An idiom is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom's figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring in all languages. In the English language alone, it is estimated that there are at least twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions. Many idiomatic expressions, in their original use, had literal meaning. Sometimes the attribution of a literal meaning can change as the phrase becomes disconnected from its original roots, leading to a folk etymology. For instance, spill the beans has been said to originate from an ancient method of democratic voting, wherein a voter would put a bean into one of several cups to indicate which candidate he wanted to cast his vote for. If the jars were spilled before the counting of votes was complete, anyone would be able to see which jar had more beans, therefore which candidate was the winner. Over time, the practice was discontinued and the idiom became figurative.

Other idioms are deliberately figurative. Break a leg, used as an ironic way of wishing good luck in a performance or presentation, may have arisen from the belief that one ought not to utter the words "good luck" to an actor. By wishing someone bad luck, it is supposed. In linguistics, idioms are presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality; that compositionality is the key notion for the analysis of idioms is emphasized in most accounts of idioms. This principle states that the meaning of a whole should be constructed from the meanings of the parts that make up the whole. In other words, one should be in a position to understand the whole if one understands the meanings of each of the parts that make up the whole; the following example is employed to illustrate the point: Fred kicked the bucket. Understood compositionally, Fred has kicked an actual, physical bucket; the much more idiomatic reading, however, is non-compositional: Fred is understood to have died.

Arriving at the idiomatic reading from the literal reading is unlikely for most speakers. What this means is that the idiomatic reading is, stored as a single lexical item, now independent of the literal reading. In phraseology, idioms are defined as a sub-type of phraseme, the meaning of, not the regular sum of the meanings of its component parts. John Saeed defines an idiom as collocated words that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term; this collocation of words redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. Idioms do not translate well; when two or three words are used together in a particular sequence, the words are said to be irreversible binomials, or Siamese twins. Usage will prevent the words from being rearranged. For example, a person may be left "high and dry" but never "dry and high"; this idiom in turn means that the person is left in their former condition rather than being assisted so that their condition improves.

Not all Siamese twins are idioms, however. "Chips and dip" is an irreversible binomial, but it refers to literal food items, not idiomatic ones. Idioms possess varying degrees of mobility. Whereas some idioms are used only in a routine form, others can undergo syntactic modifications such as passivization, raising constructions, clefting, demonstrating separable constituencies within the idiom. Mobile idioms, allowing such movement, maintain their idiomatic meaning where fixed idioms do not: Mobile I spilled the beans on our project. → The beans were spilled on our project. Fixed The old man kicked the bucket. → The bucket was kicked. Many fixed idioms lack semantic composition, meaning that the idiom contains the semantic role of a verb, but not of any object; this is true of kick the bucket. By contrast, the semantically composite idiom spill the beans, meaning reveal a secret, contains both a semantic verb and object and secret. Semantically composite idioms have a syntactic similarity between their semantic forms.

The types of movement allowed for certain idiom relate to the degree to which the literal reading of the idiom has a connection to its idiomatic meaning. This is referred to as transparency. While most idioms that do not display semantic composition do not allow non-adjectival modification, those that are motivated allow lexical substitution. For example, oil the wheels and grease the wheels allow variation for nouns that elicit a similar literal meaning; these types of changes can occur only when speakers can recognize a connection between what the idiom is meant to express and its literal meaning, thus an idiom like kick the bucket cannot occur as kick the pot. From the perspective of dependency grammar, idioms are represented as a catena which cannot be interrupted by non-idiomatic content. Although syntactic modifications introduce disruptions to the idiomatic structure, this continuity is only required for idioms as lexical entries. Certain idioms, allowing unrestricted syntactic modification, can be said to be metaphors.

Expressions such as jump on the bandwagon, pull strings, draw the line all represent their meaning independently in their verbs and objects, making them compositional. In the idiom jump on the bandwagon, jump on involves joining something and a'bandwagon' can refer to a collective cause, regardless of context. A literal word-by-word translation of an opaque idiom will most not convey the same meaning

Richard Bone

Richard Bone is an American electronic musician. Born in Atlanta, Bone began his professional musical career creating soundtracks and scores for several off-Broadway companies working in experimental theater. In 1979, he released with his band Bone the single "Pirate the Islands/Headlines Have It" before joining the new-wave band Shox Lumania in 1981. Bone recorded a solo 7" entitled "Digital Days/Alien Girl" on and was subsequently signed to Survival Records in the UK where he released several LPs, EPs, singles and contributed to various compilation albums, his 1983 single "Joy of Radiation" reached No. 1 on the Hong Kong Dance Chart. Bone started the label Quirkworks Laboratory Discs in 1991, allowing him freedom to create music of a more experimental nature and retain control of his musical direction. Since Bone has released over 25 recordings of new material and several collaborations and compilations. Of the new material recordings, three rose to No. 1 on industry charts as well as receiving numerous other honors.

