Ida Tarbell

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Ida Tarbell
Ida M Tarbell crop.jpg
Portrait taken in 1904
Born Ida Minerva Tarbell
(1857-11-05)November 5, 1857
Hatch Hollow, Amity Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania
Died January 6, 1944(1944-01-06) (aged 86)
Bridgeport, Connecticut
Occupation Teacher, writer and journalist
Notable works The History of the Standard Oil Company

Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American teacher, author, biographer, and journalist. She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism,[1] she is best known for her 1904 book, The History of the Standard Oil Company,[2] which was first serialized in McClure's Magazine from 1902 to 1904. She depicted John D. Rockefeller as crabbed, miserly, money-grubbing, and viciously effective at monopolizing the oil trade. This one masterpiece of investigative journalism would bring about the dissolution of Standard Oil as a monopoly and lead to the Clayton Antitrust Act,[3] her book would also lead to the Hepburn Act in 1906 to oversee the railroads, the 1910 Mann-Elkins Act which gave the Interstate Commerce Commision power over oil rates, and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914.[3] She wrote many other notable magazine series and biographies, including several works on President Abraham Lincoln, revealing his early life.

Early life and education[edit]

Ida Minerva Tarbell was born on a farm in Erie County, Pennsylvania, on November 5, 1857, to Esther Ann (née McCullough) and Franklin Summer Tarbell, a teacher and a joiner by trade and later an oilman,[4][5] she was born in the log cabin home of her maternal grandfather, Walter Raleigh McCullough, a Scots-Irish pioneer, and his wife.[6] Her father's distant immigrant ancestors had settled in New England in the 17th century. Tarbell had three siblings--Walter, Franklin, Jr. and Sarah. Franklin, Jr. died of Scarlet fever at a young age and her sister Sarah, who also was afflicted, would remain physically weakened throughout her life.[7] Walter became an oilman like his father, and Sarah was a painter.[5]

A Pennsylvania oil field in 1862

The Tarbell family lived in the western region of Pennsylvania in the period as new oil fields were being developed in the 1860s, utterly changing the regional economy, her father first used his trade to build wooden oil storage tanks.[8][4] In 1860, Ida's father moved the family to Rouseville, Pennsylvania.[7] There were a number of accidents that occurred in Rouseville that had an impact on Ida Tarbell. A neighbor, Henry Rouse, was drilling for oil when a light hit natural gas coming from a pump. 18 men were killed and the Tarbell's mother, Esther, cared for one of the burn victims in their home.[7] In another incident, three women died in a kitchen explosion. Tarbell was not allowed to see the bodies, but she snuck into the room where the women awaited burial. Tarbell suffered from nightmares for the rest of her life.[7]

[7]After Rouseville boom was finished they moved to Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1869 and there Tarbell's father built a family house on Main Street using lumber and fixtures from the defunct Bonta Hotel.[6][7]

Franklin Tarbell later became an oil producer and refiner in Venango County, her father's business, along with those of many other small businessmen, was adversely affected by the South Improvement Company scheme (circa 1872) between the railroads and larger oil interests. Later, Tarbell would vividly recall this event in her writing, in which she accused the leaders of the Standard Oil Company of using unfair tactics to put her father and many small oil companies out of business,[9][3] the SIC secretly worked with the railroads to raise the rates on oil shipment for independent oil men. The members of SIC received discounts and rebates to offset the rates and put the independents out of business. Franklin Tarbell participated against the SIC through marches and vigilante moves such as tipping over Standard Oil railroad tankers,[7] the government of Pennsylvania eventually moved to disband the SIC.[7]

The Tarbells were socially active, entertaining prohibitionists and women's suffragists,[10] her family subscribed to Harper's Weekly, Harper's Monthly, and the New York Tribune and it was there that Ida Tarbell followed the events of the Civil War.[7] Her family was Methodist and attended church twice a week.[7] Esther Tarbell supported women's rights and entertained women such as Mary Livermore and Frances E. Willard.[11]

