The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For example, water at 93.4 °C at 1,905 metres altitude. For a given pressure, different liquids will boil at different temperatures; the normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atmosphere. At that temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and allow bubbles of vapor to form inside the bulk of the liquid; the standard boiling point has been defined by IUPAC since 1982 as the temperature at which boiling occurs under a pressure of 1 bar.
The heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Liquids may change to a vapor at temperatures below their boiling points through the process of evaporation. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon in which molecules located near the liquid's edge, not contained by enough liquid pressure on that side, escape into the surroundings as vapor. On the other hand, boiling is a process in which molecules anywhere in the liquid escape, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid. A saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy. Saturation temperature means boiling point; the saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. If the pressure in a system remains constant, a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy is removed.
A liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding environmental pressure. Thus, the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Boiling points may be published with respect to the NIST, USA standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, or the IUPAC standard pressure of 100.000 kPa. At higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is lower; the boiling point increases with increased pressure up to the critical point, where the gas and liquid properties become identical. The boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point; the boiling point decreases with decreasing pressure until the triple point is reached. The boiling point cannot be reduced below the triple point. If the heat of vaporization and the vapor pressure of a liquid at a certain temperature are known, the boiling point can be calculated by using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, thus: T B = − 1, where: T B is the boiling point at the pressure of interest, R is the ideal gas constant, P is the vapour pressure of the liquid at the pressure of interest, P 0 is some pressure where the corresponding T 0 is known, Δ H vap is the heat of vaporization of the liquid, T 0 is the boiling temperature, ln is the natural logarithm.
Saturation pressure is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased, so is saturation temperature. If the temperature in a system remains constant, vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased. A liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased. There are two conventions regarding the standard boiling point of water: The normal boiling point is 99.97 °C at a pressure of 1 atm. The IUPAC recommended standard boiling point of water at a standard pressure of 100 kPa is 99.61 °C. For comparison, on top of Mount Everest, at 8,848 m elevation, the pressure is about 34 kPa and the boiling point of water is 71 °C; the Celsius temperature scale was defined until 1954 by two points: 0 °C being defined by the wate
TED Conferences LLC is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution under the slogan "ideas worth spreading." TED was conceived by Richard Saul Wurman in February 1984 as a conference. TED's early emphasis was on design, consistent with its Silicon Valley origins, it has since broadened its perspective to include talks on many scientific, cultural and academic topics. It is owned and curated by Chris Anderson, a British-American businessman, through the Sapling Foundation; the main TED conference is held annually in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada at the Vancouver Convention Centre. Prior to 2014, the conference was held in Long Beach, United States. TED events are held throughout North America and in Europe and Africa, offering live streaming of the talks, they address a wide range of topics within the research and practice of science and culture through storytelling. The speakers are given a maximum of 18 minutes to present their ideas in the most innovative and engaging ways they can.
Past speakers include Bill Clinton, Sean M. Carroll, Elon Musk, Ray Dalio, Cédric Villani, Stephen Hawking, Jane Goodall, Al Gore, Temple Grandin, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Billy Graham, Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Bill Gates, Dolph Lundgren, Bob Weir, Shashi Tharoor, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Leana Wen, Pope Francis, many Nobel Prize winners. TED's current curator is Chris Anderson, a British-American businessman, computer journalist and magazine publisher. Since June 2006, TED Talks have been offered for free viewing online, under an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives Creative Commons license, through TED.com. As of January 2018, over 2,600 TED Talks are available on the website. In June 2011, TED Talks' combined viewing figure stood at more than 500 million, by November 2012, TED Talks had been watched over one billion times worldwide. TED Talks given by academics tend to be watched more online while art and design videos tend to be watched less than average. TED was conceived in 1984 by architect and graphic designer Richard Saul Wurman, who observed a convergence of the fields of technology and design.
