A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley, used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans. The trireme derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar; the early trireme was a development of the penteconter, an ancient warship with a single row of 25 oars on each side, of the bireme, a warship with two banks of oars, of Phoenician origin. The word dieres does not appear until the Roman period. According to Morrison and Williams, "It must be assumed the term pentekontor covered the two-level type"; as a ship it was fast and agile, it was the dominant warship in the Mediterranean during the 7th to 4th centuries BC, after which it was superseded by the larger quadriremes and quinqueremes. Triremes played a vital role in the Persian Wars, the creation of the Athenian maritime empire, its downfall in the Peloponnesian War; the term is sometimes used to refer to medieval and early modern galleys with three files of oarsmen per side as triremes.
Depictions of two-banked ships, with or without the parexeiresia, are common in 8th century BC and vases and pottery fragments, it is at the end of that century that the first references to three-banked ships are found. Fragments from an 8th-century relief at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh depicting the fleets of Tyre and Sidon show ships with rams, fitted with oars pivoted at two levels, they have been interpreted as two-decked warships, as triremes. Modern scholarship is divided on the provenance of the trireme, Greece or Phoenicia, the exact time it developed into the foremost ancient fighting ship. Clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, drawing on earlier works, explicitly attributes the invention of the trireme to the Sidonians. According to Thucydides, the trireme was introduced to Greece by the Corinthians in the late 8th century BC, the Corinthian Ameinocles built four such ships for the Samians; this was interpreted by writers and Diodorus, to mean that triremes were invented in Corinth, the possibility remains that the earliest three-banked warships originated in Phoenicia.
Herodotus mentions that the Egyptian pharaoh Necho II built triremes on the Nile, for service in the Mediterranean, in the Red Sea, but this reference is disputed by modern historians, attributed to a confusion, since "triērēs" was by the 5th century used in the generic sense of "warship", regardless its type. The first definite reference to the use of triremes in naval combat dates to ca. 525 BC, according to Herodotus, the tyrant Polycrates of Samos was able to contribute 40 triremes to a Persian invasion of Egypt. Thucydides meanwhile states that in the time of the Persian Wars, the majority of the Greek navies consisted of penteconters and ploia makrá. In any case, by the early 5th century, the trireme was becoming the dominant warship type of the eastern Mediterranean, with minor differences between the "Greek" and "Phoenician" types, as literary references and depictions of the ships on coins make clear; the first large-scale naval battle where triremes participated was the Battle of Lade during the Ionian Revolt, where the combined fleets of the Greek Ionian cities were defeated by the Persian fleet, composed of squadrons from their Phoenician, Carian and Egyptian subjects.
Athens was at that time embroiled in a conflict with the neighbouring island of Aegina, which possessed a formidable navy. In order to counter this, with an eye at the mounting Persian preparations, in 483/2 BC the Athenian statesman Themistocles used his political skills and influence to persuade the Athenian assembly to start the construction of 200 triremes, using the income of the newly discovered silver mines at Laurion; the first clash with the Persian navy was at the Battle of Artemisium, where both sides suffered great casualties. However, the decisive naval clash occurred at Salamis, where Xerxes' invasion fleet was decisively defeated. After Salamis and another Greek victory over the Persian fleet at Mycale, the Ionian cities were freed, the Delian League was formed under the aegis of Athens; the predominance of Athens turned the League into an Athenian Empire. The source and foundation of Athens' power was her strong fleet, composed of over 200 triremes, it not only secured control of the Aegean Sea and the loyalty of her allies, but safeguarded the trade routes and the grain shipments from the Black Sea, which fed the city's burgeoning population.
In addition, as it provided permanent employment for the city's poorer citizens, the fleet played an important role in maintaining and promoting the radical Athenian form of democracy. Athenian maritime power is the first example of thalassocracy in world history. Aside from Athens, other major naval powers of the era included Syracuse and Corinth. In the subsequent Peloponnesian War, naval battles fought by triremes were crucial in the power balance between Athens and Sparta. Despite numerous land engagements, Athens was defeated through the destruction of her fleet during the Sicilian Expedition, at the Battle of Aegospotami, at the hands of Sparta and her allies. Based on all archeological evidence, the design of the trireme most pushed the technological limits of the ancient world. After gathering the proper timbers and materials it was time to consider the fundamentals of the trireme design; these fundamentals inclu
Tissaphernes was a Persian soldier and statesman, Satrap of Lydia. He was a grandson of Hydarnes, one of the six conspirators who had supported the rise of Darius the Great. Chithrafarna "Shining Fortune": čiθra is from the Proto-Indo-European adjective koitrós'bright'. Čiθra means nature the animate nature. Hence, the phrase čihr-farn means'of glorious or splendid nature', or'of radiant appearance'. Tissaphernes was born in 445 BC, he belonged to an important Persian family: he was the grandson of Hydarnes, an eminent Persian general, the commander of the Immortals during the time of king Xerxes' invasion of Greece. In 414 BC, Tissaphernes was assigned by Darius II to suppress the rebellion of Pissuthnes, the Persian satrap of Asia Minor, to take over his office. Tissaphernes bribed Pissuthnes' Greek mercenaries to desert him and promised that his life would be spared if he surrendered, a promise which Darius did not keep; when Darius II ordered Tissaphernes to proceed to suppress the continued rebellion of Pissuthnes' son Amorges, ordered him to collect the outstanding tribute from the Greek cities of Asia Minor, many of which were under Athenian protection, Tissaphernes entered into an alliance with Sparta against Athens, which in 412 BC led to the Persian conquest of the greater part of Ionia.
