Pailin is a province in western Cambodia at the northern edge of the Cardamom Mountains near the border of Thailand. This province is surrounded by Battambang Province, was carved out of Battambang to become a separate administrative division after the surrender of the Ieng Sary faction of the Khmer Rouge in 1996. Pailin is known to much of the world for having long been a stronghold of the Khmer Rouge, remaining under their control long after they were defeated in 1979 and serving from 1994 to 1998 as the capital of the "Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation of Cambodia." Within Cambodia Pailin is known for its natural resources, precious gems and timber. Once a part of the powerful Khmer Empire, Pailin was conquered in 1558 by the Burmese under Bayinnaung and ruled by the Siamese until 1907 and from 1941 to 1946 when it was returned to Cambodia, it was known to the Thai as "Phailin". There is still a vibrant border crossing point in Pailin. On 22 December 2008, King Norodom Sihamoni signed a Royal Decree that changed the municipalities of Kep and Sihanoukville into provinces, as well as adjusting several provincial borders.
In the early 1970s, Pailin was a prosperous town stemming from the extensive gem deposits in the surrounding countryside. Because of its resources, it was one of the first cities invaded by the Khmer Rouge when they began their major offensive against the national government; the city offered no resistance and the Khmer Rouge soldiers were greeted as liberators as they marched into town. At this point, the deposed king had allied himself with the Khmer Rouge and most residents believed that they were fighting to restore him to power, it was not long, before most residents were rounded up for a forced march to the countryside to work in rice paddies. Those believed to have connections to the government were killed; the Khmer Rouge used proceeds from mining in the Pailin area to fund their offensive and their government once they gained national power. When the invading Vietnamese Army ousted them from power, they retreated to Pailin, where many former Khmer Rouge leaders remain today; some leaders went into hiding in fear of punishment for their crimes, although other leaders lived in the province.
As of September 2007, Pailin's remaining Khmer Rouge leaders were being rounded up to face justice by an international tribunal, including Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea. Since the war, Pailin suffered failures of local businesses. However, the now politically stable area is seeing a new wave of tourism focused on its ancient temples, natural forests and wildlife, the precious gem market; the province is divided into 1 district and 1 municipality: Until 2001 Pailin was part of Battambang Province elevated to city status, again to provincial status and thus became an autonomous zone of its own. Wat Phnom Yat Built by Shan migrants from Myanmar in 1922, the Wat Phnom Yat is a holy place for worship in the heart of Pailin, it includes an old pagoda, similar to the Kola pagoda. Wat Rattanak Sophoan At the foot of Phnom Yat is another pagoda, the Wat Rattanak Sophoan, "a Burmese style pagoda more than 570 years of age". On the walls of the enclosure surrounding the pagoda is a bas-relief depicting the Hindu saga of the churning of the Ocean of Milk.
Pailin's culture is distinctly different from most of Khmer culture. Before the Khmer Rouge period, Pailin's culture was predominantly Shan Burmese, has much in common with that of the country of Thailand and Burma; this affinity is shown in the region's cuisine, temple architecture and arts. The people of Pailin were predominantly Kola; the Kola people migrated from Burma beginning in 1876. Another wave of migrants, the Shan arrived from Burma in the 1920s; the "Kola" or Burmese immigrants of Pailin are known for their work in the precious gem business, what attracted them to Pailin. Pailin was synonymous with the Mogok region of Burma. According to people who are in the gem business, gem stones of Pailin are comparable to the gem stones from the Mogok region in Burma. There are several dialects spoken locally including Khmer and Kola; the local Khmer dialect shows influence in tone and pronunciation from the Burmese languages as well as Kham Muang and Mon language. In Pailin, there are a few different kinds of foods.
