Nenana is a Home Rule City in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the Unorganized Borough in the Interior of the U. S. state of Alaska. Nenana developed as a Lower Tanana community at the confluence where the tributary Nenana River enters the Tanana; the population was 378 at the 2010 census, down from 402 in 2000. Completed in 1923, the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge was built over the Tanana River as part of the territory's railroad project connecting Anchorage and Fairbanks. Nenana is in the westernmost portion of Tanana territory; the town was first known by European Americans as Tortella, a transliteration of the Indian word Toghotthele, which means "mountain that parallels the river." It was named for the river and the Nenana people who live nearby. The Nenana people became accustomed to contact with Europeans, due to trading journeys to the Village of Tanana, where Russians bartered Western goods for furs from 1838; the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. Early American explorers and traders, such as Henry Tureman Allen, Arthur Harper and Bates, first entered the Tanana Valley in 1874 and 1885.
In 1902 the discovery of gold in Fairbanks brought intense activity to the region. The next year, Jim Duke built a trading post/roadhouse to supply river travelers and trade with the Nenana community. In 1905 the Episcopal Church, which had missionaries in Alaska, built the St. Mark's Episcopal mission and Tortella School a short distance upriver; the boarding school taught about 28 children of various ages at a time. Hudson Stuck, the Archdeacon of the Yukon visited the settlement, part of the 250,000 square-acre territory of the Interior he administered. Native children from other communities, such as Minto attended school in Nenana. A post office opened in 1908. In 1915, construction of the Alaska Railroad brought new settlers; the railroad connected Nenana to the southern port city of Anchorage. The community incorporated as a city in 1921; the Railroad Depot was completed in 1923. That year, United States President Warren Harding arrived to drive the final, golden spike at the north end of the 700-foot-long Mears Memorial Bridge built over the Tanana River as part of the state's railroad project.
This railroad truss bridge, the longest in the United States and its territories when completed, gave Nenana a rail transportation link north to Fairbanks and Seward, Alaska. The bridge still ranks as the longest span in Alaska and the third-longest truss bridge in the United States; the construction had encouraged businesses and settlement in town. According to local records, 5,000 residents lived in Nenana by the early 1920s. After the railroad was completed, however and construction workers left the area; the city suffered an economic slump, most of the residents migrated to seek work in other places. By 1930, the population had dropped to 291. Nenana was the starting point for the 1925 serum run to Nome, after diphtheria antitoxin had been transported by rail from Anchorage, it was carried by dog sled to Nome to treat people in an epidemic. In 1961, Clear Air Force Station was constructed 21 miles southwest. During this construction, many civilian contractors commuted from Nenana. A road was constructed south to Clear, but northbound vehicles had to be ferried across the Tanana River.
In 1967 the community was devastated by one of the largest floods recorded in the valley. In 1968 a $6 million bridge for vehicles was completed across the Tanana River, which gave the town a modern road link to Fairbanks and replaced the river ferry; the George Parks Highway was completed in 1971. The federally recognized tribe in the community is the Nenana Native Association, who traditionally spoke the Lower Tanana language. Under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, they have rights of self-government and managing some of their traditional territory. According to the 2000 Census, 41% of the city residents were Native American. Residents of Nenana sponsor a nature-based lottery. Entrants buy a ticket and pick a date in April or May and a time, to the closest minute, when they think the winter ice on the Tanana River will break up; this lottery began in 1917 among a group of surveyors working for the Alaska Railroad. They formed a betting pool as they waited for the river to open and boats to arrive with needed supplies.
