SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Idolatry

Idolatry is the worship of an idol or cult image, being a physical image, such as a statue, or a person in place of God. In Abrahamic religions, namely Christianity and Judaism, idolatry connotes the worship of something or someone other than God as if it were God. In these monotheistic religions, idolatry has been considered as the "worship of false gods" and is forbidden by the values such as the Ten Commandments. Other monotheistic religions may apply similar rules. In many Indian religions, such as theistic and non-theistic forms of Hinduism and Jainism, idols are considered as symbolism for the absolute but not The Absolute, or icons of spiritual ideas, or the embodiment of the divine, it is a means to focus worship. In the traditional religions of ancient Egypt, Rome, Asia, the Americas and elsewhere, the reverence of an image or statue has been a common practice, cult images have carried different meanings and significance; the opposition to the use of any icon or image to represent ideas of reverence or worship is called aniconism.

The destruction of idols and images as icons of veneration is called iconoclasm, this has long been accompanied with violence between religious groups that forbid idol worship and those who have accepted icons and idols for worship. The definition of idolatry has been a contested topic within Abrahamic religions, with many Muslims and Protestant Christians condemning the Catholic veneration and statues of the Virgin Mary in many churches as a form of idolatry; the history of religions has been marked with denials of idolatry. These accusations have considered images to be devoid of symbolism. Alternatively, the topic of idolatry has been a source of disagreements between many religions, or within denominations of various religions, with the presumption that icons of one's own religious practices have meaningful symbolism, while another person's different religious practices do not; the word idolatry comes from the Greek word eidololatria which itself is a compound of two words: eidolon and latreia.

The word eidololatria thus means "worship of idols", which in Latin appears first as idololatria in Vulgar Latin as idolatria, therefrom it appears in 12th century Old French as idolatrie, which for the first time in mid 13th century English appears as "idolatry". Although the Greek appears to be a loan translation of the Hebrew phrase avodat elilim, attested in rabbinic literature, the Greek term itself is not found in the Septuagint, Josephus, or in other Hellenistic Jewish writings; the original term used in early rabbinic writings is oved avodah zarah, while avodat kochavim umazalot is not found in its early manuscripts. The Jews used the term עֲבוֹדה זֶרֶה, avodh zereh, meaning "strange worship". Idolatry has been called idolism, iconolatry or idolodulia in historic literature; the earliest so-called Venus figurines have been dated to the prehistoric Upper Paleolithic era. Archaeological evidence from the islands of the Aegean Sea have yielded Neolithic era Cycladic figures from 4th and 3rd millennium BC, idols in namaste posture from Indus Valley civilization sites from the 3rd millennium BC, much older petroglyphs around the world show humans began producing sophisticated images.

However, because of a lack of historic texts describing these, it is unclear what, if any connection with religious beliefs, these figures had, or whether they had other meaning and uses as toys. The earliest historic records confirming cult images are from the ancient Egyptian civilization, thereafter related to the Greek civilization. By the 2nd millennium BC two broad forms of cult image appear, in one images are zoomorphic and in another anthropomorphic; the former is more found in ancient Egypt influenced beliefs, while the anthropomorphic images are more found in Indo-European cultures. Symbols of nature, useful animals or feared animals may be included by both; the stelae from 4,000 to 2,500 BC period discovered in France, Ireland through Ukraine, in Central Asia through South Asia, suggest that the ancient anthropomorphic figures included zoomorphic motifs. In Nordic and Indian subcontinent, bovine motifs or statues, for example, were common. In Ireland, iconic images included pigs; the Ancient Egyptian religion was polytheistic, with large cult images that were either animals or included animal parts.

Ancient Greek civilization preferred human forms, with idealized proportions, for divine representation. The Canaanites of West Asia incorporated a golden calf in their pantheon; the ancient philosophy and practices of the Greeks, thereafter Romans, were imbued with polytheistic idolatry. They debate if the use of image is appropriate. To Plato, images can be a poison to the human experience. To Aristotle, states Paul Kugler, an image is an appropriate mental intermediary that "bridges between the inner world of the mind and the outer world of material reality", the image is a vehicle between sensation and reason. Idols are useful psychological catalysts, they reflect pre-existing inner feelings, they are neither the origins nor the destinations of thought but the intermediary in the human inner journey. Fervid opposition to the idolatry of the Greeks and Romans was of Early Christianity and Islam, as evidenced by the widespread desecration and defacement of ancient Greek and Roman sculptures that have survived into the modern era

Roger Blackmore

Roger Brian Blackmore is a Liberal Democrat politician. He was leader of Leicester City Council from 2003 to 2004 and 2005 to 2007 and Lord Mayor of Leicester 2009/10, he was educated at Abingdon School from September 1954 until December 1956 and studied Social Sciences at the University of Leicester. He stayed in the city after graduating in 1963 to work at Imperial Typewriters, he became a lecturer at Charles Keene College in 1968. He was elected to Leicestershire County Council for the Western Park division in 1993, to Leicester City Council for the same ward in 1995. In 2000 he became leader of the Liberal Democrat group on the council. After the 2003 local elections, the Liberal Democrats became the largest party on the council, Blackmore became leader in May 2003, leading a Liberal Democrat/Conservative coalition. From November 2004 to May 2005 Ross Willmott served in a minority Labour administration, he stood down from the council in 2011. Blackmore was a Parliamentary candidate on six occasions during the 1970s and 1980s, fighting Gainsborough and North Devon.