Tarbell graduated at the head of her high school class in Titusville and went on to study biology at Allegheny College in 1876, where she was the only woman in her class of 41.[12] Tarbell had an interest in evolutionary biology (at her childhood home she spent many hours with a microscope) and said of her interest in science, "The quest for the truth had been born in me...the most essential of man's quests."[11] As a student, she was a founding member of the local sorority that became the Mu chapter of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority in 1876,[13] she lived separately in a house with the few other upper class women at the college and graduated in 1880 with an A.B. degree and an M.A. degree in 1883.[4]

Ida M. Tarbell

Early Career[edit]

Tarbell began her career as headmistress at Poland Union Seminary in Poland, Ohio,[4][11] she taught classes in geology, botany, geometry and trigonometry as well as languages, Greek, Latin, French and German.[14] After two years, she realized teaching was too much for her and she returned home.[11]

Reuterdahl McClure's Feb 1908 cover

Tarbell returned to Pennsylvania, where she met Theodore L. Flood, editor of The Chautauquan, a teaching supplement for home study courses at Chautauqua, New York, she was quick to accept Flood's offer to write for the publication. She later wrote, "I was glad to be useful, for I had grown up with what was called the Chautauqua movement." In 1886 she became managing editor. Her duties included proofreading, answering reader questions, providing proper pronunciation of certain words, translating foreign phrases, identifying characters, and defining words.[11] "Doing this job I began to think about facts and reading proofs. It was an exacting job which never ceases to worry me. What if the accent was in the wrong place? What if I brought somebody into the world in the wrong year?"[15]

Tarbell's article, "Women as Inventors" was published in the March 1887 issue of the Chautauquan. Tarbell was sparked into investigation when she read an article which she felt incorrectly claimed the number of women patent owners to be about 300. Tarbell traveled to the Patent Office in Washington, D.C. and met with the head of the department, R. C. McGill. McGill had put together a list of close to 2,000 women. Tarbell wrote in the article, "Three things worth knowing and believing: that women have invented a large number of useful articles; that these patents are not confined to 'clothes and kitchen' devices as the skeptical masculine mind avers; that invention is a field in which woman has large possibilities."[11][16]

Paris in the Gay Nineties[edit]

Tarbell moved to Paris at age 34 and shared an apartment with three women friends from the Chautauquan,[17] this was an exciting time in Paris, the Eiffel Tower had been finished in 1889 and the "Gay Nineties" were in full swing.Tarbell and friends enjoyed the art produced by the Impressionists including Degas, Monet, Manet, and Van Gogh.[17] Tarbell described the color of the art: "the blues and greens fairly howl they are so bright and intense." [17]Tarbell supported herself by writing for several American newspapers including the Pittsburgh Dispatch, the Cincinnati Times-Star, and the Chicago Tribune.[17] Tarbell published the short story, France Adorée, in the December 1891 issue of Scribner's Magazine.[17]

All of this work was to help support Tarbell as she worked on her first biography, a book on Madame Roland, the leader of an influential salon during the French Revolution.[17] She already wanted "to rescue women from the obscurity of history."[12] Her research lead her to an introduction to Leon Marillier, a descendent of Roland who provided Tarbell access to Roland's letters and family papers. Mariller invited Tarbell to visit the Roland Country estate, Le Clos.[17]

It was during this time that Tarbell had a shock, the newspapers in July 1892 announced that her hometown of Titusville had been completely destroyed by flood and fire. Over 150 people died and she feared her family was among them, she was relieved when she received a one word cablegram-- that read, "Safe!"[17]

McClure's Magazine[edit]

A life of Napoleon Boneparte- (1901) (14580298289)
He knew Lincoln (1907) (14771057104)

While in France, she wrote short features on prominent Frenchwomen and Parisian life for the syndicate affiliated with Samuel McClure's magazine. McClure visited her in Paris and offered her the position as editor for his new magazine.[4][17] Tarbell initially turned him down so she could continue working on the Roland biography, she began writing articles about women intellectuals and writers in Paris as well as scientists. She interviewed Louis Pasteur for an 1893 article. When the biography was finished, Tarbell returned home and joined the staff of McClure's for a salary of $3,000 a year.[17]