The competition is run as follows: a large striped tripod is placed on the frozen Tanana River and connected to a clock. The winner is whoever comes closest to guessing the precise time when the ice beneath weakens to the point that the tripod moves and stops the clock. Interest in the pool attracts bettors statewide; this lottery has paid out nearly $10 million in prize money, with the winning pool in recent years being near $300,000. In the summer of 2008, Nenana suffered heavy damage due to flooding; the Tanana River reached its second-highest level since written record keeping began. Nenana is located at 64°33′50″N 149°5′35″W, in the Nenana Recording District. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles, of which, 6.0 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Nenana is located 55 road miles southwest of Fairbanks on the George Parks Highway and 304 road miles north of Anchorage, it is at mile 412 of the Alaska Railroad. The river is ice-free from early May to late October.
Nenana has a continental subarctic climate. Nenana first reported on the 1910 U. S. Census as a
The Yup'ik or Yupiaq and Yupiit or Yupiat Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Central Yup'ik, Alaskan Yup'ik, are an Eskimo people of western and southwestern Alaska ranging from southern Norton Sound southwards along the coast of the Bering Sea on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and along the northern coast of Bristol Bay as far east as Nushagak Bay and the northern Alaska Peninsula at Naknek River and Egegik Bay. They are known as Cup'ik by the Chevak Cup'ik dialect-speaking Eskimos of Chevak and Cup'ig for the Nunivak Cup'ig dialect-speaking Eskimo of Nunivak Island. Both Chevak Cup'ik and Nunivak Cup'ig Eskimos are known as Cup'ik; the Yup'ik, Cup'ik, Cup'ig speakers can converse without difficulty, the regional population is described using the larger term of Yup'ik. They are one of the four Yupik peoples of Alaska and Siberia related to the Sugpiaq ~ Alutiiq of south-central Alaska, the Siberian Yupik of St. Lawrence Island and Russian Far East, the Naukan of Russian Far East; the Yupiit speak the Yup'ik language.
Of a total population of about 21,000 people, about 10,000 speak the language. The Yup'ik Eskimo combine a contemporary and a traditional subsistence lifestyle in a blend unique to the Southwest Alaska. Today, the Yup'ik work and live in western style but still hunt and fish in traditional subsistence ways and gather traditional foods. Most Yup'ik people still speak the native language and bilingual education has been in force since the 1970s; the Yupiit are the most numerous of the various Alaska Native groups and speak the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, a member of the Eskimo–Aleut family of languages. As of the 2000 U. S. Census, the Yupiit population in the United States numbered over 24,000, of whom over 22,000 lived in Alaska; the vast majority of these live in the seventy or so communities in the traditional Yup'ik territory of western and southwestern Alaska. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the Yup'ik at 34,000 people is the largest Alaska Native tribal grouping, either alone or in combination followed by the Inupiat.
The Yup'ik had the greatest number of people who identified with one tribal grouping and no other race. In that census, nearly half of American Indians and Alaska Natives identified as being of mixed race; the neighbours of the Yup'ik Eskimos are the Iñupiaq Eskimo to the north, Aleutized Alutiiq ~ Sugpiaq Eskimos to the south, Alaskan Athabaskans, such as Yup'ikized Holikachuk and Deg Hit'an, non-Yup'ikized Koyukon and Dena'ina, to the east. The form Yup'ik was used in the northern area while the form Yupiaq was used in the southern area. Certain places had other forms; the form Yup'ik is now used as a common term. Yup'ik comes from the Yup'ik word yuk meaning "person" plus the postbase -pik or -piaq meaning "real" or "genuine"; the ethnographic literature sometimes refers to the Yup ` ik people or their language as Yuit. In the Hooper Bay-Chevak and Nunivak dialects of Yup'ik, both the language and the people are given the name Cup'ik; the use of an apostrophe in the name "Yup'ik", compared to Siberian "Yupik", exemplifies the Central Yup'ik's orthography.
