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Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations, it was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, Gay-Lussac's law. The ideal gas law is written in an empirical form: P V = n R T, where P, V and T are the pressure and temperature, it is the same for all gases. It can be derived from the microscopic kinetic theory, as was achieved by August Krönig in 1856 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857; the state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure and temperature. The modern form of the equation relates these in two main forms; the temperature used in the equation of state is an absolute temperature: the appropriate SI unit is the kelvin. The most introduced forms are: p V = n R T = n k B N A T, where: p is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the amount of substance of gas, R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant, equal to the product of the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, k B is the Boltzmann constant N A is the Avogadro constant T is the absolute temperature of the gas.

In SI units, p is measured in pascals, V is measured in cubic metres, N is measured in moles, T in kelvins. R has the value 8.314 J/ ≈ 2 cal/, or 0.0821 L·atm/. How much gas is present could be specified by giving the mass instead of the chemical amount of gas. Therefore, an alternative form of the ideal gas law may be useful; the chemical amount is equal to total mass of the gas divided by the molar mass: n = m M. By replacing n with m/M and subsequently introducing density ρ = m/V, we get: p V = m M R T p = m V R T M p = ρ R M T Defining the specific gas constant Rspecific as the ratio R/M, p = ρ R specific T This form of the ideal gas law is useful because it links pressure and temperature in a unique formula independent of the quantity of the considered gas. Alternatively, the law may be written in terms of the specific volume v, the reciprocal of density, as p v = R specific T, it is common in engineering and meteorological applications, to represent the specific gas constant by the symbol R.

In such cases, the universal gas constant is given a different symbol such as R ¯ or R ∗ to distinguish it. In any case, the context and/or units of the gas constant should make it clear as to whether the universal or specific gas constant is being referred to. In statistical mechanics the following molecular equation is derived from first principles P = n k B T, where P is the absolute pressure of the gas, n is the number density of the molecules, T is the absolute temperature, kB is the Boltzmann constant relating temperature and energy, given by: k B = R N A where NA is the Avogadro constant. From this we notice that for a gas of mass m, with an average particle mass of μ times the atomic mass constant, mu, the number of molecules will be given by N = m μ m u, since ρ = m/V = nμmu, we find that the ideal gas law can be rewritten as P = 1 V m μ m u k B T = k B μ m u ρ T. In SI units, P is measured in pascals, V in cubic metres, T in measu

Lambuth University

Lambuth University was a liberal arts university in Jackson, Tennessee. It was active from 1843 to 2011 and was supported by the Memphis Annual Conference of the United Methodist Church; the university began as the Memphis Conference Female Institute in 1843 and was renamed in honor of Walter Russell Lambuth, a Methodist missionary who traveled globally. Lambuth's athletic teams participated in the NAIA's Mid-South Conferences. After several years of financial struggles, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools opted not to renew Lambuth's accreditation in 2011. Due to both the financial and accreditation problems, the Board of Trustees voted in April 2011 to cease operations two months later. Final commencement exercises were held April 30, 2011; the University of Memphis acquired the campus, now the Lambuth branch campus of the University of Memphis. Ron Dixon – player for the National Football League New York Giants Hugh Freeze – Head football coach of Liberty University William M. Greathouse – President of Trevecca Nazarene University, President of Nazarene Theological Seminary.

Lee Hee-ho – First Lady of the Republic of Korea Adriane Lenox – Tony Award-winning actress James W. Moore Methodist minister and author Stefan Rodgers – offensive tackle for the Baltimore Ravens Corey WebsterNew Zealand basketball player George E. Young – member of the Oklahoma State House of Representatives University of Memphis - Lambuth Lambuth University at the Wayback Machine

Palestinian (horse)

Palestinian was an American Thoroughbred racehorse whose wins included the important Brooklyn Handicap and the Jersey Stakes in which he set a new track record. In the 1949 U. S. Triple Crown series, he finished second in the Preakness Stakes and third in both the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes. Bred by longtime racing partners Isidor Bieber and trainer Hirsch Jacobs, Palestinian was raced in Bieber's name throughout his career. In addition to racing success, Palestinian was the sire of the good runner Promised Land who more was the damsire of Hall of Fame inductee Spectacular Bid who won the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. Palestinian was the damsire of Skip Trial who sired Hall of Fame inductee Skip Away

Yevgeny Zamyatin

Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin, sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire. He is most famous for a story set in a dystopian future police state. Despite having been a prominent Old Bolshevik, Zamyatin was disturbed by the policies pursued by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union following the October Revolution. In 1921, We became the first work banned by the Soviet censorship board. Zamyatin arranged for We to be smuggled to the West for publication; the subsequent outrage this sparked within the Party and the Union of Soviet Writers led directly to Zamyatin's successful request for exile from his homeland. Due to his use of literature to criticize Soviet society, Zamyatin has been referred to as one of the first Soviet dissidents. Zamyatin was born in Tambov Governorate, 300 km south of Moscow, his father was a Russian Orthodox priest and schoolmaster, his mother a musician. In a 1922 essay, Zamyatin recalled, "You will see a lonely child, without companions of his own age, on his stomach, over a book, or under the piano, on which his mother is playing Chopin."He may have had synesthesia since he gave letters and sounds qualities.

