Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
Henagar is a city in DeKalb County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 2,344. Henagar is located on top of a southern extension of the Cumberland Plateau. Henagar was first settled circa 1855; the town is named after George Henegar. A post office was established in 1878, it was that a postal official misspelled the town's name as "Henagar". In 1901, a public school was built. Henagar incorporated in 1965. Henagar is located in northern DeKalb County at 34°38′1″N 85°44′35″W, its northwest border follows the Jackson County line. Alabama State Route 40 passes through the original center of town, leading east 8 miles to Interstate 59 in Hammondville and west 19 miles to Scottsboro. Alabama State Route 75 crosses AL 40 in the newer commercial part of Henagar and leads northeast 8 miles to Ider and southwest 10 miles to Rainsville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Henagar has a total area of 22.3 square miles, of which 22.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.15%, is water.
South Sauty Creek, a tributary of the Tennessee River, flows southwest through the central and southern part of the city. The Sand Mountain Potato Festival is celebrated each July in Henagar, with potatoes, live music, entertainment and crafts, fireworks. A drive-in theater is located in Henagar; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,400 people, 937 households, 715 families residing in the town. The population density was 109.8 people per square mile. There were 1,056 housing units at an average density of 48.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.46% White, 1.67% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. 0.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 937 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $29,777, the median income for a family was $34,469. Males had a median income of $29,309 versus $19,401 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,836. About 10.3% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 25.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,344 people, 942 households, 676 families residing in the town; the population density was 107.0 people per square mile. There were 1,092 housing units at an average density of 49.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.2% White, 1.8% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races.
1.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 942 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,130, the median income for a family was $39,432. Males had a median income of $40,227 versus $24,122 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,701. About 17.9% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.
Students are served by the DeKalb County Board of Education. Henagar Junior High School, home of "The Wildcats", is located in the town. Charlie Louvin, country music singer City of Henagar official website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity, it can be for competition. Competitive routines range anywhere from one to three minutes, contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPN's International cheerleading competition, the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the globe in Australia, China, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.
The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors' control; this brought about American sports. In the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, 1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game, it took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, marked the day the original "Sis Boom Rah!" Cheer was shouted out by student fans. Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity; as early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, November 4, 1881, issues of The Daily Princetonian. This cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves.
The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today, where it is now referred to as the "Locomotive". Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884, he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898, 1899 on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team at football practices, special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the first cheerleader. November 2, 1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.
Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading. However, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". Women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s. In the 1940s, collegiate men were drafted for World War II, creating the opportunity for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines; as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: "Girls took over for the first time." An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools, "occasionally boys as well as girls are included,", in smaller schools, "boys can find their place in the athletic program, cheerleading is to remain a feminine occupation."
During the 1950s, cheerleading in America increased in popularity. By the 1960s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, by the 1970s, girls cheered at public school games. However, this did not stop its growth. Cheerleading could be found at every school level across the country pee wee and youth leagues began to appear. In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students participated in American cheerleading from grade school to the collegiate level, he approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female. Since 1973, cheerleaders have started to attend female basketball and other all-female sports as well; as of 2005, overall statistics show around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female, although at the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male. In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Southern Methodist University, formed the National Cheerleaders Association in order to hold clinics for cheerleading.
In 1949, The NCA held its first clinic in Huntsville, with 52 girls in attendance. Herkimer contributed many firsts to cheerleading: the founding of the Cheerleader & Danz Team cheerleading uniform supply company, inventing the herkie jump (where one leg is bent towards the ground as if kneeling and the other is o
A tennis court is the venue where the sport of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center; the same surface can be used to play. A variety of surfaces can be used to create a tennis court, each with its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game; the dimensions of a tennis court are defined and regulated by the International Tennis Federation governing body and are written down in the annual'Rules of Tennis' document. The court is 78 feet long, its width is 36 feet for doubles matches. The service line is 21 feet from the net. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of 60 feet wide and 120 feet long. A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends; the net is 3 feet 6 inches high at the posts, 3 feet high in the center. The net posts are 3 feet outside the doubles court on each side or, for a singles net, 3 feet outside the singles court on each side.
The ITF's Play and Stay campaign promotes playing on smaller courts with slower red and green balls for younger children. This gives children more time and control so they can serve and score from the first lesson on courts that are sized to fit their bodies; the ITF has mandated that official competition for children aged 10 years and under should be played on "Orange" courts 18 m long by 6.4 m wide. Competition for children under 8 years is played on "Red" courts that are 5.5 m wide. The net is always 0.8 m high in the center. Tennis is played on a variety of surfaces and each surface has its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game. There are four main types of courts depending on the materials used for the court surface: clay courts, hard courts, grass courts and carpet courts; the International Tennis Federation lists different surfaces and properties and classifies surfaces into one of five pace settings: Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Of the current four Grand Slam tournaments, the Australian and US Open use hard courts, French Open is played on clay, Wimbledon, the only Grand Slam to have always been played on the same surface, is played on grass.
The Australian Open switched from grass to hard courts in 1988 and in its early years the French championship alternated between clay and sand/rubble courts. The US Open is the only major to have been played on three surfaces. ITF uses the following classification for tennis court surface types: Clay courts are made of crushed shale, stone or brick; the French Open is the only Grand Slam tournament to use clay courts. Clay courts produce a high bounce in comparison to grass or hard courts. For this reason, the clay court takes away many of the advantages of big serves, which makes it hard for serve-based players to dominate on the surface. Clay courts are cheaper to construct than other types of tennis courts, but a clay surface costs more to maintain. Clay courts need to be rolled to preserve flatness; the clay's water content must be balanced. Clay courts are more common in Europe and Latin America than in North America, tend to favour baseline players. For the Grand Slams clay courts have been used at the US Open from 1975 to 1977 and the French Open since 1891.
Grass courts are the fastest type of courts in common use. They consist of grass grown on hard-packed soil, which adds additional variables: bounces depend on how healthy the grass is, how it has been mowed, the wear and tear of recent play. Points are very quick where fast, low bounces keep rallies short, the serve plays a more important role than on other surfaces. Grass courts tend to favour serve-and-volley tennis players. Grass courts were once among the most common tennis surfaces, but are now rare due to high maintenance costs as they must be watered and mown and take a longer time to dry after rain than hard courts; the grass surface, however, is the most physically forgiving to the human body because of its softness. For the Grand Slams grass courts have been used at the Australian Open from 1905 to 1987, the US Open from 1881 to 1974, Wimbledon since 1877. Hard courts are made of uniform rigid material covered with an acrylic surface layer to offer greater consistency of bounce than other outdoor surfaces.
Hard courts can vary in speed. The quantity of sand added to the paint can affect the rate at which the ball slows down; the US Open is played on DecoTurf while the Australian Open is played on Plexicushion, both acrylic-topped hard court surfaces. For the Grand Slams hard courts have been used at the Australian Open since 1988 and the US Open since 1978. "Carpet" in tennis means any removable court covering. Indoor arenas store rolls of rubber-backed court surfacing and install it temporarily for tennis events, but they are not in use any more for professional events. A short piled form of artificial turf infilled with sand is used for some outdoor courts in Asia. Carpet is a fast surface, faster than hardcourt, with low bounce. Notable tennis tournaments previously