The first conference, organized by Harry Marks and Wurman in the same year, featured demos of the compact disc, co-developed by Philips and Sony and one of the first demonstrations of the Apple Macintosh computer. Presentations were given by famous mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot and influential members of the digerati community, like Nicholas Negroponte and Stewart Brand; the event was financially unsuccessful. From 1990 onward, a growing community of "TEDsters" gathered annually at the event in California State University Monterey Bay, until 2009, when it was relocated to Long Beach, California due to a substantial increase in attendees; the speakers had been drawn from the fields of expertise behind the acronym TED, but during the nineties, the roster of presenters broadened to include scientists, musicians, religious leaders and many others. In 2000, looking for a successor at age 65, met with new-media entrepreneur and TED enthusiast Chris Anderson to discuss future happenings. Anderson's UK media company Future bought TED.
In November 2001, Anderson's non-profit The Sapling Foundation acquired TED from Future for £6m. In February 2002, Anderson gave a TED Talk in which he explained his vision of the conference and his future role of curator. Wurman left after the 2002 conference. In 2006, attendance cost was by invitation only; the membership model was shifted in January 2007 to an annual membership fee of $6,000, which includes attendance of the conference, club mailings, networking tools, conference DVDs. The 2018 conference was $10,000 per attendee. In 2014, the conference was relocated to Vancouver. TED is funded by a combination of various revenue streams, including conference attendance fees, corporate sponsorships, foundation support, licensing fees, book sales. Corporate sponsorships are diverse, provided by companies such as Google, GE, AOL, Goldman Sachs, The Coca-Cola Company, among others. Sponsors do not participate in the creative direction of the event, nor are they allowed to present on the main stage, in the interests of independence.
The TED staff consists of about 180 people headquartered in New York Vancouver. The TED Prize was introduced in 2005; until 2010, it annually granted three individuals $100,000 and a "wish to change the world". Each winner unveils their wish at the main annual conference. Since 2010, in a changed selection process, a single winner is chosen to ensure that TED can maximize its efforts in achieving the winner's wish. In 2012, the prize was not awarded to an individual, but to a concept connected to the current global phenomenon of increasing urbanization. In 2013, the prize amount was increased to $1 million. TED Prize winners in previous years: TED Conference commissioned New York artist Tom Shannon to create a prize sculpture to be given to all TED Prize winners; the sculpture consists of an eight-inch diameter aluminum sphere magnetically levitated above a walnut disc. In 2005, Chris Anderson hired June Cohen as Director of TED Media. In June 2006, after Cohen's idea of a TV show based on TED lectures was rejected by several networks, a selection of talks that had received the highest audience ratings was posted on the websites of TED, YouTube, iTunes, under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0.
Only a handful of talks were posted, to test if there was an audience for them. In
A campervan, sometimes referred to as a camper, or a caravanette, is a self-propelled vehicle that provides both transport and sleeping accommodation. The term describes vans that have been fitted out with a coachbuilt body for use as accommodation; the term motorhome is sometimes used interchangeably with campervan, but the former can be a larger vehicle than a campervan and intended to be more comfortable, whilst the latter is more concerned with ease of movement and lower cost. For example, some campervans lack built-in toilets and showers, or a divide between the living compartment and the cab; the United States term "recreational vehicle" is more analogous to motorhome than campervan. Campervans may be equipped either with a "pop-up" roof, raised during camping or a fixed roof, either shared with the commercial van that forms the basis of the vehicle, or as part of a custom coachbuilt body. Campervans have a small kitchen with a refrigerator and a two-burner gas hob and grill, they have dual-voltage lighting which can work from either a dedicated battery known as a deep-cycle or leisure battery, or from AC power, supplied at a campsite via a hook-up cable.
