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Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisids were an Arab Muslim dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974. Named after the founder Idriss I, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Idrisids are considered to be the founders of the first Moroccan state; the Idrisids have been described as a Sunni Muslim dynasty, while other academics have described the Idrisids as Zaydi-Shia Muslim. They were opponents of the Abbasid Caliphate; the founder of the dynasty was Idris ibn Abdallah, who traced his ancestry back to Ali ibn Abi Talib and his wife Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. After the Battle of Fakhkh, near Mecca, between the Abbasids and supporters of the descendants of the prophet Muhammad, Idris ibn Abdallah fled to the Maghreb, he first arrived in Tangier, the most important city of Morocco at the time, by 788 he had settled in Volubilis. The powerful Awraba Berbers of Volubilis took him in and made him their'imam'; the Awraba tribe had supported Kusayla in his struggle against the Ummayad armies in the 670s and 680s.

By the second half of the 8th century they had settled in northern Morocco, where their leader Ishak had his base in the Roman town of Volubilis. By this time the Awraba were Muslim, but lived in an area where most tribes were either Christian, Khariji or pagan; the Awraba seem to have welcomed a Sharifi imam as a way to strengthen their political position. Idris I, active in the political organization of the Awraba, began by asserting his authority and working toward the subjugation of the Christian and Jewish tribes. In 789 he founded a settlement south east of Volubilis, called Medinat Fas. In 791 Idris I was killed by an Abbasid agent. Though he left no male heir, shortly after his death, his wife Lalla Kanza bint Uqba al-Awrabi, bore him his only son and successor, Idris II. Idris' loyal Arab ex-slave and companion Rashid brought up the boy and took on himself the regency of the state, on behalf of the Awraba. In 801 Rashid was killed by the Abbasids. In the following year, at the age of 11 years, Idris II was proclaimed imam by the Awraba.

Though he had spread his authority across much of northern Morocco, as far west as Tlemcen, Idris I had been dependent on the Awraba leadership. Idris II began his rule with the weakening of Awraba power by welcoming Arab settlers in Walili and by appointing two Arabs as his vizier and qadi, thus he transformed himself from a protégé of the Awraba into their sovereign. The Awraba leader Ishak responded by plotting against his life with the Aghlabids of Tunisia. Idris reacted by having his former protector Ishak killed, in 809 moved his seat of government from the Awraba dominated Walili to Fes, where he founded a new settlement named Al-'Aliya. Idriss II developed the city of Fez, established earlier by his father as a Berber market town. Here he welcomed two waves of Arab immigration: one in 818 from Cordoba and another in 824 from Aghlabid Tunisia, giving Fes a more Arab character than other Maghrebi cities; when Idris II died in 828, the Idrisid state spanned from western Algeria to the Sous in southern Morocco and had become the leading state of Morocco, ahead of the principalities of Sijilmasa and Nekor.

The dynasty would decline following Idriss II's death and under his son and successor Muhammad the kingdom was divided amongst seven of his brothers, whereby eight Idrisid statelets formed in Morocco and Algeria. Muhammad himself came to rule Fes, with only nominal power over his brothers. During this time Islamic and Arabic culture gained a stronghold in the towns and Morocco profited from the trans-Saharan trade, which came to be dominated by Muslim traders. So, the Islamic and Arabic culture only made its influence felt in the towns, with the vast majority of Morocco's population still using the Berber languages and adhering to Islamic heterodox and heretical doctrines; the Idrisids were principally rulers of the towns and had little power over the majority of the country's population. The Idrisid family in turn was berberised, with its members aligning itself with the Zenata tribes of Morocco. In the 870s the family was described by Ibn Qutaybah as being berberised in customs. By the 11th century this process had developed to such an extent, that the family was integrated in the Berber societies of Morocco.

In the 11th century the Hammudid family arose among these Berber Idrisids, able to gain power in several cities of northern Morocco and southern Spain. In 868 the Berber Khariji tribes of Madyuna and Miknasa of the Fes region formed a common front against the Idrisids. From their base in Sefrou they were able to occupy Fes, his brother Yahya was able to establish himself as the new ruler. The Idrisids attacked the Kharijis of Barghawata and Sijilmasa, the Sunnis of Nekor multiple times, but were never able to include these territories in their state. In 917 the Miknasa and its leader Masala ibn Habus, acting on behalf of their Fatimid allies, attacked Fes and forced Yahya ibn Idris to recognize Fatimid suzerainty, before deposing him in 921. Hassan I al-Hajam managed to wrest control of Fez from 925 until 927 but he was the last of the dynasty to hold power there. From Fes, the Miknasa began a violent hunt across Morocco for members of the Idrisid family, seeking to exterminate them. Most of the Idrisids settled among the Jbala tribes in North-west Morocco where they were protected by the reluctance of tribal elders to have the local descendants of Muhammad's family be wiped out.

In the Jbala region they had a stronghold in the fortress of Hajar an-Nasar, from where they tried to restore t

Joel Untersee

Joel Untersee is a South African-born Swiss footballer who plays as a defender. He is under contract with Italian club Empoli. Born in Johannesburg, South Africa, of Swiss descent, Untersee moved to Switzerland at a young age and opted to represent Switzerland at various youth levels internationally. Following his move, Untersee joined the youth academy of FC Zürich, where he would remain until 2010, before transferring to Italian giants, Juventus Football Club during the 2010–11 season. On 28 October 2010, Untersee left FC Zürich to join Juventus, where he was assigned to the youth team. After a successful debut season in Italy, Untersee was called up to the first team training camp in the summer 2011 by new head coach Antonio Conte. Following the summer ritiro, the young fullback returned to the youth sector for the 2011–12 season and remained during the 2012–13 campaign as well. On 1 January 2014, Juventus confirmed that Untersee had left them for FC Vaduz on a six-month loan deal that would expire on 30 June 2014.

Making an impact with his new team, Untersee made his first appearance against FC Lugano in a 2–0 home victory on 3 February 2014. He went on to make 15 league appearances. Additionally, he scored his first goal for his new club in an 8–0 victory over FC Ruggell in the Liechtenstein Football Cup. On 3 July 2014, Vaduz reached an agreement to prolong the loan deal for another season. On 31 August 2016, Untersee completed a move to Italian club Brescia on a loan deal from Juventus for the full season, he made his debut in a 2–0 Serie B win over Frosinone, playing the full 90 minutes After one year contract, in January 2019, he was loaned to Zürich until the end of the season. Untersee had represented Switzerland at youth levels. On the 6 March 2018, the South African National Team Coach Stuart Baxter announced that Untersee has agreed to represent Bafana Bafana at international level, he explained his absence from the Bafana Bafana in the spring 2018 friendlies was due to Empoli's fixtures and the importance of achieving promotion.

In May 2019 he was added to South Africa's provisional 30-man squad for the Africa Cup of Nations, although he still had not obtained a South African passport by that time

HMS Alarm (1810)

Alarm was a lugger that the British Royal Navy acquired from the Commissioners of Customs in 1810. She made one small capture before the Navy returned her to Customs in 1812. In 1811 Lieutenant Robert Forbes was appointed to command Alarm at Leith. On 25 June he captured Svend Torgenson, master, he brought her into Leith on 1 July. Alarm was returned to Customs in 1812. NB: The National Maritime Museum database refers to Alarm as a hired lugger, gives a service period of 1810-1813. Citations References Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1; this article includes data released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported UK: England & Wales Licence, by the National Maritime Museum, as part of the Warship Histories project