"The apostrophe represents gemination of the'p' sound". The names given to them by their neighbors: Alutiiq ~ Sugpiaq: Pamana'rmiu'aq, Pamanirmiuq Deg Xinag Athabaskan: Dodz xit'an, Novogh xit'an Holikachuk Athabaskan: Namagh hit'an Koyukon Athabaskan: Nobaagha hut'aankkaa Dena'ina Athabaskan: Dutna, Naghelghazhna Upper Kuskokwim Athabaskan: Dodina sg Dodinayu pl The common ancestors of the Eskimo and the Aleut are believed by archaeologists to have their origin in eastern Siberia. Migrating east, they reached the Bering Sea area about 10,000 years ago. Research on blood types and linguistics suggests that the ancestors of American Indians reached North America in waves of migration before the ancestors of the Eskimo and Aleut; this causeway became exposed between 8,000 years ago during periods of glaciation. By about 3,000 years ago the progenitors of the Yupiit had settled along the coastal areas of what would become western Alaska, with migrations up the coastal rivers—notably the Yukon and Kuskokwim—around 1400 C.
E. reaching as far upriver as Paimiut on the Yukon and Crow Village on the Kuskokwim. The Russian colonization of the Americas lasted from 1732 to 1867; the Russian Empire supported ships traveling from Siberia to America for whaling and fishing expeditions. The crews established hunting and trading posts of the Shelikhov-Golikov Company in the Aleutian Islands and northern Alaska indigenous settlements.. Half of the fur traders were Russians, such as promyshlenniki from various European parts of the Russian Empire or from Siberia. Grigory Shelikhov led attacks on Kodiak Island against the indigenous Alutiiq in 1784, known as the Awa'uq Massacre. According to some estimates, Russian employees of the trading company killed more than 2,000 Alutiiq; the company took over control of the island. By the late 1790s, its trading posts had become the centers of permanent settlements of Russian America
Turnagain Arm is a waterway into the northwestern part of the Gulf of Alaska. It is one of two narrow branches at the north end of the other being Knik Arm. Turnagain is subject to large tide ranges. Turnagain extends in an east-west direction, is between 40–45 miles long, it forms part of the northern boundary of Kenai Peninsula, reaches on the east to within 12 miles of Portage Bay, a western branch of Prince William Sound. Turnagain is characterized by remarkably large tides of up to 40 feet which are the largest tides in the United States; the flood tide begins with a tidal bore on large tides with a strong east wind, which has a height of 6 feet at times, runs in from the west at a speed of 5–6 miles an hour. At low tide, the arm becomes cut by the stream channels. Small steamers entered and left on high water though the practice is rare at best since most if not all the places that they went are now connected by road; the region adjacent to Turnagain Arm is rugged. South Suicide Peak is the tallest mountain rising from the north side of Turnagain.
Mountains rise precipitously on both reach altitudes of 5,000 -- 6,000 feet. Their tops are bare; the timber reaches higher than 1,500–2,000 feet feet. The smaller valleys are narrow and steep, but the larger ones show by their U-shaped cross section the former presence of glaciers. Glaciers may be still seen at a number of places. Chief among them are Portage Glacier, occupying the Portage Valley between the head of Turnagain Arm and Passage Canal, the two neighboring glaciers which form the headwaters of the Glacier River and Twentymile River, Explorer Glacier, Skookum Glacier. Besides these, there are several smaller ones on tributaries of Glacier Creek; the Seward Highway follows a portion of the southern edge of the Chugach State Park along Turnagain Arm. Turnagain Arm boasts the second highest tides in North America after the Bay of Fundy; these tides, which can reach 40 feet, come in so that they produce a wave known as a bore tide. Adventurous kayakers and surfers have taken to riding the tide as an extreme sport.