But Tissaphernes was unwilling to take action and tried to achieve his aim by astute and perfidious negotiations. Alcibiades persuaded him that Persia's best policy was to keep the balance between Athens and Sparta, rivalry with his neighbour Pharnabazus of Hellespontic Phrygia still further lessened his willingness to act against the Greeks. When, therefore, in 408 BC the king decided to support Sparta, Tissaphernes was removed as a general and his responsibilities were limited to the satrapy of Caria, with Lydia and the conduct of the war being entrusted to Cyrus the Younger. On the death of Darius II in 404 BC, Artaxerxes II was crowned king of Persia. Tissaphernes, who found out about Cyrus the Younger's plan to assassinate his brother, informed the king about the conspiracy, who had Cyrus imprisoned, but by the intercession of his mother Parysatis, Cyrus sent back to his satrapy. According to Plutarch, "his resentment for made him more eagerly desirous of the kingdom than before."With the desire for revenge, Cyrus gathered a large army and pretended to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians, a tribe based in the Taurus mountains.
In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army, which now included Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", advanced from Sardis without announcing the object of his expedition. By dexterous management and promises of large rewards, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war. A Spartan fleet of 35 triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria and a Spartan detachment of 700 men under Cheirisophus was conveyed to Cyrus. However, Tissaphernes managed to warn Artaxerxes II and gathered together an army. Cyrus advanced into Babylonia. In October 401 BC, the Battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites, 2,500 peltasts and an Asiatic army of 10,000 under the command of Ariaeus. Cyrus saw, he therefore wanted Clearchus of Sparta, the commander of the Greeks, to take the centre against Artaxerxes. Clearchus, out of arrogance, disobeyed; as a result, the left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes was free to engage the rest of Cyrus' forces.
Cyrus in the centre was slain. Tissaphernes claimed to have killed the rebel himself; the Greek soldiers of Cyrus, once they heard about the news of his death, realised that they were in the middle of a massive empire with no provisions, no-one to finance them, no reliable allies amongst the Persian nobles. They offered to make their Persian ally, king, but he refused on the grounds that he was not of royal blood and so would not find enough support among the Persians to succeed, they offered their services to Tissaphernes, but he refused. However, the Greeks refused to surrender to him. Tissaphernes was left with a problem: he faced a large army of heavy troops that he could not defeat by frontal assault, he supplied them with food and, after a long wait, led them northwards for home, meanwhile detaching the Persian general Ariaeus and his light troops from the Greeks. The senior Greek officers foolishly accepted an invitation from Tissaphernes to attend a feast. There they were made prisoners, taken before the king, decapitated.
As a reward for his loyalty, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes one of his own daughters in marriage and restored him as governor of Lydia and as the commander in chief of the Persian army in Asia Minor. After returning to Asia Minor, Tissaphernes attacked the Greek cities to punish them for their allegiance to Cyrus; this led to a war with Sparta beginning in 399 BC. In 396 BC, the Spartan king and commander Agesilaus II led a campaign to free the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Tissaphernes at this point proposed an armistice and solemnly ratified a truce, which he broke when Persian reinforcements arrived. Agesilaus thanked Tissaphernes for having put the gods on the side of the Greeks by committing perjury, let it be known that he now planned to lead his troops against Caria; when Tissaphernes gathered his troops to meet this supposed Carian invasion, Agesilaus instead success
Mausolus was a ruler of Caria, nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position created by his father Hecatomnus who had succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy and founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids. Mausolus was the eldest son of Hecatomnus, a native Carian who became the satrap of Caria when Tissaphernes died, around 395 BC. Mausolus participated in the Revolt of the Satraps, both on his nominal sovereign Artaxerxes Mnemon's side and against him. In 366 BC, Mausolus together with Autophradates of Lydia, at the request of Artaxerxes, led the siege of Adramyttium against Ariobarzanes, one of the members of the Great Satraps' Revolt, until Agesilaus, king of Sparta, negotiated the besiegers' retreat. Mausolus conquered a great part of Lycia circa 360 BC, putting an end to the line of dynasts that had ruled there, he invaded Ionia and several Greek islands. He moved his capital from the ancient seat of the Carian kings, to Halicarnassus.
