal particles dispersed in the liquid. This is important for solubility studies of hydrolyzed species such as Al, Eu, Am, Cm, or organic matter complexing these species. Colloids can be classified as follows: Based on the nature of interaction between the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium, colloids can be classified as: Hydrophilic colloids: The colloid particles are attracted toward water, they are called reversible sols. Hydrophobic colloids: These are opposite in nature to hydrophilic colloids; the colloid particles are repelled by water. They are called irreversible sols. In some cases, a colloid suspension can be considered a homogeneous mixture; this is because the distinction between "dissolved" and "particulate" matter can be sometimes a matter of approach, which affects whether or not it is homogeneous or heterogeneous. The following forces play an important role in the interaction of colloid particles: Excluded volume repulsion: This refers to the impossibility of any overlap between hard particles.
Electrostatic interaction: Colloidal particles carry an electrical charge and therefore attract or repel each other. The charge of both the continuous and the dispersed phase, as well as the mobility of the phases are factors affecting this interaction. Van der Waals forces: This is due to interaction between two dipoles that are either permanent or induced. If the particles do not have a permanent dipole, fluctuations of the electron density gives rise to a temporary dipole in a particle; this temporary dipole induces a dipole in particles nearby. The temporary dipole and the induced dipoles are attracted to each other; this is known as van der Waals force, is always present, is short-range, is attractive. Entropic forces: According to the second law of thermodynamics, a system progresses to a state in which entropy is maximized; this can result in effective forces between hard spheres. Steric forces between polymer-covered surfaces or in solutions containing non-adsorbing polymer can modulate interparticle forces, producing an additional steric repulsive force or an attractive depletion force between them.
Such an effect is searched for with tailor-made superplasticizers developed to increase the workability of concrete and to reduce its water content. There are two principal ways of preparation of colloids: Dispersion of large particles or droplets to the colloidal dimensions by milling, spraying, or application of shear. Condensation of small dissolved molecules into larger colloidal particles by precipitation, condensation, or redox reactions; such processes are used in the preparation of colloidal gold. The stability of a colloidal system is defined by particles remaining suspended in solution at equilibrium. Stability is hindered by aggregation and sedimentation phenomena, which are driven by the colloid's tendency to reduce surface energy. Reducing the interfacial tension will stabilize the colloidal system by reducing this driving force. Aggregation is due to the sum of the interaction forces between particles. If attractive forces (such as van der Waals for
Philo Taylor Farnsworth was an American inventor and television pioneer. He made many crucial contributions to the early development of all-electronic television, he is best known for his 1927 invention of the first functional all-electronic image pickup device, the image dissector, as well as the first functional and complete all-electronic television system. Farnsworth developed a television system complete with receiver and camera—which he produced commercially through the Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation from 1938 to 1951, in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In life, Farnsworth invented a small nuclear fusion device, the Farnsworth–Hirsch fusor, employing inertial electrostatic confinement, it was not a practical device for generating nuclear power, though it provides a viable source of neutrons. The design of this device has been the inspiration for other fusion approaches, including the Polywell reactor concept. Farnsworth held 300 patents in radio and television. Farnsworth was born August 19, 1906, the eldest of five children of Lewis Edwin Farnsworth and Serena Amanda Bastian, a Mormon couple living in a small log cabin built by Lewis's father near Beaver, Utah.
In 1918, the family moved to a relative's 240-acre ranch near Rigby, where his father supplemented his farming income by hauling freight with his horse-drawn wagon. Philo was excited to find that his new home was wired for electricity, with a Delco generator providing power for lighting and farm machinery, he was a quick student in electrical technology, repairing the troublesome generator. He found a burned-out electric motor among some items discarded by the previous tenants and rewound the armature, he developed an early interest in electronics after his first telephone conversation with a distant relative, he discovered a large cache of technology magazines in the attic of their new home. He won $25 in a pulp-magazine contest for inventing a magnetized car lock. Farnsworth was Mormon. Farnsworth excelled in physics at Rigby High School, he asked science teacher Justin Tolman for advice about an electronic television system that he was contemplating. One of the drawings that he did on a blackboard for his chemistry teacher was recalled and reproduced for a patent interference case between Farnsworth and RCA.
In 1923, the family moved to Provo and Farnsworth attended Brigham Young High School that fall. His father died of pneumonia in January 1924 at age 58, Farnsworth assumed responsibility for sustaining the family while finishing high school. After graduating BYHS in June 1924, he applied to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, where he earned the nation's second-highest score on academy recruiting tests. However, he was thinking ahead to his television projects, he returned to Provo and enrolled at Brigham Young University, but he was not allowed by the faculty to attend their advanced science classes based upon policy considerations. He attended anyway and made use of the university's research labs, he earned a Junior Radio-Trician certification from the National Radio Institute, with a full certification in 1925. While attending college, he met Provo High School student Elma "Pem" Gardner, whom he married. Farnsworth worked while his sister Agnes took charge of the family home and the second-floor boarding house, with the help of a cousin living with the family.
The Farnsworths moved into half of a duplex, with family friends the Gardners moving into the other side when it became vacant. He developed a close friendship with Pem's brother Cliff Gardner, who shared his interest in electronics, the two moved to Salt Lake City to start a radio repair business; the business failed, Gardner returned to Provo. Farnsworth remained in Salt Lake City and became acquainted with Leslie Gorrell and George Everson, a pair of San Francisco philanthropists who were conducting a Salt Lake City Community Chest fund-raising campaign, they agreed to fund his early television research with an initial $6,000 in backing, set up a laboratory in Los Angeles for Farnsworth to carry out his experiments. Farnsworth married Pem on May 27, 1926, the two traveled to Berkeley, California, in a Pullman coach, they moved across the bay to San Francisco. It was at this time. A few months after arriving in California, Farnsworth was prepared to show his models and drawings to a patent attorney, nationally recognized as an authority on electrophysics.
Everson and Gorrell agreed that Farnsworth should apply for patents for his designs, a decision that proved crucial in disputes with RCA. Most television systems in use at the time used image scanning devices employing rotating "Nipkow disks" comprising a spinning disk with holes arranged in spiral patterns such that they swept across an image in a succession of short arcs while focusing the light they captured on photosensitive elements, thus producing a varying electrical signal corresponding to the variations in light intensity. Farnsworth recognized the limitations of the mechanical syst