Hikers should take care not to get stuck in the quicksand-like mudflats that otherwise make up the beaches along Turnagain Arm. Turnagain Arm communities within the Municipality of Anchorage include Indian and Girdwood, all along the north shore of the Arm. Portage, at the eastern tip or head of the Arm, is a former settlement destroyed in the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Beluga Point Site known as ANC-054, is an archaeological location on the north shore of the Arm, while Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center is situated at the head of the Arm near the site of Portage. Major tributaries of Turnagain Arm include the Twentymile River, Portage River, Placer River. Minor tributaries include Resurrection Creek, Bear Creek, Sixmile Creek, Glacier Creek, with their branches. Resurrection Creek flows into the south side of the arm about 20 miles east of the main body of Cook Inlet, with Sixmile Creek, 8 miles farther east. Resurrection Creek flows in a direction east of north; the town of Hope is located near its mouth.
Palmer Creek is its largest tributary. Bear Creek flows into Turnagain Arm 0.5 miles east of the mouth of Resurrection Creek. It is nearly 6 miles long, follows a northwesterly course through a steep, narrow valley. Bear and Palmer creeks are the two producing streams of this part of the field, both are connected with Hope by roads; the drainage area of Sixmile Creek is much larger than that of Resurrection Creek, the stream is formed by the confluence of two large branches, which unite 10 miles south of Sunrise, the mining camp at its mouth. The larger of the two forks, known as the East Fork, is itself formed by the confluence of a number of small streams; the more important of these are Gulch and Granite creeks on the north, Lynx and Silvertip creeks on the south. The smaller fork, Canyon Creek, flows directly northward and, with its eastern tributary, Mills Creek, has been the chief producer of the Turnagain Arm field. Glacier Creek enters Turnagain Arm from the north, 12 miles from its eastern end.
It is one of the larger tributaries of Turnagain Arm from the north and joins the Arm at a point 75 miles from Seward by way of the Alaska Northern Railroad survey. Turnagain Arm was named by William Bligh of HMS Bounty fame. Bligh served as Cook's Sailing Master on his third and final voyage, the aim of, discovery of the Northwest Passage. Upon reaching the head of Cook Inlet in 1778, Bligh was of the opinion that both Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm were the mouths of rivers and not the opening to the Northwest Passage. Under Cook's orders Bligh organized a party to travel up Knik Arm, which returned to report Knik Arm indeed led only to a river. Afterwards a second party was dispatched up Turnagain Arm and it too returned to report only a river lay ahead; as a result of this frustration the second body of water was given the disingenuous name "Turn Again". Early maps label Turnagain Arm as the "Turnagain River"; the mineral resources of the Turnagain-Knik region are notable for gold placers and the gold quartz lodes.
From 1896 to 1898, a large number of placer claims were staked on the streams tributary to Turnagain Arm from the north, on a few of these claims, notably those on lower Crow Creek, mining was carried out in subsequent years. The output of placer gold was derived from the Turnagain Arm slope of the mountains. Development work on gold q
Unalakleet is a city in Nome Census Area, United States, in the western part of the state. At the 2010 census the population was 688, down from 747 in 2000. Unalakleet is known around Alaska for its salmon and king crab harvests. Unalakleet is known for its aesthetic value, as it resides right next to the Bering Sea next to a large, clean river and has trees and hills behind it. Unalakleet, an adaptation of the Iñupiaq word "Una-la-thliq", which means "from the southern side"; some Unalakleet residents were mistakenly told it meant "where the east wind blows". Unalakleet is located at the Norton Sound end of the Unalakleet-Kaltag Portage, an important winter travel route between Norton Sound and the Yukon River. Unalakleet has long been a major trade center between the Athabascans who lived in the interior of Alaska and the Inupiat who lived on the coast; the Russian-American Company built a trading post here at Unalakleet in the 1830s. Sami reindeer herders from Lapland were brought to Unalakleet to teach sound herding practices in 1898.