Tarbell returned from Paris in 1894 and in June of that year Samuel McClure contacted her and asked to meet with him to commission a biographical series on Napoleon Bonaparte.[14][4] Tarbell stayed at Twin Oaks in Washington, D.C., the home of Gardiner Green Hubbard, while working on the series.[5] Tarbell made use of Hubbard's extensive collection of Napoleon material and memorabilia as well as resources at the Library of Congress and the U.S. State Department.[5] Tarbell's schedule for the book was tight--the first installment came out only six weeks after she initially started her work.[5]Tarbell called this, "biography on a gallop."[5]

The Napoleon series proved popular and drove the circulation up on McClure's magazine--quadrupling the readership to over 100,000 by the final Napoleon installment.[5]

While still based in Washington, D.C., Tarbell researched her 20-part series, The Life of Abraham Lincoln.[5] The popular articles helped boost McClure's circulation to over 250,000.[9][18][5] The articles were collected in a book, giving Tarbell a national reputation as a major writer and the leading authority on the slain president.[19] Tarbell traveled the country meeting with and interviewing people who had known Lincoln--including his son Robert Todd Lincoln,[5] her research in the backwoods of Kentucky and Illinois uncovered the true story of Lincoln's childhood and youth. Tarbell published five books about Lincoln[5] and traveled on the lecture circuit, recounting her discoveries to large audiences.

The tight writing schedules and frequent travel had an impact on Tarbell's health, she checked into the Clifton Springs Sanitarium near Rochester, New York in 1896 on the verge of physical collapse. Besides rest and relaxation her treatment included taking the water cure,[5] she would visit the Sanitarium numerous times over the next thirty years.[5]

Standard Oil[edit]

In 1898, Tarbell moved to New York where McClure's was based; in 1902, she began publishing serialized articles in McClure's that were later collected in the book, The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)[9] and is considered to be a masterpiece of investigative journalism.[3] The articles and book helped bring about the breakup of Standard Oil's monopoly and helped usher in Hepburn Act of 1906, the Mann-Elkins Act, the creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Clayton Anti-trust Act.[3]

Tarbell in 1904

In 1901 Tarbell began to research the Standard Oil trust with the help of an assistant, John Siddall.[19] Tarbell began her interviews with Henry H. Rogers, to whom she was first introduced by writer Mark Twain.[20] Rogers had begun his career during the American Civil War in western Pennsylvania oil regions where Tarbell had grown up; in 1902 she conducted detailed interviews with the Standard Oil magnate.[21]

Rogers, wily and normally guarded in matters related to business and finance, may have been under the impression her work was to be complimentary, he was apparently unusually forthcoming. However, Tarbell's interviews with Rogers formed the basis for her negative exposé of the business practices of industrialist John D. Rockefeller and the massive Standard Oil organization.[21] Her investigative journalism was serialized from 1902 to 1904 in McClure's Magazine; her first article on Standard Oil was published with pieces by Lincoln Steffens[18] and Ray Stannard Baker.[14] Together these nineteen articles[4] ushered in the era of muckraking journalism, the series was later published as a book in 1904, The History of the Standard Oil Company.

Tarbell's biggest obstacle, however, was neither her gender nor Rockefeller's opposition. Rather, her biggest obstacle was the craft of journalism as practiced at the turn of the twentieth century, she investigated Standard Oil and Rockefeller by using documents—hundreds of thousands of pages scattered throughout the nation—and then amplified her findings through interviews with the corporation's executives and competitors, government regulators, and academic experts past and present. In other words, she proposed to practice what today is considered investigative reporting, which did not exist in 1900. Indeed, she invented a new form of journalism.[1]

And then, in an inspirational tale for journalists, Ida Tarbell went to work, her History of the Standard Oil Company spotlighted Rockefeller's practices and mobilized the public. Readers nationwide awaited each chapter of the story, serialized in 19 installments by McClure's between 1902 and 1904.[22]

Her stories on Standard Oil began in the November 1902 issue of McClure's and lasted for nineteen issues, she was meticulous in detailing Rockefeller's early interest in oil and how the industry began. After the series was over, she wrote a profile of Rockefeller, perhaps the first CEO profile ever, though she never met or even talked to him.[9] Rockefeller called Tarbell, "Miss Tarbarrel."[3]

Tarbell's father expressed concern to her about publishing the articles warning her that Rockefeller would stop at nothing and would ruin the magazine.[3] One of Rockefeller's banks did indeed threaten the magazine's financial status to which Tarbell shocked the bank executive by replying, "Of course that makes no difference to me."[3]