Kola's food is distinct from Burma's Cuisine as well. The most popular Burmese style one is Mee Kola, a vegetarian noodle dish made from thin rice stick noodles and cooked with soy sauce and garlic chive, sometimes mixed with some meats and small lobster. Other dishes include Tom yum from Mon banana pudding of Burma; these have all spread to other parts of Thailand and Cambodia, but in versions which are flavored more sweetly than the Pailin version in Phnom Penh. The Traditional clothes of Pailin is Longyi known as Sarong; the cloth is sewn into a cylindrical shape. It is worn around the waist, it is held in place by folding fabric without a knot. It is sometimes folded up to the knee for comfort; these traditional "longyi" have about 2 meters of in length of swan. The cloth is sometimes from silk. Kola men wear ankle-length patterns of plaids or stripes "Longyi" in any kinds of color; the Men always wear their white eingyi shirt wh
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, using child soldiers, declaring that no quarter will be given, violating the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations; the concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred.
Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, following the creation of several international courts, additional categories of war crimes applicable to armed conflicts other than those between states, such as civil wars, were defined; the trial of Peter von Hagenbach by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1474 was the first "international" war crimes trial, of command responsibility. He was convicted and beheaded for crimes that "he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent", although he had argued that he was "just following orders". In 1865, Henry Wirz, a Confederate States Army officer, was held accountable by a military tribunal and hanged for the appalling conditions at Andersonville Prison, where many Union prisoners of war died during the American Civil War.
The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907 and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law. The Geneva Conventions are four related treaties adopted and continuously expanded from 1864 to 1949 that represent a legal basis and framework for the conduct of war under international law; every single member state of the United Nations has ratified the conventions, which are universally accepted as customary international law, applicable to every situation of armed conflict in the world. However, the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions adopted in 1977 containing the most pertinent and virulent protections of international humanitarian law for persons and objects in modern warfare are still not ratified by a number of States continuously engaged in armed conflicts, namely the United States, India, Iraq and others.
Accordingly, states retain different values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws' formalities and principles. Three conventions were revised and expanded with the fourth one added in 1949: First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Two Additional Protocols were adopted in 1977 with the third one added in 2005, completing and updating the Geneva Conventions: Protocol I relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.
Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. A small number of German military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes; the modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter, published on August 8, 1945. Along with war crimes the charter defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, which are committed during wars and in concert with war crimes. Known as the Tokyo Trial, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or as the Tribunal, it was convened on May 3, 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A", "Class B", "Class C", committed during World War II. On July 1, 2002, the International Crimi
Ieng Sary was a co-founder and senior member of the Khmer Rouge. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea led by Pol Pot and served in the 1975–79 government of Democratic Kampuchea as foreign minister and deputy prime minister, he was known as "Brother Number Three" as he was third in command after Nuon Chea. His wife, Ieng Thirith, served in the Khmer Rouge government as social affairs minister. Ieng Sary was arrested in 2007 and was charged with crimes against humanity but died of heart failure before the case against him could be brought to a verdict. Ieng Sary was born in Nhan Hoa village, located in the subdistrict of Luong Hoa, Châu Thành District, Trà Vinh Province, southern Vietnam in 1925, his father, Kim Riem was a Khmer Krom while his mother Tran Thi Loi, was a Chinese immigrant who moved to Vietnam with her parents when she was a little girl. However, during his trial in 2011, it was stated that his mother was of mixed Vietnamese and Chinese descent.
Sary changed his name from the Vietnamese Kim Trang. He was the brother-in-law by marriage of the Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot. Sary and Saloth Sar studied at Phnom Penh's Lycée Sisowath where their future wives, the sisters Khieu Thirith and Khieu Ponnary studied. Before leaving Cambodia to study in Paris, Sary was engaged to Khieu Thirith. Sary and Saloth Sar studied together in Paris. Whilst there, Sary rented an apartment in a hotbed of student radicalism, he and Saloth Sar met with French communist intellectuals, formed their own cell of Cambodian communists. Sary and Khieu Thirith married in the town hall of Paris' 15th arrondissement in the winter of 1951. Thirith took her husband's name. After returning to Cambodia, he was inducted into the Central Committee of the Workers Party of Kampuchea in September 1960. After the fall of the Khmer Republic on 17 April 1975, Sary made personal appeals to expatriates to help rebuild Cambodia. However, when they returned to Cambodia, they were arrested on arrival, thrown into brutal detention centers.