For instance, he saw the letter Л as having pale and light blue qualities. He studied naval engineering in Saint Petersburg from 1902 until 1908, during which time he joined the Bolsheviks, he was sent into internal exile in Siberia. However, he escaped and returned to Saint Petersburg where he lived illegally before moving to the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1906 to finish his studies. After returning to Russia, he began to write fiction as a hobby, he was arrested and exiled a second time in 1911, but amnestied in 1913. His Uyezdnoye in 1913, which satirized life in a small Russian town, brought him a degree of fame; the next year he was tried for maligning the Imperial Russian Military in his story Na Kulichkakh. He continued to contribute articles to various Marxist newspapers. After graduating as an engineer for the Imperial Russian Navy, Zamyatin worked professionally at home and abroad. In 1916 he was sent to the United Kingdom to supervise the construction of icebreakers at the shipyards in Walker and Wallsend while living in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Zamyatin recalled, "In England, I built ships, looked at ruined castles, listened to the thud of bombs dropped by German zeppelins, wrote The Islanders. I regret that I did not see the February Revolution, know only the October Revolution; this is the same as never having been in love and waking up one morning married for ten years or so.."Zamyatin's The Islanders, satirizing English life, the themed A Fisher of Men, were both published after his return to Russia in late 1917. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 he edited several journals, lectured on writing, edited Russian translations of works by Jack London, O. Henry, H. G. Wells, others. Zamyatin supported the October Revolution, but opposed the increasing use of censorship which followed, his works became satirical and critical toward the CPSU. Although he supported them before they came to power he came to disagree more and more with their policies those regarding censorship of the arts. In his 1921 essay "I Am Afraid," Zamyatin wrote: "True literature can exist only when it is created, not by diligent and reliable officials, but by madmen, heretics, dreamers and skeptics."

This attitude made his position difficult as the 1920s wore on. In 1923, Zamyatin arranged for the manuscript of his novel We to be smuggled to E. P. Dutton and Company in New York City. After being translated into English by Gregory Zilboorg, the novel was published in 1924. In 1927, Zamyatin went much further, he smuggled the original Russian text to Marc Lvovich Slonim editor of a Russian émigré journal and publishing house based in Prague. To the fury of the State, copies of the Slonim edition began being smuggled back to the USSR and secretly passed from hand to hand. Zamyatin's dealing with Western publishers triggered a mass offensive by the Soviet State against him; as a result, he was blacklisted from publishing anything in his homeland. We has been discussed as a political satire aimed at the police state of the Soviet Union. There are many other dimensions, however, it may variously be examined as a polemic against the optimistic scientific socialism of H. G. Wells, whose works Zamyatin had published, with the heroic verses of the Proletarian Poets, as an example of Expressionist theory, as an illustration of the archetype theories of Carl Jung as applied to literature.

George Orwell believed that Aldous Huxley's Brave New World must be derived from We. However, in a 1962 letter to Christopher Collins, Huxley says that he wrote Brave New World as a reaction to H. G. Wells' utopias. Kurt Vonnegut said that in writing Player Piano he "cheerfully ripped off the plot of Brave New World, whose plot had been cheerfully ripped off from Yevgeny Zamyatin's We." In 1994, We received a Prometheus Award in the Libertarian Futurist Society's "Hall of Fame" category. In addition to We, Zamyatin wrote a number of short stories, in fairy tale form, that constituted satirical criticism of Communist ideology. In one story, the mayor of a city

PowerUP (accelerator)

PowerUP boards were dual-processor 68k–PowerPC accelerator boards designed by Phase5 Digital Products for Amiga computers. They had two different processors working in parallel, sharing the complete address space of the Amiga computer system. In 1995, Amiga Technologies GmbH announced they were going to port AmigaOS to PowerPC; as part of their Power Amiga plan, Amiga Technologies was going to launch new Power Amiga models using the PowerPC 604e RISC CPU and in co-operation with Amiga Technologies Phase5 would release AmigaOS 4-compatible PowerPC accelerator boards for old Amiga 1200, Amiga 3000 and Amiga 4000 models. However, in 1996 Amiga Technologies' parent company ESCOM entered into deep financial problems and could not support Amiga development. Due to a lack of resources, the PowerPC project at Amiga Technologies stalled and Phase5 had to launch accelerators without a PowerPC-native AmigaOS; as a stopgap solution, a new PowerUP kernel was created allowing new PPC-native software run parallel with 68k Amiga OS.