Larger models may include a water heater, space heating and air conditioning, a portable toilet and an internal shower. Smaller models carry a "porta-potty" portable toilet, sometimes an external shower which operates within the privacy of an awning; the term "Dormobile" is sometimes used generically in the United Kingdom thanks to a once popular conversion brand, "Kombi" is used in Australia and other countries. The popularity of this type expanded in the 1950s after Volkswagen commissioned the Westfalia company to use the Kombi version of their Type 2 transporter as the basis for a campervan. Called a 4WD camper or 4x4 camper, these vehicles are perfect for going off the beaten track and exploring unsealed roads; some models include expandable tents mounted on the roof while others have pop-up roofs for additional sleeping space and storage. Pop-up roof variants share certain design elements with roof tents as sometimes fitted to more robust four wheel drive off-road vehicles intended for expeditions rather than relaxed camping.
A compromise between these two worlds is sometimes reached by basing the conversion on an off-road vehicle. Sometimes the conversion is demountable from the back of a pick-up truck body. There are several types of campervan all manufactured by Volkswagen but depending on their age they are colloquially referred to as either a splitty a bay or a bricky. Although less popular, Mercedes manufactured a similar-sized light van and conversions were reasonably common in the 1960s and'70s. Of a similar size and vintage is the British Commer Spacevan conversion. In Europe the Citroën H-Van has been used a base for many campervan conversions, is popular amongst Dutch and Belgian users in particular. Ex-factory, it had several height and length configurations, in all versions it had a low floor and high ceiling, a legacy of one of its original uses as a mobile shop, it does not need a pop-top to accommodate its users. Modern mid-sized Japanese vans such as the Toyota Hiace are sometimes converted to have the appearance of a classic Volkswagen.
The car camper is a station wagon converted into a travel home. The rear cargo area is converted into a full double bed area with a fabricated aluminium framework. All equipment necessary to set up a well-appointed camp site is stored under the double bed with access through lidded areas under the bed. Unlike a standard station wagon where the camping equipment has to be removed before sleeping or a tent set up the car camper is self-contained. Similar to North American A-class recreational vehicles but still smaller in Europe. Coachbuilt over a medium-to-large van chassis, from 7.5 tonnes and upwards. Appointed, sometimes with electrically operated slide-out extensions to the living space, electricity-generating windmills and in large models sometimes fitted with a hydraulically operated garage capable of transporting a small car. Smaller A class vehicles are popular in Europe, similar in size to Overcab Coachbuilts, but without the base vehicles cab. In its place, a cab is added. Recognisable by their large curved windscreens.
Coachbuilt body, retaining the base van's cab, with a raised Luton van style area over the cab containing a bed. Other beds may be built by moving seats and tables, or lowered from the ceiling. Shower and toilet cubicles fitted. Sometimes including a garage for bikes, may be large enough to support a mechanism for towing a small city car. Comparable to the North American C-class. Common base vehicles include the Fiat Ducato, Renault Master, Ford Transit. Coachbuilt but without a raised bed over the cab. Other beds may be built by moving seats and tables, or lowered from the ceiling. Shower and toilet cubicles fitted. Garages and towing fittings may be carried as with the overcab designs. Typical base vehicles are lighter-duty and/or smaller-engined variants of the same vehicles used for overcab designs. Based on a high-top van of around 2.8 to 4.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight, without major coachbuilding modifications to the body. Beds fixed in place or built by moving seats and tables. Shower and toilet cubicles sometimes fitted.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Sir Edward John Lees Hallstrom was one of Australia's best-known philanthropists and businessmen of the mid 20th century. Born at High Park station, near Coonamble, New South Wales, Hallstrom was the eighth of a family of nine children born to William Hallstrom, a saddler from England, his Australian wife Mary Ann. At the age of 4, his father's farm failed and the family moved to Waterloo, New South Wales, an inner-city suburb of Sydney. Hallstrom's parents separated and, by the age of 10, he was working, performing a variety of jobs to help supplement the family's income. Self-taught, he applied himself well to both his studies and his work, took charge of a furniture factory, he founded a business of his own, manufacturing bedsteads. Hallstrom met Margaret Elliott Jaffrey, on a trip to Queensland, she was a talented artist, shared his enthusiasm for birds and animals. They were married at her parents' home in the Brisbane suburb of New Farm, Queensland, on 6 April 1912, he was a Freemason. The Hallstroms moved to Dee Why, New South Wales, by which time Hallstrom had become interested in the young industry of refrigeration.