He took the nickname "Brother number 3" and, as head of diplomacy, he will be the only dignitary not to cultivate his secret identity. He welcomed foreign visitors and was responsible for purges and arrests in the government's ministries. At the end of 1977, before the United Nations, he rejected accusations from Cambodian refugees who wanted to open a discussion with the Khmer Rouge government. Together with Pol Pot, Ieng Sary was sentenced to death in-absentia by the People's Revolutionary Tribunal after the Khmer Rouge was overthrown in 1979. King Norodom Sihanouk pardoned Ieng Sary in 1996 after his defection from Pol Pot, he was the founder of the Democratic National Union Movement, a split from the Cambodian National Unity Party. Ieng Sary living in "an opulent Phnom Penh villa surrounded by security guards and barbed wire" was arrested on 12 November 2007 in Phnom Penh on an arrest warrant from the Cambodia Tribunal for war crimes and crimes against humanity, his wife, Ieng Thirith, was arrested for crimes against humanity.
On 16 December 2009, the tribunal charged him with genocide for his involvement with the subjugation and murder of Vietnamese and Muslim minorities in Cambodia. Sary died in Phnom Penh on 14 March 2013 at the age of 87, before the case against him could be brought to a verdict, he had heart problems for years as well as other ailments. He was taken from his holding cell at the special tribunal to a hospital on 4 March 2013 for what his lawyers said were gastrointestinal problems. Sary's body was transported to his home in Banteay Meanchey province; the body lay for seven days before being cremated. At the time of his death, Sary was on trial for his involvement in the Khmer Rouge. Elisabeth Simonneau Fort, a lawyer for the victims, said "For the victims, this death narrows the scope of the trial and limits their search for truth and justice". Media related to Ieng Sary at Wikimedia Commons
Kang Kek Iew
Kang Kek Iew or Kaing Kek Iev romanized as Kaing Guek Eav, nom de guerre Comrade Duch or Deuch. As the head of the government's internal security branch, he oversaw the Tuol Sleng prison camp where thousands were held for interrogation and torture, after which the vast majority of these prisoners were executed, he was the first Khmer Rouge leader to be tried by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia for the crimes of the Khmer Rouge regime, was convicted of crimes against humanity and torture for his role during the Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia and sentenced to 30 years' imprisonment. On 2 February 2012, his sentence was extended to life imprisonment by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Though he was responsible for the death of thousands of people, Kang Kek Iew, unlike other Khmer Rouge cadres, didn't try to dismiss or justify his crimes, he always admitted that he had been wrong and that he had done horrible things. Moreover, during the trial, he provided detailed accounts of what happened inside S-21 and inside the Khmer Rouge regime, this helped shed light on the regime and other cadres' responsibility.
Kang Kek Iew was born in Choyaot village, Kampong Chen subdistrict, Kampong Thom Province, to an ethnic Chinese family who migrated to Cambodia in his father's generation. A star pupil in his school, he passed his Brevet d'études secondaires de première in 1961 at the age of nineteen, he finished the first half of his Baccalaureate in 1962 at the Lycée Suravarman II in the town of Siem Reap. The same year he was offered a place in the prestigious Lycée Sisowath in Phnom Penh where he completed his Baccalaureate in mathematics, scoring second in the entire country. Since his childhood, Kang's name has been changed many times. One such occasion of name changing took place when he was 15, when his parents changed his name to Yim Cheav; as the name is important in Chinese culture, Kang therefore gave his name to his grandson, what is significant is that he added the Chinese name "Yun" to this name. He was described by his former classmates as a bright and quiet boy who smiled during his youth. In 1964, Kek Iew began studying for his teaching certificate in Mathematics, a subject he loved, at the Institut de Pédagogie.