To complicate things further, former Commodore International chief engineer Dave Haynie questioned Phase5's plans to develop PowerPC boards without Amiga Technologies: "Their approach on the software front is kind of a hack, on the hardware front it's just too much like the old Commodore. They announced plans to write a new Amiga OS-compatible operating system. Wolf Dietrich earlier commented that "we found that Amiga Technologies offers us no sort of outlook or basis for developing into the future". There is no detailed information about. According to Ralph Schmidt in an AmigActive article featuring MorphOS, there were about 10,000 people using Phase5 PowerPC accelerator boards; the unofficial PowerUP support page estimates similar figures. PowerUP kernel is a multitasking kernel developed by Ralph Schmidt for Phase5 PowerPC accelerator boards; the kernel ran alongside the AmigaOS where 68k native software could run parallel. The PowerUP kernel used ELF as the executable format and supported runtime linking and custom sections.

This caused controversy in the Amiga community when developers thought that phase5 was bringing "too Unixish stuff" to Amiga. It was feared that PowerUP kernel introducing shared objects and dynamic linking would replace the original shared library model and shared objects were indeed adapted into AmigaOS. Another controversy was caused by different designs and purposes of Blizzard PPC and Cyberstorm PPC boards; the Blizzard PPC was designed to fit Amiga 1200 as a standalone device which would not need installing additional software but utilised Amiga's unique AutoConfig feature. This caused problems to some 3rd party developers who developed their own PPC kernels for PowerUP cards since they could not work on Amiga 1200 without removing the PowerUP kernel first. A few hundred titles were released for PowerUP including TurboPrint PPC, Amiga datatypes, MP3 and MPEG players and various plugins including Flash Video plugin for Voyager web browser. On May 12, 1997, Phase5 announced PowerUP accelerator board for Amiga 2000 computers.

The card never got past the prototype stage and hence never released to the public. PowerPC 604e at 150, 180 or 200 MHz 68040 at 25 MHz or 68060 at 50 MHz Four 72 pin SIMM sockets accepting 128 MB RAM, 64 bit wide Ultra Wide SCSI controller Expansion slot for the CyberVision PPC Also known as Blizzard 603e, this accelerator board was designed for Amiga 1200 and plugged into the trapdoor slot, it used low end PowerPC 603e processor designed for portable and embedded use. PowerPC 603e at 160, 200 or 240 MHz 68040 or 68LC040 at 25 MHz or 68060 at 50 MHz Two 72 pin SIMM sockets accepting 256 MB RAM, 32 bit wide SCSI II controller Expansion slot for the BlizzardVision PPC This accelerator board was designed for Amiga 3000 and Amiga 4000; the accelerator board was famous for its high performance due to its 64 bit wide memory bus and PowerPC 604e processor. According to Phase 5 it could sustain memory transfers up to 68 MB/s on the 68060 and up to 160 MB/s on the 604e. PowerPC 604e at 150, 180, 200 or 233 MHz 68040 at 25 MHz or 68060 at 50 MHz Four 72 pin SIMM sockets accepting 128 MB RAM, 64 bit wide Ultra Wide SCSI controller Expansion slot for the CyberVision PPC CyberVision PPC and BlizzardVision PPC were graphics board add-ons for CyberStorm PPC and Blizzard PPC accelerator boards.

BlizzardVision PPC could be fitted into an Amiga 1200 desktop case. They had a RAMDAC with a bandwidth of 230 MHz capable to display resolutions with 80 Hz vertical refresh rate up to 1152×900 pixels at 24 bits or 1600×1200 pixels at 16 bits. Permedia 2 GPU 8 MB 64-bit-wide SGRAM 3D LCD shutter glass connector CyberGraphX V3 drivers CyberGL 3D library

Christine Ferea

Christine Ferea' is an American mixed martial artist and competes in the Flyweight division of the Invicta Fighting Championships. Ferea was born in San Jose, United States. Growing up as a troubled kid, she fought in many street fights, she signed up at a gym in the hope to get fit, after she was humbled by many fighters there, she started Muay Thai training. Ferea's moniker "Misfit", is tattooed on her left shin. Ferea amassed a record of 13-0 in amateur Muay Thai, 1-0 professionally, she transitioned to MMA. Ferea amassed a record of 3-0 in amateur mixed martial arts career from 2012 to 2015, fighting under King of the Cage, Tuff-N-Uff, Dragon House, prior to being signed by Invicta. Ferea made her Invicta debut on January 14, 2017, against Rachael Ostovich at Invicta FC 21: Anderson vs. Tweet, she won the fight via technical knock-out on round three. Her next fight came on May 20, 2017, facing Tiffany van Soest at Invicta FC 23: Porto vs. Niedźwiedź, she lost the fight via unanimous decision.

On December 8, 2017, Ferea faced Karina Rodríguez at Invicta FC 26: Niedwiedz. She lost the fight via unanimous decision. List of current Invicta FC fighters Professional MMA record for Christine Ferea from Sherdog @ Christine Ferea