An identity document is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is called an identity card, or passport card; some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID. In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver's license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification; some countries do not accept driver's licenses for identification because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification; some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or a national identity card from their home country available at any time if they do not have a residence permit in the country.
The identity document is used to connect a person to information about the person in a database. The photo and the possession of it is used to connect the person with the document; the connection between the identity document and information database is based on personal information present on the document, such as the bearer's full name, birth date, address, an identification number, card number, gender and more. A unique national identification number is the most secure way, but some countries lack such numbers or don't mention them on identity documents. A version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414. For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document. Photographic identification appeared in 1876 but it did not become used until the early 20th century when photographs became part of passports and other ID documents such as driver's licenses, all of which came to be referred to as "photo IDs".
Both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal. The shape and size of identity cards were standardized in 1985 by ISO/IEC 7810; some modern identity documents are smart cards including a difficult-to-forge embedded integrated circuit that were standardized in 1988 by ISO/IEC 7816. New technologies allow identity cards to contain biometric information, such as a photograph. Many countries now issue electronic identity cards. Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier and therefore support the universal adoption of identity cards. In countries that don't have a national identity card, there is, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards. In many countries – English-speaking countries such as Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States – there are no government-issued compulsory identity cards for all citizens.
Ireland's Public Services Card is not considered a national identity card by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection, but many say it is in fact becoming that, without public debate or a legislative foundation. There is debate in these countries about whether such cards and their centralised database constitute an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. A 2006 survey of UK Open University students concluded that the planned compulsory identity card under the Identity Cards Act 2006 coupled with a central government database generated the most negative response among several alternative configurations. None of the countries listed above mandate possession of identity documents, but they have de facto equivalents since these countries still require proof of identity in many situations. For example, all vehicle drivers must have a driving licence, young people may need to use specially issued "proof of age cards" when purchasing alcohol.
In addition, uniquely among native English-speaking countries without ID cards, the United States requires all its male residents between the ages of 18 and 25, including foreigners, to register for military conscription. Arguments for identity documents as such: In order to avoid mismatching people, to fight fraud, there should be a way, as securely as possible, to prove a person's identity; every human being carries their own personal identification in the form of DNA, hard to falsify or to discard. For non-state commercial and private interactions, this may shortly become the preferred identifier, rendering a state-issued identity card a lesser evil than the extensive privacy risks associated with everyday use of a person's genetic profile for identification purposes. Arguments for national identity documents: If using only private alternatives, such as ID cards issued by banks, the inherent lack of consistency regarding issuance policies can lead to downstream problems. For example, in Sweden private companies such as banks refused to issue ID cards to individuals without a Swedish card.
This forced the government to start issuing national cards. It is harder to control information usage by private companies, such as when credit card i
Byron Anderson Stover known as B. A. Stover or Dutch Stover, was an American businessman and politician from the state of Oregon, he was a Republican who served four years in the Oregon House of Representatives, where he represented a large rural district in central and southern Oregon. Today, Dutch Stover Park in Oregon is named in his honor. Stover was born in Versailles, Ohio, on November 8, 1890, the son of William H. Stover and Lucinda Stover, he attended Parker Elementary School in Ohio. Stover attended high school in Dayton, graduating from Steele High School in 1908. Stover went on to attend college at Ohio State University. While there, he was a two-year letterman in that sport, he was a member of Beta Theta Pi fraternity. Stover graduated from the university in 1913 with a degree in forestry. Stover moved to Bend, Oregon in 1914. In Bend, Stover found a job with the Bend Company, which operated a sawmill on the west bank of the Deschutes River. However, he soon secured a position as a bank teller with the First National Bank.
He stayed with the bank until the United States entered World War I. When America entered World War I, Stover volunteered for military service, he was accepted into the United States Army officer training program and received his training at the Presidio in San Francisco, California. When he finished his training, Stover was commissioned as a second lieutenant, he served in France with the 17th Field Artillery Regiment. While in Europe, he participated in the Battle of Chateau Thierry, spending six weeks on the front lines. After his combat tour, he was sent to train troops in South Carolina for three months before being sent back to France. After the war, Stover spent several years in Washington. While living there, he began his career in marketing and exhibited motion pictures. In 1923, he purchased the Capitol Theatre there. A year he married Ruth Cushing and she joined him in Bend. Over the years, Stover became one of Bend's most prominent businessmen. After purchasing the Capitol Theatre, he went on to buy the adjacent Liberty Theatre and several other movie theatres in and around Bend.