Mausolus embraced Hellenic culture. He is best known for the monumental shrine, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and named for him by order of his widow Artemisia. Antipater of Sidon listed the Mausoleum as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; the architects Satyrus and Pythis, the sculptors Scopas of Paros, Leochares and Timotheus, finished the work after the death of Artemisia, some of them working purely for renown. The site and a few remains can still be seen in the Turkish town of Bodrum. Derived from his name, the term mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb. An inscription discovered at Milas, the ancient Mylasa, details the punishment of certain conspirators who had made an attempt upon his life at a festival in a temple at Labranda in 353 BC. Simon Hornblower: Mausolus, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1982 Livius, Maussolus by Jona Lendering Caria This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mausolus". Encyclopædia Britannica.
17. Cambridge University Press. P. 917
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with considerable autonomy; the word "satrap" is often used metaphorically in modern literature to refer to world leaders or governors who are influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates. The word satrap is derived via Latin satrapes from Greek satrápēs, itself borrowed from an Old Iranian *xšaθra-pā/ă-. In Old Persian, the native language of the Achaemenids, it is recorded as xšaçapāvan; the Median form is reconstructed as *xšaθrapāwan-. It is cognate with Sanskrit kṣatrapa. In the Parthian and Middle Persian, it is recorded in the forms šasab, respectively. In modern Persian the descendant of xšaθrapāvan is shahrbān, but the components have undergone semantic shift so the word now means "town keeper". Although the first large-scale use of satrapies, or provinces, originates from the inception of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great, beginning at around 530 BCE, provincial organization originated during the Median era from at least 648 BCE.
Up to the time of the conquest of Media by Cyrus the Great, emperors ruled the lands they conquered through client kings and governors. The main difference was that in Persian culture the concept of kingship was indivisible from divinity: divine authority validated the divine right of kings; the twenty-six satraps established by Cyrus were never kings, but viceroys ruling in the king's name, although in political reality many took advantage of any opportunity to carve themselves an independent power base. Darius the Great gave the satrapies a definitive organization, increased their number to thirty-six, fixed their annual tribute; the satrap was in charge of the land that he owned as an administrator, found himself surrounded by an all-but-royal court. He was responsible for the safety of the roads, had to put down brigands and rebels, he was assisted by a council of Persians, to which provincials were admitted and, controlled by a royal secretary and emissaries of the king the "eye of the king", who made an annual inspection and exercised permanent control.
There were further checks on the power of each satrap: besides his secretarial scribe, his chief financial official and the general in charge of the regular army of his province and of the fortresses were independent of him and periodically ported directly to the shah, in person. The satrap was allowed to have troops in his own service; the great satrapies were divided into smaller districts, the governors of which were called satraps and called hyparchs. The distribution of the great satrapies was changed and two of them were given to the same man; as the provinces were the result of consecutive conquests, both primary and sub-satrapies were defined by former states and/or ethno-religious identity. One of the keys to the Achaemenid success was their open attitude to the culture and religion of the conquered people, so the Persian culture was the one most affected as the Great King endeavoured to meld elements from all his subjects into a new imperial style at his capital, Persepolis. Whenever central authority in the empire weakened, the satrap enjoyed practical independence as it became customary to appoint him as general-in-chief of the army district, contrary to the original rule.
"When his office became hereditary, the threat to the central authority could not be ignored". Rebellions of satraps became frequent from the middle of the 5th century BCE. Darius I struggled with widespread rebellions in the satrapies, under Artaxerxes II the greater parts of Asia Minor and Syria were in open rebellion; the last great rebellions were put down by Artaxerxes III. The satrapic administration and title were retained—even for Greco-Macedonian incumbents—by Alexander the Great, who conquered the Achaemenid Empire, by his successors, the Diadochi who carved it up in the Seleucid Empire, where the satrap was designated as strategos, they would be replaced by conquering empires the Parthians. In the Parthian Empire, the king's power rested on the support of noble families who ruled large estates, supplied soldiers and tribute to the king. City-states within the empire enjoyed a degree of self-government, paid tribute to the king. Administration of the Sassanid Empire was more centralized than that of the Parthian Empire.