The Institute was a cradle of activism under the directorship of Son Sen, to emerge as the Defence Minister of the Khmer Rouge and Duch's immediate superior. On 28 August 1966, Kek Iew got his teaching certificate and was posted to a lycée in Skoun, a small town in Kampong Cham Province, he was a good teacher, remembered as earnest and committed by his pupils. He joined the Communist Party of Kampuchea in 1967. Following the arrest of three of his students, he fled to the Khmer Rouge base in Chamkar Leu District where he was accepted as a full member of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. A few months he was arrested and witnessed others being tortured at the Prey Sar prison by Norodom Sihanouk's police for engaging in communist activities, he was held without trial for the next two years. In 1970, when he was released following the amnesty granted to political prisoners by Lon Nol, he joined the Khmer Rouge rebels in the Cardamom Mountains bordering Thailand. Communist groups in France's former colonies in Indochina borrowed the French World War II expression'maquis' when referring to their resistance movements in the jungles.
In the zone under the control of the Khmer Rouge, Kek Iew took on his nom de guerre Comrade Duch and became a prison commandant. He was appointed the head of Special Security by his immediate superior Vorn Vet. In the forests of Amleang, Thpong District, Duch set up his first prison, code-named'M-13'. Two years he established a second prison'M-99' in nearby Aoral District. Assisted by his two deputies, Mam Nai and Tang Sin Hean, Duch began perfecting his interrogation techniques and the purging of perceived enemies from the Khmer Rouge ranks. Prisoners at these camps from the ranks of the Khmer Rouge, were starved and tortured to extract real and made-up confessions. While in the maquis, Duch married Chhim Sophal, aka Rom, a dressmaker from a nearby village, they had four children while he worked at S-21. After the Khmer Rouge victory in April 1975 Duch and his men set up prisons throughout the capital including the infamous Tuol Sleng prison. Duch's request for a transfer in May 1975 to the Industrial Sector of government was denied.
The Tuol Sleng prison camp was headed by In Lon aka Comrade Nath with Duch acting as deputy. Subsequently, In Lon was transferred and Duch promoted to be the Director. By May 1976 all the prisons in Phnom Penh were consolidated and relocated to Tuol Sleng. Prisons like Tuol Sleng were created to cleanse the population of suspected enemies of the revolution. In Tuol Sleng Duch ordered the execution of prisoners after their interrogation was completed. For example, on a list containing the names of 17 prisoners, he wrote the order “Smash them to pieces.” On a longer list of detainees, his annotation reads “smash: 115. The text below this annotation reads “Comrade Duch proposed to Angkar. On a list of 20 female detainees, Duch wrote annotations for each of them, ordering: “take away for execution,” “keep for interrogation” or “medical experiment". At least 100 detainees died after having all of their blood drawn for transfusions for wounded soldiers. Surg
Phnom Penh known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul, is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia. Phnom Penh has been the national capital since French colonization of Cambodia, has grown to become the nation's economic and cultural center. Once known as the "Pearl of Asia," it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina in the 1920s. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1434, the city is noted for attractions. There are a number of surviving French colonial buildings scattered along the grand boulevards. Situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap and Bassac rivers, the Phnom Penh metropolitan area is home to about 1.5 million of Cambodia's population of over 14.8 million. Phnom Penh takes its name from the present Wat Phnom. Legend has it that in 1372, a wealthy widow named Lady Penh found a Koki tree floating down the Tonle Sap river after a storm. Inside the tree were four bronze Buddha statues and a stone statue of Vishnu.