In 2004 Bone's recording The Reality Temples was nominated for the 2004 New Age Reporter Lifestyle Music Awards' Best Electronic Album, his 2005 recording Saiyuji was nominated for the 2005 New Age Reporter Lifestyle Music Awards' Best Ambient Album, his 2007 recording Infinite Plastic Creation was awarded the 2007 New Age Reporter Lifestyle Music Awards' Best Electronic Album and his 2008 release Sudden Departure was nominated for the 2008 New Age Reporter LifeStyle Awards’ Best Ambient and Best Electronic Album. In 2019 Bone released Empyrean Castles and A Garden of Invited Flowers. Empyrean Castles, 2019, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs A Garden of Invited Flowers, 2019, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Niburu, 2018, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Age of Falconry, 2017, Mega Dodo*AERA, 2016, USB Release, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Involution Vol. 1, 2015, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Vertical Life, 2014, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Cranium Fizz, 2013, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Anthology, 2013, AD Music UK Images from A Parallel World, 2013, AD Music UK Mind Environs, 2011 Quirkworks Laboratory Discs XesseX - The Palindrome Project, 2011, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Adaptors, 2011, Prismatikone Beleaguered Blossoms, 2010, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs The Ghosts of Hanton Village, 2009, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Sudden Departure, 2008, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Short Waves, 2008, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Emerging Melodies, 2008, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Connection Failed, 2008, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Songs From The Analog Attic, 2007, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Infinite Plastic Creation, 2007, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Experiments'80-'82, 2007, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Serene Life of Microbes, 2006, AD Music UK Vesperia, 2006, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Saiyuji, 2005, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs The Reality Temples, 2004, Spiralight Recordings Untold Tales, 2004, Orlandomaniac Music Alternate Realities, 2003, Spiralight Recordings Indium, 2002, Electroshock Disorient, 2002, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Alternate Worlds vol.

1, 2001, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Tales from the Incantina, 2001, Indium/Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Ascensionism, 2000, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Distillation, 1999, Halcyon Ether Dome, 1999, Hypnos Recordings Coxa, 1999, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs The Spectral Ships, 1998, Hypnos Recordings Electropica, 1998, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs A Survey of Remembered Things, 1997, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Metaphysic Mambo, 1996, Reversing The Eternal Now, 1996, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Vox Orbita, 1995, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Ambiento, 1994, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs X Considers Y, 1994, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Quirkwork, 1993, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Obtuse Tantrums, 2015, AttractiveCO Brave Sketches', 2015, Orlandomaniac Music Vaulted Vsions, 2014, Vinyl on Demand X Considers Y, 1994, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Exspectacle, 1985, Survival The Real Swing, 1984, Survival Living in Partytown, 1984, Survival Joy of Radiation, 1983, Survival Emerging Melodies, 1983, Rumble Brave Tales, 1983, Survival The Beat is Elite, 1982, Survival Joy/Do Angels Dance, 1983, Survival Digital Days/Alien Girl, 1981, Rumble/Survival Life in Video City, 1980, Eurock Quiz Party, 1980, Eurock Pirate the Islands/Headlines, 1979, Rumble Via Poetica, 2007, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Songs from Early Paradise, 1998, Quirkworks Laboratory Discs Rubber Rodeo, 1982, Eat Records She Had To Go, 1982, Eat Records Live at the Peppermint Lounge, 1981, ROIR No Shoes/Signals, 1981, Rumble Jolene/ Who’s on Top?, 1981, Rumble Age of Urban Heroes, 1981, Dutch Ariola Headlines, 1980, Dutch Ariola "Adrift" from Sounds from the Circle, 2012, NewAge Music Circle "Do You Hear What I Hear?" from Christmas AD, 2011, AD Music "The Seduction of Dr. Pasteur" from Night Music, 2010, AD Music "Mambopolis" from Disco For Abruzzo, 2009, Wondersounds "Son of Icarus" from Euphony 2, 2009, "Mutant Wisdom" from Cosmic Disco?

Cosmic Rock!, 2008, Eskimo "The Memory of Caves" from Euphony 1, 2008, "Mambopolis" from Discotech, 2007, Electunes "Autotrophic Light" from Schwingunen #138, 2006, Cue-Records "Stillness Repeating" from Ambienism, 2004, Spiralight Recordings "Dzibana" from Harmony with Ambience, 2003, Windfarm Records "Spires" from Logan’s Run, 2002, Discos Veveos "Elusia, I Can See!" from Electroacoustic Music V. 3, 199

Eugenia candolleana

Eugenia candolleana, or rainforest plum, is a tree native from Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, known locally by the Portuguese names cambuí roxo or murtinha. It is quite rare in the wild, has seen limited use in landscaping for its bright green foliage and purple-black fruits; the species is named after the 19th century Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. The common name cambuí means "thin-branched tree" in Tupi-Guarani language, is applied to over 100 different species; the adult tree is 3 -- 6 m tall, with conical canopy up to 2 m wide. New leaves are rusty-brown, turning yellow and deep dark green; the reddish-brown bark peels off showing a smooth reddish trunk. Leaves are simple, in opposite pairs, with smooth leathery texture, smooth edges, the apex curved downwards. Flowers are borne from November through January. Fruits mature between March; the ripe fruit is a round or elongated berry, up to 20 mm wide and 25 mm long. It has a thin purple-black skin and a wet, whitish pulp about 3–5 mm thick, surrounding a loose single seed.

It is edible, moderately sweet, with an aroma similar to that of the jabuticaba. The tree is easy to grow and bears fruit after two years, it thrives best in full sunlight and requires good irrigation during the flowering and fruiting seasons. The fruit are made into jams. In the folk medicine of the region of Sergipe, the infusion of leaves has been used for the treatment of pain and fever; the essential oil distilled from the leaves contains isomers of guaiol and cadinol, δ-elemene and viridiflorene. Myrciaria floribunda