List of Old Abingdonians Biography at the Leicester City Council website

God Hates Us All

God Hates Us All is the ninth studio album by American thrash metal band Slayer, released on September 11, 2001 by American Recordings. It was recorded over three months at The Warehouse Studio in Vancouver, includes the Grammy Award-nominated "Disciple". Guitarist Kerry King wrote the majority of its lyrics, taking a different approach from earlier recordings by exploring topics such as religion, murder and self-control; the band experimented, recording most of the album in C# tuning, with three songs in drop B and two others with seven-string guitars in B♭. The album's release was delayed due to its explicit cover artwork, which led to alternative slip covers in some retail outlets, difficulties during mixing, a change of distributor for the band's label. Despite this, God Hates Us All received positive reviews from critics and peaked at number 28 on the Billboard 200. Slayer began writing lyrics for a new album prior to their appearance at the 1999 Ozzfest. However, every three to four months the band was distracted by commitments to Ozzfest, worldwide "Tattoo the Earth" tour with Slipknot.

Guitarist Jeff Hanneman admitted "that was the last break. We got our shit together." The band's longtime producer, Rick Rubin, was too busy to work with Slayer, felt "burned out"—unable to create intense music. Araya and King had similar feelings about Rubin, King remarked he "wanted to work with someone into the heavy-music scene, Rubin's not anymore. I wanted somebody who knows what's hot, knows what's selling, knows the new techniques, will keep me on my toes." Rubin recommended two producers, although the first producer was not going to work out personality-wise according to Hanneman. The band gave second candidate, Matt Hyde, a trial on the song "Bloodline", which appeared in the movie Dracula 2000; the band was hired him to produce the entire album. God Hates Us. Hyde recommended a studio to the band—The Warehouse Studio as he had worked there; the studio was altered to make for Slayer. This consisted of adding incense burners, dimmed lights and pornography on the walls. Two banner flags of two middle fingers were hung up.

Vocalist Tom Araya says "that was the attitude of Slayer in the studio. We had a red devil head on one of the speakers. We had a skull on another. That's the kind of shit. Spooky stuff that makes you feel at home."Hyde used the digital audio workstation Pro Tools during the engineering and audio mixing stages of the album. Slayer members wanted to keep the use of computer effects to a minimum, only to include a small amount of delay and distortion; as with previous recordings, the drum tracks were recorded first. Drummer Paul Bostaph follows a simple rule suggested by Rubin when in the studio: "The perfect take is the one that felt like it was going to fall apart but never did." Seven-string guitars were used on the tracks "Scarstruck" and "Here Comes the Pain," the first time Slayer had done so. King was at the B. C. Rich decided to borrow a seven string guitar. After writing one song, King ordered a seven string as he thought "there's no point having one tuning for just one song," so he wrote another, going on to comment "you don't have to be good to make up a seven-string riff."

The album features two songs on seven string guitars, four songs with guitars tuned to Drop-B and all other songs in C# Standard. God Hates Us All explores such themes as religion, murder and self-control. King wrote a majority of the lyrics, which he based on "street" subjects which everyone could relate to, rather than "Satan this," "Satan that," and "the usual Dungeons & Dragons shit" from the band's previous records. King told Guitar World: I wanted to put more realism in it, more depth. God Hates Us All isn't an anti-Christian line as much as it's an idea I think a lot of people can relate to on a daily basis. One day you're living your life, you're hit by a car or your dog dies, so you feel like, "God hates me today." The song "Threshold" is about reaching one's limit with a person in a situation where one is about to break—and are about to blow up as they get "under your skin", while "Cast Down" features a fallen angel who falls into drugs. "God Send Death" and "Deviance" take up the idea of killing people for pleasure.

Both songs were written by Hanneman. Having read several books on serial killers, Hanneman came to the conclusion he could only kill someone if they "pissed him off", decided he was unable to kill someone he did not know just for power, he admitted he was trying to get into that person's mind. Without being angry, just killing for the sake of killing and getting off on it. I just wanted to get into that mindset."While other members went to local pubs, Araya spent his free hours reading factual books regarding serial killers, including Gordon Burn's Happy Like Murderers: The Story of Fred and Rosemary West. Araya was seeking inspiration, aimed to sound convincing while singing the lyrics, avoiding himself to sound like a gimmick. Araya sang the lyrics more "over-the-top" than done on previous albums, as King's writing style is more "aggro." This resulted in Kerrang! Reviewer Jason Arnopp describing the album's lyrics as "so packed with foul and abusive language that it sounds as if D-12 and the Sopranos family were going head-to-head in a celebrity swearathon."

God Hates Us All was intended