Shahrabs ruled both the city and the surroundi
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia, his reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Nectanebo II in Egypt. In his Historia Scholastica Petrus Comestor identified Artaxerxes III as the successor of Ahasuerus in the book of Esther. Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a commander of his father's army. Artaxerxes came to power after one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide, the last murdered and his father, Artaxerxes II died. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the royal family to secure his place as king, he started two major campaigns against Egypt. The first campaign failed, was followed up by rebellions throughout the western part of his empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II, the Pharaoh of Egypt, driving him from Egypt, stopping a revolt in Phoenicia on the way. In Artaxerxes' years, Philip II of Macedon's power was increasing in Greece, where he tried to convince the Greeks to revolt against the Achaemenid Empire.
His activities were opposed by Artaxerxes, with his support, the city of Perinthus resisted a Macedonian siege. There is evidence for a renewed building policy at Persepolis in his life, where Artaxerxes erected a new palace and built his own tomb, began long-term projects such as the Unfinished Gate. Artaxerxes III was the throne name adopted by Ochus when he succeeded his father in 358 BC, he is referred to as Ochus, but in modern Iran he is known as Ardeshir III. In Babylonian inscriptions he is called "Umasu, called Artakshatsu"; the same form of the name occurs in the Syrian version of the Canon of Kings by Elias of Nusaybin. Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes had been a commander of his father's army. In 359 BC, just before ascending the throne, he attacked Egypt as a reaction to Egypt's failed attacks on coastal regions of Phoenicia. In 358 BC his father, Artaxerxes II, died, it was said to be because of a broken heart caused by his children's behaviour, since his other sons, Darius and Tiribazus had been eliminated by plots, Artaxerxes III succeeded him as king.
His first order was the execution of over 80 of his nearest relations to secure his place as king. In 355 BC, Artaxerxes forced Athens to conclude a peace which required the city's forces to leave Anatolia and to acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies. Artaxerxes started a campaign against the rebellious Cadusii, but he managed to appease both of the Cadusian kings. One individual who emerged from this campaign was Darius Codomannus, who occupied the Persian throne as Darius III. Artaxerxes ordered the disbanding of all the satrapal armies of Asia Minor, as he felt that they could no longer guarantee peace in the west and was concerned that these armies equipped the western satraps with the means to revolt; the order was however ignored by Artabazus II, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king. Athens sent assistance. Artabazos was at first supported by Chares, an Athenian general, his mercenaries, whom he rewarded generously.
The gold coinage of Artabazos is thought to have been issued to reward the troops of Chares. The Satrap of Mysia, Orontes I supported Artabazus. Artabazos was supported by the Thebans, who sent him 5,000 men under Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazos defeated the King in two great battles in 354 BC. However, in 353 BC, they were disbanded. Orontes was pardoned by the king, while Artabazus fled with his family to the safety of the court of Philip II of Macedon, where he remained from 352 to 342. In around 351 BC, Artaxerxes embarked on a campaign to recover Egypt, which had revolted under his father, Artaxerxes II. At the same time a rebellion had broken out in Asia Minor, being supported by Thebes, threatened to become serious. Levying a vast army, Artaxerxes marched into Egypt, engaged Nectanebo II. After a year of fighting the Egyptian Pharaoh, Nectanebo inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians with the support of mercenaries led by the Greek generals: the Athenian Diophantus and the Spartan Lamius.
Artaxerxes was compelled to postpone his plans to reconquer Egypt. Soon after this Egyptian defeat, Phoenicia and Cyprus declared their independence from Persian rule. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes committed responsibility for the suppression of the Cyprian rebels to Idrieus, prince of Caria, who employed 8000 Greek mercenaries and forty triremes, commanded by Phocion the Athenian, Evagoras, son of the elder Evagoras, the Cypriot monarch. Idrieus succeeded in reducing Cyprus. Artaxerxes initiated a counter-offensive against Sidon by commanding the satrap of Syria Belesys and Mazaeus, the satrap of Cilicia, to invade the city and to keep the Phoenicians in check. Both satraps suffered crushing defeats at the hands of Tennes, the Sidonese king, aided by 40,000 Greek mercenaries sent to him by Nectanebo II and commanded by Mentor of Rhodes; as a result, the Persian forces were driven out of Phoenicia. After this, Artaxerxes led an army of 330,000 men against Sidon. Artaxerxes' army comprised 300,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, 300 triremes, 500 tra
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Evagoras II or Euagoras II was a king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Salamis in Cyprus, satrap for Achaemenid Persia in Phoenicia. He was a son of his predecessor, a grandson of Evagoras I, he followed a pro-Persian course, for which he was deposed ca. 351 BC by a popular revolt led by his nephew Pnytagoras, who succeeded him as king. Evagoras fled to the Persian court, where Artaxerxes III gave him the government of the Phoenician city of Sidon, following the defeat of the rebellion of Tennes, his administration of Sidon was so bad that after three years, in 346 BC, he was chased out of the city by the populace, who called upon a descendant of the ancient royal line, Abdashtart II, to replace him. Evagoras fled back to Cyprus, where he was arrested and executed