The History of the Standard Oil Company

Tarbell developed investigative reporting techniques, digging into public documents across the country. Separately, these documents provided individual instances of Standard Oil's strong-arm tactics against rivals, railroad companies and others that got in its way. Organized by Tarbell into a cogent history, they became a damning portrayal of big business. A subhead on the cover of Weinberg's book encapsulates it this way: "How a female investigative journalist brought down the world's greatest tycoon and broke up the Standard Oil monopoly."[23] Tarbell found one key piece of information missing. A book called the Rise and Fall of the South Improvement Company which had been published in 1873.[3] Standard Oil and Rockefeller had its roots in the South Improvement Company's illegal schemes. Standard Oil had destroyed all available copies of the book, but Tarbell was finally able to locate one copy in the New York Public Library.[3]

President Theodore Roosevelt gave Tarbell and her peers including Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker the label, "muckrakers." Tarbell's exposé of Standard Oil first appeared in the January 1903 issue of McClure's along with Steffans' investigation of political corruption in Minneapolis and Baker's expose on labor union practices. [24]The term muckraker came from John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress describing a Man with a Muckrake forever clearing muck from the floor. Roosevelt said of the muckrakers, "The man who never does anything else, who never thinks or speaks or writes save of his feats with the muckrake, speedily becomes, not a help to society, not an incitement to good, but one of the most potent forces of evil."[24]

Tarbell disliked the muckracker label and wrote an article, "Muckraker or Historian," in which she justified her efforts for exposing the oil trust, she referred to

this classification of muckraker, which I did not like. All the radical element, and I numbered many friends among them, were begging me to join their movements. I soon found that most of them wanted attacks, they had little interest in balanced findings. Now I was convinced that in the long run the public they were trying to stir would weary of vituperation, that if you were to secure permanent results the mind must be convinced.[25]

Ida Tarbell House garden

The American Magazine[edit]

Tarbell made a number of major changes in her life in 1906--she moved to Connecticut and left McClure's magazine for the American Magazine, she bought a 40-acre farm in Redding Ridge, Connecticut which she named Twin Oaks.[24] Mark Twain and other New York publishing people lived nearby and Tarbell frequently entertained friends there. Tarbell wrote of the work required on a farm, "Things happened: the roof leaked; the grass must be cut if I was to have a comfortable sward to sit on; water in the house was imperative. And what I had not reckoned with came from all the corners of my land: incessant calls--fields calling to be rid of underbrush and weeds and turned to their proper work; a garden spot calling for a chance to show what it could do; apple trees begging to be trimmed and sprayed. I had bought an abandoned far, and it cried loud to go about its business." [24]

Tarbell wrote for McClure's from 1894 until 1906.[4] By then, S. S. McClure had become more and more an absentee publisher while occasionally dropping in to override ideas and Tarbell's orders.[24] Tarbell and John Phillips both resigned from McClure's and were followed by Ray Stannard Baker, Lincoln Steffens, and John Siddall.[24] Tarbell and Philips worked together to purchase the American Magazine and raise money to form the Phillips Publishing Company. Phillips became President but Tarbell was not a member of management. Instead of focusing on muckraking journalism, the magazine steered away from reporting what was "wrong" in society and focused on what was "right."[24] She became the associate editor the American Magazine and remained there until 1915.[4]

Tarbell wrote a series of important articles at the American magazine.[24] Tarbell investigated tariffs and their impact on American businesses and consumers.[24] Tarbell also traveled to Chicago to investigate their public transportation,[24] she met Jane Addams and stayed at Hull House in 1908.[24] There she participated in the group's programs which included teaching immigrant women English, job and home making skills.[24]

Ida Tarbell - between 1910 and 1930

Tarbell examined the positive side of American business in a series of articles written between 1912 and 1916,[24] she toured the United States and met with factory owners and workers and their families. Tarbell said of her own muckraking reputation, "Was it not the duty of those who were called muckrakers to rake up the good earth as well as the noxious?"[24] She was fascinated by Thomas Lynch of the Frick Coke Company who believed that "Safety First" was preferable with than accidents for his mining employees, and he also committed to providing his workers decent living conditions,[24] she also admired and wrote about Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company, and his belief that offering high pay would create excellent work, as well as his ideas around mass production.[24]