He was well known in the Bend community for treating local children to a free movie every year on his birthday and on Christmas Day as well. He gave free tickets to local high school athletes, he remained in the theatre business until 1946. After retiring from the theatre business, Stover became a partner in a men’s clothing store in downtown Bend. However, he continued to own and operate a theatre in Gilchrist until 1964. In addition to his business interests, Stover was always active in civic affairs. In 1931, he was elected president of Bend’s Kiwanis club. Over the years, Stover served as president of the Bend Golf Club, the Bend Stampede, the Bend Water Pageant, he was chairman of two Red Cross fund raising campaigns. He was president of Bend Chamber of Commerce for two years and became president of the Central Oregon Chamber of Commerce, he was a member of the city’s parks advisory board for many years. In addition, he was a member of local Elks Lodge. Stover was a devoted fan and volunteer coach of local sports teams.
In 1944, he headed a community war bond drive. To encourage people to buy bonds, he gave free movie tickets to everyone; when the Bend Industrial Fund was created in 1945 to promote economic growth in the Bend area, Stover was elected to the Fund’s board of directors. In recognition of his extensive and significant contributions to the Bend community, Stover was selected as Bend’s Senior Citizen of the Year in 1951. In 1950, Stover decided to run as a Republican for the District 29 seat in the Oregon House of Representatives. At that time, District 29 included both Deschutes and Lake counties, two large rural counties in central and southcentral Oregon, he was unopposed in the Republican primary. In the general election, Stover faced Democrat William P. Vernon of Lakeview. Stover won by 465 votes. Stover took his seat in the Oregon House of Representatives on 8 January 1951, representing District 29, he worked through the 1951 regular legislative session. During the session, he served on the forestry and utilities committees.
At the end of the 1951 session, Stover was appointed to a special interim committee charged to conduct an in-depth study of highway fees and regulations. The committee was directed to report its finding to the 1953 legislature for follow-up action. Over the next year, the committee held public hearings on highway weight limits and use fees; the impact of logging trucks on state highways was a major focus area of the committee. The interim highways committee delivered its report in October 1952. Among its recommendations was a proposal to create a new state department of motor vehicles; the committee drafted a bill to implement its recommendations. In 1952, Stover ran for re-election, he was the only Republican to file for the District 29 seat. In addition, no Democrats entered the race so he was unopposed the both the Republican primary and the general election; the 1953 legislative session began on 21 January. During the session, Stover was selected as chairman of the commerce and utilities committee.
He was assigned to the roads and highways and federal affairs, forestry and mining committees. As chairman of the commerce and utilities committee, Stover oversaw contentious hearings regarding a bill that would allow utility companies to cover the cost of new power delivery projects with a temporary surcharge to customers; the session lasted three months. In early 1
Andhra Pradesh Tribal Welfare Residential School Eturnagaram, is a residential school set up by a state government in India. The school was established in 1984 by the Andhra Pradesh State Government in the small village of Eturnagaram in Warangal district, Telangana Region The former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, N. T. Rama Rao and ITDA Eturnagaram led to the donation of 52 acres of land for the school. Andhra Pradesh tribal Welfare Residential School is for the welfare of the tribal people in remote areas and in urban areas as well however the project was taken up to develop the tribal people by educating them and remaining them there values and their importance to participate in the society "Tribal Welfare School Information System". Twsis.cgg.gov.in. Retrieved 7 December 2016. "Welcome to aptribes.gov.in - A Portal of Tribal Welfare Department Govt of A. P". 30 December 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2016. "Welcome to aptribes.gov.in - A Portal of Tribal Welfare Department Govt of A.
P". 30 December 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2016. "Integrated Tribal Development Agency | Agropedia". Agropedia.iitk.ac.in. Retrieved 7 December 2016