Daun Penh ordered villagers to raise the height of the hill northeast of her house and used the Koki wood to build a temple on the hill to house the four Buddha statues, a shrine for the Vishnu image lower down. The temple became known as Wat Phnom Daun Penh, now known as Wat Phnom, a small hill 27 metres in height. Phnom Penh's official name, in its short form, is Krong Chaktomok meaning "City of Four Faces". Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of the full name, given by King Ponhea Yat, Krong Chaktomuk Mongkol Sakal Kampuchea Thipadei Serey Thereak Borvor Inthabot Borei Roth Reach Seima Maha Nokor; this loosely translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and success of Khmer Kingdom, the highest leader as well as unimpregnable city of the God Indra of the great kingdom". It is similar to the much more famous long name of Bangkok, which in both cases incorporates many words from Sanskrit. First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the legend of the founding of Phnom Penh tells of a local woman, living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh.
It was the late 14th century, the Khmer capital was still at Angkor near Siem Reap 350 km to the north. Gathering firewood along the banks of the river, Lady Penh spied a floating koki tree in the river and fished it from the water. Inside the tree she found four Buddha statues and one of Vishnu; the discovery was taken as a divine blessing, to some a sign that the Khmer capital was to be brought to Phnom Penh from Angkor. To house the new-found sacred objects, Penh raised a small hill on the west bank of the Tonle Sap River and crowned it with a shrine, now known as Wat Phnom at the north end of central Phnom Penh. "Phnom" is Khmer for "hill" and Penh's hill took on the name of the founder, the area around it became known after the hill. Phnom Penh first became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea Yat, king of the Khmer Empire, moved the capital from Angkor Thom after it was captured and destroyed by Siam a few years earlier. There is a stupa behind Wat Phnom that houses the remains of Ponhea Yat and the royal family as well as the remaining Buddhist statues from the Angkorean era.
In the 17th century, Japanese immigrants settled on the outskirts of present-day Phnom Penh. A small Portuguese community survived in Phnom Penh until the 17th century, undertaking commercial and religious activity in the country. Phnom Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years, from 1432 to 1505, it was abandoned for 360 years by subsequent kings due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders. Kings moved the capital several times and established their royal capitals at various locations in Tuol Basan, Longvek, Lavear Em and Oudong, it was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I, the eldest son of King Ang Duong, who ruled on behalf of Siam, that Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia, where the current Royal Palace was built. Beginning in 1870, the French colonial authorities turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, prisons, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration employed the services of French contractor Le Faucheur to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sale and rental to Chinese traders.
By the 1920s, Phnom Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia", over the next four decades, Phnom Penh continued to experience rapid growth with the building of railways to Sihanoukville and Pochentong International Airport. Phnom Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of Sihanouk. During the Vietnam War, Cambodia was used as a base by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, thousands of refugees from across the country flooded the city to escape the fighting between their own government troops, the NVA/NLF, the South Vietnamese and its allies, the Khmer Rouge. By 1975, the population was 2 -- 3 million; the Khmer Rouge cut off supplies to the city f
The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left; the Khmer Rouge army was built up in the jungles of Eastern Cambodia during the late 1960s, supported by the North Vietnamese army, the Viet Cong and the Pathet Lao. Despite a massive American bombing campaign against them, the Khmer Rouge won the Cambodian Civil War when in 1975 they captured the Cambodian capital and overthrew the government of the Khmer Republic. Following their victory, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan renamed the country as Democratic Kampuchea and set about forcibly evacuating the country's major cities; the regime murdered hundreds of thousands of their perceived political opponents. The Cambodian genocide led to the deaths of 1.5 to 3 million people, around 25% of Cambodia's population.
The Khmer Rouge regime was autocratic, xenophobic and repressive. The genocide was in part the result of the regime's social engineering policies, its attempts at agricultural reform through collectivisation led to widespread famine while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency in the supply of medicine, led to the death of many thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. The Khmer Rouge's racist emphasis on national purity included several genocides of Cambodian minorities. Arbitrary executions and torture were carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during genocidal purges of its own ranks between 1975 and 1978; the regime was removed from power in 1979 when Vietnam entered Cambodia and destroyed most of the Khmer Rouge's army. The Khmer Rouge fled to Thailand whose government saw them as a buffer force against the Communist Vietnamese; the US and China and their allies, notably the Thatcher government, backed Pol Pot in exile in Thailand, providing the Khmers with intelligence, food and military training.