Women's Suffrage[edit]

While Tarbell established her reputation in a field dominated by men, her articles and novels about women began to change starting in 1909, the feminism appeared to fade as she recommended that women embrace home life and the family, saying they had a "true role as wives, mothers and homemakers."[12] She held this position until her death. Former allies among suffragists were dismayed at her change and her speaking to anti-suffragist organizations. Tarbell published the article, "Making a Man of Herself," in American magazine in 1912 which infuriated her readers and activists.[26] Helen Keller described Tarbell as "getting old."[12] Historian Robert Stinson believes that she was making new public statements about an ambiguity she had lived in her own life.[9] Tarbell collected her essays on women and published them in a book called, The Business of Being a Woman,[26] the book was poorly received.[26] Tarbell said of the book, "That title was like a red rag to many of my militant friends, the idea that woman had a business assigned by nature and society which was of more importance than public life disturbed them; even if it was so, they did not want it emphasized."[26] Even Tarbell's own mother, Esther, and a lifelong suffragette, criticized Ida's position.[26]

Lecture Circuit[edit]

Tarbell's career shifted in 1915 when the American magazine named John Siddall as editor.[27] Tarbell joined the Chautauqua Science and Literary Circuit, a lecture and entertainment tour filled with public speakers, singers and other acts such as trained dogs and yodelers, before the tour Tarbell trained for public speaking with Frank Sargent of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. The tour schedule was brutal. Tarbell said, "...I signed up for a seven weeks' circuit, forty-nine days in forty-nine different places.[27] Tarbell was exhausted at the end, but went on to sign up for more over the next few years.[27]

World War I and Red Cross[edit]

Council of National Defense - Miss Ida M. Tarbell, Woman's Committee, Council of National Defense - NARA - 26432785

When the Americans joined World War I in April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson invited Tarbell to take part in a new Committee--the Women's Committee of the Council of National Defense,[27] the goal of the women's committee was to mobilize war efforts of American women and the first issue addressed was a developing food crisis.The group encouraged women to plant vegetable gardens and promoted both drying and canning of foods. Other efforts included knitting, sewing, bandage making, and the opening of day-care centers to operate while women began working in factories.[27]

Norman Rockwell Red Cross Magazine 1918

The committee was disbanded with the end of the war in 1918, and Tarbell was offered a job working for the Red Cross Magazine and then traveled once again to Paris, France,[27] she interviewed Parisians about how the war had affected them.She also traveled to the countryside to interview farmers living in the wreckage of their former homes. Tarbell focused on the experience of the average Frenchwoman with such articles as "The French Woman and Her New World," "The Homing Instinct of Woman," and "That Brave Northwest."[27]

Later Career[edit]

Tarbell had a physical collapse in 1918 and spent time in the John Hopkins Hospital in Maryland, it was later realized that she was suffering from the onset of Parkinson's Disease.[28] Tarbell kept on working as a freelancing journalist and continued on the lecture circuit.[28]

Tarbell focused her later career on social work and served on two Presidential Conferences.[4] Tarbell was a member of President Wilson's Industrial Conference in 1919 representing Pen and Brush Club[29] of Gramercy Park, New York City and served on a committee looking into hours of labor along with Robert Brookings.[30] Among recommendations of Tarbell's committee were protections aimed at the health of women workers including an eight hour day, six-day work week and no work between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a. m.[30] John D. Rockefeller was also a representative at the Conference.[30]

Tarbell also served on President Warren G. Harding's 1921 Unemployment Conference.[4] [31] The conference was suggested by Herbert Hoover to address a recession in 1921,[32] among the committee's Tarbell served on were Organization, Public Works, Civic Emergency Measures, Publications and Standing Committee of the Conference.[33]

Tarbell also wrote another biography, this one of Judge Elbert H. Gary, the chairman of U.S. Steel Corporation.[28] She was not initially interested in the work, but Gary convinced her that is she uncovered any wrongdoing by his company, he meant to correct it, she earned $10,000 for the book and she thought her work was courageous while critics described her work as cowardly. One review was titled, "The Taming of Ida Tarbell," and accused her of falling in with her sworn enemy, big business.[28]