In 1901, the United States Army Signal Corps built a 605-mile telegraph line from St. Michael that passed through Unalakleet. Unalakleet is located at 63°52′44″N 160°47′23″W. Unalakleet is located on the Norton Sound of the Bering Sea at the mouth of the Unalakleet River, 148 miles southeast of Nome and 395 miles northwest of Anchorage. Unalakleet has a subarctic climate with considerable maritime influences. Winters are dry. Average summer temperatures range 47 to 62 °F. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.1 square miles, of which, 2.9 square miles of it is land and 2.3 square miles of it is water. Unalakleet first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Oonalakleet." All 100 of its residents were listed as Inuit. It returned in 1890 as "Unalaklik." Of its 175 residents, 170 were Native, 3 were Creole and 2 were White. It returned again in 1900 and in 1910 under that name, though it gave the alternative name of Unalakleet in the latter census.
Beginning in 1920, it returned under Unalakleet, in every successive census. It was formally incorporated in 1974; as of the census of 2010, there were 688 people, 225 households, 172 families residing in the city. The population density was 237.2 people per square mile. There were 268 housing units at an average density of 92.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 15.0% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 77.3% Native American, 0.1% from other races, 6.4% from two or more races. 1.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2013 there were 882 people. There were 224 households out of which 46.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 21.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33 and the average family size was 3.82. The population is spread out with 37.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 124.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,083, the median income for a family was $45,625. Males had a median income of $41,964 versus $32,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,845. About 12.5% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Unalakleet is the first checkpoint on the Norton Sound in the famous Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race 851 miles from the start in Anchorage; the first musher to reach this checkpoint each year is awarded the Gold Coast Award, which includes $2,500 in gold nuggets. Unalakleet plays an important role in the Iron Dog snowmobile race; the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden established a mission in Unalakleet in 1887. The Evangelical Covenant Church started a boarding high school in 1954, it served students from all over western Alaska until it closed in 1985 due to the changing face of education in the villages of Alaska with the addition of local high schools in all villages.
The district office for Bering Strait School District has been located in Unalakleet since 1983. Serving fifteen village schools, the Bering Strait School District covers 75,000 square miles. Unalakleet's local schools include Unalakleet School, a K-12 school, internally divided into Unalakleet Elementary, Unalakleet Middle School, Frank A. Degnan High School; the combined school population of Unalakleet Schools is 195, 180 of whom are full or part Alaska Native. Unalakleet basketball teams have won 6 State titles. Athletics played at the school include cross country running, mixed-6 volleyball, cross country ski/biathlon and Native Youth Olympics. Unalakleet schools has a Talented program; the school's students participate in Academic Decathlon, Battle of the Books, as well as other academic programs. Unalak
Cook Inlet stretches 180 miles from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska. Cook Inlet branches into the Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm at its northern end surrounding Anchorage. On its south end merges with Shelikof Strait, Stevenson Entrance, Kennedy Entrance and Chugach Passage; the watershed covers about 100,000 km² of southern Alaska, east of the Aleutian Range and east of the Alaska Range, receiving water from its tributaries the Knik River, the Little Susitna River, the Susitna and Matanuska rivers. The watershed includes the drainage areas of Denali. Within the watershed there are several national parks and the active volcano Mount Redoubt, along with three other active volcanoes. Cook Inlet provides navigable access to the port of Anchorage at the northern end, to the smaller Homer port further south. Before the growth of Anchorage, Knik was the destination for most marine traffic in upper Cook Inlet. 400,000 people live within the Cook Inlet watershed. The Cook Inlet region contains active volcanoes, including Mount Redoubt.
Volcanic eruptions in the region have been associated with earthquakes and tsunamis, debris avalanches have resulted in tsunamis also. There was an earthquake of the magnitude of 7.1 on December 31, 1901 generated by an eruption that caused several tsunamis. In 2009 a lahar from Mt. Redoubt threatened the Drift River oil terminal; the inlet was first settled by Dena'ina people. In the 18th century, Russian fur hunters were among the first European visitors; the Lebedev Lastochkin Company leader Stepan Zaikov established a post at the mouth of the Kenai River, Fort Nikolaev, in 1786. These fur trappers used Siberian Native and Alaska Native people Aleuts from the Aleutian Islands and Koniag natives from Kodiak, to hunt for sea otters and other marine mammal species for trade with China via Russia's then-exclusive inland port of trade at Kiakhta. Other Europeans to visit Cook Inlet include the 1778 expedition of James Cook, its namesake, who sailed into it while searching for the Northwest Passage.