The Khmer Rouge continued to fight the Vietnamese and the new People's Republic of Kampuchea government during the Cambodian–Vietnamese War which ended in 1989. The Cambodian governments-in-exile held onto Cambodia's United Nations seat until 1993, when the monarchy was restored and the name of the Cambodian state was changed from Democratic Cambodia to Kingdom of Cambodia. A year thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas surrendered themselves in a government amnesty. In 1996, a new political party called the Democratic National Union Movement was formed by Ieng Sary, granted amnesty for his role as the deputy leader of the Khmer Rouge; the organisation was dissolved by the mid-1990s and surrendered in 1999. In 2014, two Khmer Rouge leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, were jailed for life by a United Nations-backed court, which found them guilty of crimes against humanity for their roles in the Khmer Rouge's genocidal campaign; the Khmer Rouge dissolved sometime in December 1999. The term "Khmers rouges", French for "Red Khmers", was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and adopted by English speakers.
It was used to refer to a succession of communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea and the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. Its military was known successively as the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In power, the movement's ideology was shaped by a power struggle during 1976 in which the so-called Party Centre led by Pol Pot defeated other regional elements of the leadership; the Party Centre's ideology combined elements of Marxism with a xenophobic form of Khmer nationalism. Due in part to secrecy and changes in the government's presentation of itself, academic interpretations of its political position within Marxist thought vary ranging from interpreting it as the "purest" Marxist-Leninist movement to characterising it as an anti-Marxist "peasant revolution", its leaders and theorists, most of whom had been exposed to the Stalinist outlook of the French Communist Party during the 1950s, developed a distinctive and eclectic "post-Leninist" ideology that drew on elements of Stalinism and the postcolonial theory of Frantz Fanon.
In the early 1970s, the Khmer Rouge looked to the model of Enver Hoxha's Albania, which they believed was the most advanced communist state in existence. Many of the regime's characteristics, such as its focus on the rural peasantry rather than the urban proletariat as the bulwark of revolution, its emphasis on Great Leap Forward-type initiatives, its desire to abolish personal interest in human behaviour, its promotion of communal living and eating and its focus on perceived common sense over technical knowledge appear to have been influenced by Maoist ideology. However, the Khmer Rouge displayed these characteristics in a more extreme form. While the CPK described itself as the "number 1 Communist state" once it was in power, some communist regimes such as Vietnam saw it as a Maoist deviation from orthodox Marxism; the Maoist and Khmer Rouge belief that human willpower could overcome material and historical conditions was at odds with mainstream Marxism, which emphasised materialism and the idea of history as inevitable progression.
Khmer ultranationalism was a defining characteristic of the regime, which combined an idealisation of the Angkor Empire with an exis
Nuon Chea known as Long Bunruot or Rungloet Laodi, is a Cambodian former politician, the chief ideologist of the Khmer Rouge. He served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea, he was known as "Brother Number Two", as he was second-in-command to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, General Secretary of the Party, during the Cambodian Genocide of 1975–1979. In 2014, Nuon Chea received a life sentence for crimes against humanity, alongside another top-tier Khmer Rouge leader, Khieu Samphan, a further trial convicted him with the crime of genocide in 2018. Nuon Chea was born as Lau Kim Lorn at Voat Kor, Battambang in 1926. Nuon's father, Lao Liv, worked as a trader as well as a corn farmer, while his mother, Dos Peanh, was a tailor. An interview by a Japanese researcher in 2003 with Nuon Chea quoted that Liv was Chinese, while Peanh was the daughter of a Chinese immigrant from Shantou and his Khmer wife. In 2011, Chea told the Khmer Rouge Tribunal that he was only a quarter Chinese through his half-Chinese father.