Tarbell also wrote a series of articles on Benito Mussolini for McCall's magazine in the 1920s.[28]

In addition to serving as the President of the Pen and Brush Club for 30 years beginning in 1913, Tarbell was also a member of the Colony Club and the Cosmopolitan Club.[26]

Death and legacy[edit]

Tarbell completed her autobiography, All in a Day's Work, in 1939 when she was 82. Reviews were mixed for the book,[28] she was at work on another book, Life After Eighty, when she died of pneumonia at Bridgeport Hospital in Bridgeport, Connecticut on January 6, 1944, after being in the hospital since December 1943. She was 86.[4]

Tarbell has been well remembered in the decades since her death; in 1993, half a century later, the Ida Tarbell House in Easton, Connecticut, was declared a National Historic Landmark. In 2000 she was inducted posthumously into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.[34]

Ida Tarbell House

On September 14, 2002, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Tarbell as part of a series of four stamps honoring women journalists.[35]

The History of the Standard Oil Company was listed as No. 5 in a 1999 list by New York University of the top 100 works of 20th-century American journalism.[36]


Tarbell resided with her sister Sarah Tarbell in Easton, Connecticut at Rock House and Valley Roads,[4] over the years, several other family members also resided on the property, including her niece and nephew, Clara and Tristram Tripper who lived in a cottage. Tarbell's brother Will and his wife also came to live there when Will suffered an emotional breakdown.[28]

Representation in other media[edit]

  • Charles Klein's political play, The Lion and the Mouse (1905), opened soon after Tarbell's series on Standard Oil had been published in McClure's Magazine, and the plot was thought to be based on her campaign. (Its title is that of an Aesop's fable.) Its 686 continuous performances set a record for any American play in New York, and four road companies took the play on the road.[12]
  • Drunk History (Season 5, Episode 6) Underdogs featured Ida Tarbell as played by Shannon Woodward


Books and writings by Ida Tarbell[edit]

  • All in the day's work : an autobiography, 1939
  • A reporter for Lincoln; story of Henry E. Wing, soldier and newspaperman, 1927
  • He knew Lincoln, and other Billy Brown stories, 1922
  • Peacemakers—blessed and otherwise; observations, reflections and irritations at an international conference, 1922
  • Boy scouts' life of Lincoln, 1921
  • The Rising of the Tide; The Story of Sabinsport, 1919
  • In Lincoln's Chair, 1920
  • New Ideals in Business, An Account of Their Practice and Their Effects upon Men and Profits, 1916
  • The Ways of Woman, 1915
  • The Tariff in Our Times, 1911
  • Father Abraham, 1909
  • He Knew Lincoln, 1907
  • Madame Roland: a biographical study (1905/1916)
  • The History of the Standard Oil Company, 1905/1912/1950
  • The Life of Abraham Lincoln 1900 1903 1909 1917 1920 1924 1928
  • A Life of Napoleon Bonaparte: with a sketch of Josephine, Empress of the French, 1901/1909/1919
  • The Early Life of Abraham Lincoln, 1896
  • A Short Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1895
  • The History of the Standard Oil Company, 2 vols., Gloucester, Mass: Peter Smith, 1904.
  • The Business of Being a Woman, The Macmillan Company, 1921
  • The Life of Elbert H. Gary: The Story of Steel, D. Appleton and Co., 1925
  • Owen D. Young: A New Type of Industrial Leader. Macmillan Company (1932). ISBN 0-518-19069-2.
  • Books online by Tarbell