Cook received maps of Alaska, the Aleutians, Kamchatka during a visit with Russian fur trader Gerasim Izmailov in Unalaska, combined these maps with those of his expedition to create the first Mercator projection of the North Pacific. The inlet was named after Cook in 1794 by George Vancouver, who had served under Cook in 1778. Turnagain Arm was named by William Bligh of HMS Bounty fame. Bligh served as Cook's Sailing Master on his 3rd and final voyage, the aim of, discovery of the Northwest Passage. Upon reaching the head of Cook Inlet, Bligh was of the opinion that both Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm were the mouths of rivers and not the opening to the Northwest Passage. Under Cook's orders Bligh organized a party to travel up Knik Arm, which returned to report Knik Arm indeed led only to a river. Afterwards a second party was dispatched up Turnagain Arm and it too returned to report only a river lay ahead; as a result of this frustration the second body of water was given the disingenuous name "Turn Again".
Early maps label Turnagain Arm as the "Turnagain River". The S. S. Farallon was a wooden Alaskan Steamship Company liner that struck Black Reef in the Cook Inlet on January 5, 1910. All thirty-eight men on board survived, were rescued twenty-nine days later. Few white people visited upper Cook Inlet until construction of the Alaska Railroad along the eastern shores of Turnagain Arm and Knik Arm of Cook Inlet around 1915; the natives of the Eklutna village are the descendants of the residents of eight native villages around upper Cook Inlet. During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Both hamlets were destroyed. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. About 20 miles of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm. Most of Alaska's population surrounds Cook Inlet, concentrated in the Anchorage, Alaska area and in communities on the Kenai Peninsula.
The more remote west side of the inlet is not connected to the road system, is home to the village of Tyonek, a number of oil camps. The Cook Inlet Basin contains large gas deposits including several offshore fields; as of 2005 there were 16 platforms in Cook Inlet, the oldest of, the XTO A platform first installed by Shell in 1964, newest of, the Osprey platform installed by Forest Oil in 2000. Most of the platforms are operated by Union Oil, acquired by Chevron in 2005. There are numerous oil and gas pipelines running around and under the Cook Inlet; the main destinations of the gas pipelines are to Kenai where the gas is used to fuel commercial fertilizer production and a liquified natural gas plant and to Anchorage where the gas is consumed for domestic uses. Alaska has half the known coal reserves in the U. S. For decades, there has been a proposal to build a large coal mine on the west side of Cook Inlet near the Chuitna River, the native village of Tyonek, Alaska. American Rivers has placed the Chuitna River on its list of the 10 most endangered rivers for 2007, based on the threat of this mine.
Turnagain Arm is one of only about 60 bodies of water worldwide to exhibit a tidal bore. The bore may be more than six feet high and travel at 15 miles per hour on high spring tides and opposing winds. Turnagain Arm sees the largest tidal range in United States, with a mean of 30 feet, the fourth highest in th
Seward is an incorporated home rule city in Alaska, United States. Located on Resurrection Bay, a fjord of the Gulf of Alaska on the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is situated on Alaska's southern coast 120 miles by road from Alaska's largest city and nearly 1,300 miles from the closest point in the contiguous United States at Cape Flattery, Washington. With an estimated permanent population of 2,831 people as of 2017, Seward is the fourth-largest city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, behind Kenai and the borough seat of Soldotna; the city is named for former U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who orchestrated the United States' purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 while serving in this position as part of President Andrew Johnson's administration. Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad and the historic starting point of the original Iditarod Trail to the Alaskan interior, with Mile 0 of the trail marked on the shoreline at the southern end of town. In 1793 Alexander Baranov of the Shelikhov-Golikov company established a fur trade post on Resurrection Bay where Seward is today, had a three-masted vessel, the Phoenix, built at the post by James Shields, an English shipwright in Russian service.