As a child, Nuon Chea was raised in both Khmer customs. The family prayed at a Theravada Buddhist temple, but observed Chinese religious customs during the Lunar New Year and Qingming festival. Nuon Chea started school at seven, was educated in Thai and Khmer. In the 1940s, Nuon Chea studied law at Thammasat University in Bangkok and worked part-time for the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he began his political activities in the Communist Party of Siam in Bangkok. He was elected Deputy General Secretary of the Workers Party of Kampuchea in September 1960. In Democratic Kampuchea, he was known as "Brother Number Two." Unlike most of the leaders of Khmer Rouge, Chea did not study in Paris. As documented in the Soviet archives, Nuon Chea played a major role in negotiating the North Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1970, with the intent of forcing the collapse of Lon Nol's government: "In April–May 1970, many North Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia in response to the call for help addressed to Vietnam not by Pol Pot, but by his deputy Nuon Chea.
Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days." In 1970, in fact, Vietnamese forces occupied a quarter of the territory of Cambodia, the zone of communist control grew several times, as power in the so-called liberated regions was given to the CPK. At that time relations between Pol Pot and the North Vietnamese leaders were warm." The North Vietnamese trusted Nuon Chea more than Pol Pot or Ieng Sary, although Chea "consistently and consciously deceived the Vietnamese principals concerning the real plans of the Khmer leadership." As a result, "Hanoi did not undertake any action to change the power pattern within the top ranks of the Communist Party to their own benefit." As the proclaimed state legislature, the Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly held its first plenary session during 11–13 April 1976, Chea was elected president of its Standing Committee. He held office as acting prime minister when Pol Pot resigned for one month, citing health reasons.
According to Dmitry Mosyakov, "In October 1978, Hanoi still believed that'there were two prominent party figures in Phnom Penh who sympathized with Vietnam—Nuon Chea and the former first secretary of the Eastern Zone, So Phim.... Vietnamese hopes that these figures would head an uprising against Pol Pot turned out to be groundless: So Phim perished during the revolt in June 1978, while Nuon Chea, as it is known, turned out to be one of the most devoted followers of Pol Pot—he did not defect to the Vietnamese side.... It is difficult to understand why until the end of 1978 it was believed in Hanoi that Nuon Chea was'their man' in spite of the fact that all previous experience should have proved quite the contrary. Was Hanoi unaware of his permanent siding with Pol Pot, his demands that'the Vietnamese minority should not be allowed to reside in Kampuchea', his extreme cruelty, as well as of the fact that,'in comparison with Nuon Chea, people considered Pol Pot a paragon of kindness'?" Nuon Chea was forced to abandon his position as president of the Assembly, along with all others as the Vietnamese captured Phnom Penh in January 1979.
In December 1998, Chea surrendered as part of the last remnants of Khmer Rouge resistance, based in Pailin near the Thailand border. The government under Prime Minister Hun Sen, himself a former member of the Khmer Rouge, agreed to forsake attempts to prosecute Chea, a decision, condemned by the international community. On 19 September 2007, 81 year old Chea was arrested at his home in Pailin and flown to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal in Phnom Penh, which charged him with war crimes and crimes against humanity, he has since been held in detention. In February 2008, Chea told the court that his case should be handled according to international standards, he argued that the court should delay proceedings because his Dutch lawyer, Michiel Pestman, had not yet arrived. In May 2013, Chea told the court and the victims' families, "I feel remorseful for the crimes that were committed intentionally or unintentionally, whether or not I had known about it or not known about it." On 7 August 2014, the court convicted Chea of crimes against humanity and sentenced him to imprisonment for the remainder of his life.
His lawyer announced that Chea would appeal against his conviction. Chea faced a separate trial for the crime of genocide in the same court; the court found him and Khieu Samphan guilty of genocide against the Vietnamese people and th