He set about inventing in his Dee Why backyard, in 1923 produced his first product, the Icy Ball absorption refrigerator. Hallstrom's Icy Ball was a kerosene-powered chest model, which he designed for use in the Australian outback, where the low-tech Coolgardie safe was in widespread use, he went to the outback to sell these units himself. Hallstrom expanded his product line with the development of the popular Silent Knight upright refrigerator; these were gas-powered and electric models, were produced in a factory in Willoughby, New South Wales under the business name of Hallstroms Pty Ltd. During World War II the factory manufactured munitions, as well as refrigerators for the use of the United States Army. By the mid-1940s, the factory was producing around 1,200 refrigerators weekly, which were exported as well as sold locally; the "Hallstrom Silent Knight" was a priced, locally produced product at a time when imported refrigerators were expensive. Their resulting popularity made Hallstrom a millionaire.
Hallstrom is believed to have donated over A$4 million to philanthropic causes during his lifetime. He directed much of his fortune to the Taronga Park Zoo in Sydney, becoming a trustee and chairman of the zoo, he funded the purchase of many large and exotic species from overseas. He established a farm to produce fresh food for the zoo animals, set up a fauna reserve on the outskirts of Sydney to form part of the Muogamarra Nature Reserve, his company sponsored a conservation-oriented panel program Nature Speaks from 1947–54 on radio 2GB, compered by John Dease. Hallstrom was generous in his financial gifts to hospitals and medical research centres as well as numerous charities, his reputation as a philanthropist resulted in his being besieged with requests for financial assistance, he was known to take personal interest in the many letters and requests he received. Hallstrom was a member of zoological societies in Sydney and New York and was a member of the Explorers Club and the Royal Australian Historical Society.
Hallstrom was knighted in 1952, received gold medals from zoological societies in Belgium and San Diego, California. He received an honorary Swedish knighthood, he was the first Australian to be named "Father of the Year", in 1957. In the latter part of his life Hallstrom was involved in controversy over his concept of the development of the Taronga Zoo, with two state government inquiries criticising his lack of professional training in zoology as well as the extent of his use of concrete in animal enclosures. According to biographer Audrey Tate, He died at Northbridge, New South Wales, on 27 February 1970. Taronga Zoo History The end of a unique institution Good zoos
A refrigerator is an appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries; the lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C. A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer; the refrigerator replaced the icebox, a common household appliance for a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, developed in the early 1800s. In 1834, the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system was built.
The first commercial ice-making machine was invented in 1854. In 1913, refrigerators for home use were invented. In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit; the introduction of Freon in the 1920s expanded the refrigerator market during the 1930s. Home freezers as separate compartments were introduced in 1940. Frozen foods a luxury item, became commonplace. Freezer units are used in industry and commerce. Commercial refrigerator and freezer units were in use for 40 years prior to the common home models; the freezer-on-top-and-refrigerator-on-bottom style has been the basic style since the 1940s, until modern refrigerators broke the trend. A vapor compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers and freezers. Newer refrigerators may include automatic defrosting, chilled water, ice from a dispenser in the door. Domestic refrigerators and freezers for food storage are made in a range of sizes. Among the smallest is a 4 L Peltier refrigerator advertised as being able to hold 6 cans of beer.
A large domestic refrigerator stands as tall as a person and may be about 1 m wide with a capacity of 600 L. Refrigerators and freezers may be free-standing, or built into a kitchen; the refrigerator allows the modern household to keep food fresh for longer than before. Freezers allow people to buy food in bulk and eat it at leisure, bulk purchases save money. Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once common. Natural means are still used to cool foods today. On mountainsides, runoff from melting snow is a convenient way to cool drinks, during the winter one can keep milk fresh much longer just by keeping it outdoors; the word "refrigeratory" was used at least as early as the 17th centuryThe history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in 1755. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.