  1. ^ a b Steve Weinberg (2008). Taking on the Trust: The Epic Battle of Ida Tarbell and John D. Rockefeller. W.W. Norton & Co. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-393-04935-0. 
  2. ^ "Ida Tarbell". Biography. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Conway, J. North (1993). American literacy : fifty books that define our culture and ourselves (1st ed ed.). New York: William Morrow & Company. pp. 207–211. ISBN 0688119638. OCLC 27380188. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Ida Tarbell, 86, Dies in Bridgeport". The New York Times. January 7, 1944. Retrieved 2018-06-13. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 38–45. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  6. ^ a b Tarbell, Ida M. All in the Day's Work, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 1–17. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  8. ^ Kethleen Brady, Ida Tarbell: Portrait of a Muckraker (New York: Seaview/Putnam, 1984)
  9. ^ a b c d e "American Experience | The Rockefellers | People & Events". Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  10. ^ Brady
  11. ^ a b c d e f Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 18–27. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Robert Stinson, "Ida M. Tarbell and the Ambiguities of Feminism", Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1977), 101#2, pp 217-239, (subscription required)
  13. ^ "A Theta Trailblazer" (PDF). The Kappa Alpha Theta Magazine. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c Randolph, Josephine (April 1999). "A Notable Pennsylvanian: Ida Minerva Tarbell, 1857-1944". Pennsylvania History. 
  15. ^ Weinberg, Steve (2008). Taking on the Trust: The Epic Battle of Ida Tarbell and John D. Rockefeller. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-393-04935-0. 
  16. ^ "Counting Women Inventors | Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation". Retrieved 2018-06-18. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 28–37. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  18. ^ a b Steiger, Paul (March 28, 2008). "A Reporter at the Ramparts". The Wall Street Journal. 
  19. ^ a b Judith and William Serrin. Muckraking! The Journalism that Changed America, New York: The New York Press, 2002
  20. ^ Yergin, Daniel; The Prize, p. 103; Simon & Schuster; 1991
  21. ^ a b King, Gilbert (July 5, 2012). "The Woman Who Took on the Tycoon". Smithsonian Magazine. 
  22. ^
  23. ^ Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 62–76. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  25. ^ Tarbell, Ida M. (1939). All in the Day's Work: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillian. p. 242. ISBN 0-252-07136-0. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Somervill, Barbara (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 77–81. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Somervill, Barbara A. (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds. pp. 82–90. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Somerville, Barbara (2002). Ida Tarbell : pioneer investigative reporter. Greensboro, N.C.: M. Reynolds. pp. 91–99. ISBN 1883846870. OCLC 48544440. 
  29. ^ "Pen + Brush History | Pen + Brush". PEN + BRUSH. Retrieved 2018-06-13. 
  30. ^ a b c National industrial conference (1919 : Washington, D. C. ). Proceedings of the first Industrial conference (called by the President) October 6 to 23, 1919. Chairman, Hon. Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior; adviser to the conference, Hon. William B. Wilson, secretary of labor; secretaries, Hon. Lathrop Brown, Mr. J. J. Cotter. State Library of Pennsylvania. Govt. print. off. 
  31. ^ M., Tarbell, Ida (1921-09-15). "Telegram: Ida M. Tarbell to President Warren G. Harding, September 15, 1921". 
  32. ^ "The President's Conference on Unemployment – 1921". Hoover Heads. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2018-06-13. 
  33. ^ Conference on Unemployment, Washington; Hoover, Herbert (1921). Report of the President's Conference on unemployment . Cornell University Library. Washington, Govt. print. off. 
  34. ^ "Ida Tarbell Home Page". Allegheny University. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  35. ^ "Welcome - USPS". 
  36. ^ Barringer, Felicity. "MEDIA; Journalism's Greatest Hits: Two Lists of a Century's Top Stories". 
  37. ^ "Underdogs". 27 February 2018 – via 

Further reading[edit]

  • Brady, Kathleen. Ida Tarbell: Portrait of a Muckraker (2004)
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. "The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism." New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.
  • Kochersberger Jr., Robert C., ed. More Than a Muckraker: Ida Minerva Tarbell's Lifetime in Journalism, The University of Tennessee Press, 1995 - collection of articles
  • Limerick, Patricia, and Brian Black. (2002, February 27). "Country forgets an old Big Oil lesson, and Enron results", USA TODAY, p. A.13.
  • Randolph, Josephine D. "A Notable Pennsylvanian: Ida Minerva Tarbell, 1857-1944," Pennsylvania History (1999) 66#2 pp 215–241, short scholarly biography
  • Serrin, Judith and William. Muckraking! The Journalism that Changed America, New York: The New York Press, 2002.
  • Somervill, Barbara A. Ida Tarbell: Pioneer Investigative Reporter Greensboro, nc : M. Reynolds., 2002
  • Weinberg, Steve Taking on the Trust: The Epic Battle of Ida Tarbell and John D. Rockefeller (2008)

External links[edit]