The 1939 Slattery Report on Alaskan development identified the region as one of the areas where new settlements would be established through Jewish immigration. This plan was never implemented. Seward was an important port for the military buildup in Alaska during World War II. Fort Raymond was established in Seward along the Resurrection River to protect the community. An Army airfield built in Seward during the war became Walseth Air Force Base. Both of the military facilities were closed shortly after the end of the war. A large portion of Seward was damaged by shaking and a local tsunami during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.5 square miles, of which 14.4 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. The northern city limits are demarcated by the lower reaches of the Resurrection River, but extend east past the river's mouth at the northern end of Resurrection Bay to include parts of the bay's extreme northeastern shore, including the beach at the mouth of Fourth of July Creek and the grounds of Spring Creek Correctional Center just inland.
To the south, the city limits extend to the unincorporated community of Lowell Point, while the east and west sides of the city are constrained by Resurrection Bay and the steep slopes of Mount Marathon. Nearby settlements include the aforementioned Lowell Point to the south, as well as the census-designated places of Bear Creek and Moose Pass further north; the nearest incorporated city is Soldatna, about 90 miles away by road to the northwest. By definition, Seward has a subarctic climate, but it experiences moderate temperatures compared to the rest of the state throughout the year due to the influence of the nearby Gulf of Alaska. Only one month, sees an average daily high temperature below freezing, temperatures below zero degrees Fahrenheit are rare; the oceanic influence imparts a high level of precipitation, with the heaviest amounts occurring during the fall and winter months. Seward's local economy is driven by the commercial fishing industry and seasonal tourism. Many lodging facilities and shops in the city cater to tourists, are only open for business during the summer tourist season regarded as running from mid-May through mid-September.
Other major employers in the city include the state-run Spring Creek Correctional Center, the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development's AVTEC vocational school, the local Providence Health & Services branch, which serves as the community's main medical center. Seward is among the most lucrative commercial fisheries ports in the United States, according to reports from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Per the most recent yearly data available, for 2016, commercial fishing boats in Seward offloaded 13,500 tons of fish and shellfish, valued at about $42 million USD. Over the course of the decade from 2007 to 2016, around $545 million USD in commercial seafood passed through Seward's harbor. Owing to its position at the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad and well-developed road links to Anchorage and the rest of the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is both a major northern end-port for several major cruise ship lines that host Alaskan cruises, such as Norwegian, Royal Caribbean, Holland America, Celebrity Cruises, a common destination for general Alaskan tourism.
Seward has a minor military installation and is the home port of the USCGC Mustang. Seward first appeared on the 1910 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1912. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,830 people, 917 households, 555 families residing in the city; the population density was 196.0 people per square mile. There were 1,058 housing units at an average density of 73.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.12% White, 2.44% Black or African American, 16.68% Native American, 1.84% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, 5.87% from two or more races. 2.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 917 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household si
The Knik Site known as the Old Knik Townsite, is the location in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, once home to the largest settlement on Cook Inlet. The only surviving remnants of the community are a former log roadhouse, now a museum operated by the Wasilla-Knik Historical Society, a log cabin; the Knik area had long been a meeting point of Native Alaskans, in 1898 it became the principal community on Cook Inlet from which goods were shipped into the interior. In 1916 the Alaska Railroad reached the site of present-day Anchorage, bypassing Knik and leading to Anchorage's growth; when the railroad reached Wasilla, Knik lost all importance as a transshipment point, its buildings were either abandoned or moved to one of the other communities. Knik is located about 13 miles southwest of Wasilla; the two surviving buildings were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. National Register of Historic Places listings in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska Wasilla-Knik Historical Society Museums