The experiment created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans described a closed vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for the production of ice by ether under vacuum. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, in 1834, an American expatriate in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system, it was a closed-cycle device. A similar attempt was made in 1842, by American physician, John Gorrie, who built a working prototype, but it was a commercial failure. American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in 1850 for a vapor compression system that used ether; the first practical vapor compression refrigeration system was built by James Harrison, a Scottish Australian. His 1856 patent was for a vapor compression system using alcohol or ammonia, he built a mechanical ice-making machine in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854.
Harrison introduced commercial vapor-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat packing houses, by 1861, a dozen of his systems were in operation. The first gas absorption refrigeration system using gaseous ammonia dissolved in water was developed by Ferdinand Carré of France in 1859 and patented in 1860. Carl von Linde, an engineering professor at the Technological University Munich in Germany, patented an improved method of liquefying gases in 1876, his new process made possible the use of gases such as ammonia, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride as refrigerants and they were used for that purpose until the late 1920s. In 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were invented by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, with models consisting of a unit, mounted on top of an ice box. In 1914, engineer Nathaniel B. Wales of Detroit, introduced an idea for a practical electric refrigeration unit, which became the basis for the Kelvinator. A self-contained refrigerator, with a compressor on the bottom of the cabinet was invented by Alfred Mellowes in 1916.
Mellowes produced this refrigerator commercially but was bought out by William C. Durant in 1918, who started the Frigidaire company to mass-produce refrigerators. In 1918, Kelvinator company introduced the first refrigerator with
The Einstein–Szilard or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts, operates at constant pressure, requires only a heat source to operate. It was jointly invented in 1926 by Albert Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd, who patented it in the U. S. on November 11, 1930. This is an alternative design from the original invention of 1922 by the Swedish inventors Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters. From 1926 until 1934 Einstein and Szilárd collaborated on ways to improve home refrigeration technology; the two were motivated by contemporary newspaper reports of a Berlin family, killed when a seal in their refrigerator failed and leaked toxic fumes into their home. Einstein and Szilárd proposed that a device without moving parts would eliminate the potential for seal failure, explored practical applications for different refrigeration cycles. Einstein used the experience he had gained during his years at the Swiss Patent Office to apply for valid patents for their inventions in several countries.
The two were granted 45 patents in their names for three different models. It has been suggested that most of the actual inventing was performed by Szilárd, with Einstein acting as a consultant and helping with the patent-related paperwork, but others assert Einstein labored over the project; the refrigerator was not put into commercial production. Einstein and Szilard earned $750. A few demonstration units were constructed from other patents. In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity, that his team had completed a prototype, he was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled. A similar refrigeration device was proposed by Adam Grosser at a TED Talk in 2008, but has not made it into production as of 2015. In 2016 Will Broadway won the James Dyson Award for a vaccine cooler based on the technology.
Many vaccines require refrigeration to remain active, the lack of infrastructure to maintain the "cool chain" to reliably bring vaccines into more remote areas of developing countries poses a serious challenge to national immunization programs. Refrigeration Refrigeration cycle Absorption refrigerator Rudolf Goldschmidt Icy Ball Timeline of low-temperature technology Einstein, A. L. Szilárd, "Refrigeration" U. S. Patent 1,781,541, 11 November 1930. Einstein, A. L. Szilárd, "Accompanying remarks for Pat. No. 1,781,541". Mandeville Special Collections Library USC. Box 35, Folder 3, 1927. Einstein, A. L. Szilárd, "Improvements Relating to Refrigerating Apparatus.". Patent Number 282,428. Complete accept.: 5 November 1928. Einstein’s Refrigerator Using No Electricity/No Freon Revived at Oxford Flanigan, Allen, " Wolfgang Engels from the University Oldenburg rebuilt the original concept— the housing is manufactured out of concrete, i.e. the total mass of the completed apparatus is around 400 kg with 20 kg of alcohol in the refrigeration cycle.
The project was completed in 2005. Patent document US1781541 Patent document GB282428. Archived version of page