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Ieremia Movilă

Ieremia Movilă, was a Voivode of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606. A boyar of the Movilești family, Ieremia was placed on the throne in Iași by Polish Kanclerz and hetman Jan Zamoyski after the ousting of Ștefan Răzvan. Zamoyski's intervention had been prompted by Răzvan's acceptance of Imperial tutelage over Moldavia, after having received backing from Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory and Emperor Rudolf II; the potential conflict with the country's Ottoman overlord was defused after the Poles negotiated an agreement with Sinan Pasha, although Moldavia was invaded by the Khan of Crimea and Ottoman vassal Ğazı II Giray. Poland and the Turks signed the Treaty of Cecora after the defeat of Tatar troops in October, with the Porte agreeing to Ieremia's rule. Moldavia became a vassal of both countries. Ştefan Răzvan tried to return on the throne, but he was faced with the ruthless resistance of Zamoyski and Movilă, being captured and impaled.

Ieremia's rule faced a more formidable foe in Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave, after having crushed Andrew Báthory's armies in Transylvania and installed himself Prince in Alba Iulia, turned on Moldavia. Michael managed to conquer all of the country and sent his troops to fight the Commonwealth presence in Pokuttya; the tide turned, with hetmans Stanisław Żółkiewski and Jan Karol Chodkiewicz obtaining crucial victories in Moldavia itself and taking the fighting into Wallachia expanding Polish rule to the main section of the Danube and placing Ieremia on back on his throne, with his brother Simion the new Prince in Bucharest. In the meanwhile, Michael was assassinated at Câmpia Turzii in by his Imperial ally Giorgio Basta, with Transylvania becoming an Imperial fiefdom. With the start of the Polish-Swedish War, Poland had to retreat from Wallachia. Simion was deposed by the Ottomans, replaced with Radu Şerban in 1601. During his rule, Ieremia rebuilt the Suceviţa Monastery. Ieremia's mother was Maria, daughter of Petru Rareş.

He was married to the Hungarian lady Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz, whose influence was instrumental in a rise in Roman Catholicism in early 17th century Moldavia. His sons were all successive Moldavian rulers, while his daughters were married into Polish and Ruthenian noble Szlachta families: Anna Mohyła to Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki in 1658 or 1661, Maria to Stefan Potocki, Raina Mohyła to Michał Wiśniowiecki, Catherina Movilă to prince Samuel Korecki. Moldavian Magnate Wars

Hitachi Rail STS

Hitachi Rail STS is an Italian transportation company owned by Hitachi with a global presence in the field of railway signalling and integrated transport systems for passenger traffic and freight operations. Hitachi Rail STS plans, manufactures and commissions signaling systems and high technologies for the management and control of newly built or upgraded railways and freight lines worldwide. Headquartered in Genoa, Italy, it is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, it was listed on the Borsa Italiana and was a component of the benchmark FTSE Italia Mid Cap Index. Providing design, installation and maintenance of a wide range of train control systems and equipment dedicated to safety, efficiency and sustainability, Hitachi Rail STS employs 4,327 people worldwide; the company was founded as Ansaldo STS in 2006 through the merger of several major international railway companies. The company’s namesake comes from the Italian company Gio. Ansaldo & C. founded in 1853 in Italy by Giovanni Ansaldo.

Gio. Ansaldo & C.began as a steam locomotive producer, which diversified into shipbuilding and electrical and nuclear energy production. In 1881 the US company Union Switch & Signal was founded by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from the assets of the Interlocking Switch & Signal Company and the Union Electric Signal Company; the latter was founded by the American engineer and inventor William Robinson, the father of track circuit systems. In 1988 US&S merged with Ansaldo STS. In Europe, Ansaldo STS expanded acquiring the French company Compagnie des Signaux pour Chemins de fer in 1996. Founded in 1902 by Mr. Fernand Cumont with the support of the financial group Empain, CSE built the first lines of the Paris metro: the maintenance of these lines continues until today. In 1920 CSE was renamed into Company and Business Electrical Signals, concentrating on rail signaling and electrical manufacturing, contributing to create SAGEM and entering in the Ansaldo Signal group. In 1993 the parent company Ansaldo SpA was merged into the Finmeccanica holding, a state-owned entity privatized during the same year.

In 2001, Ansaldo SpA’s transportation business was separated and divided into three companies: AnsaldoBreda. Ansaldo Segnalamento Ferroviario became the parent company of Ansaldo Signal, the owner of Union Switch & Signal and CSEE. In 2006 Ansaldo Trasporti Sistemi Ferroviari and Ansaldo Signal merged, it began trading on the Milan Stock exchange, with 60% of its shares publicly held and 40% owned by Finmeccanica S.p. A. Both companies had their roots in the Ansaldo engineering conglomerate, absorbed by Finmeccanica. Ansaldo Trasporti Sistemi Ferroviari was created in 2000, acquiring certain units of Ansaldo Trasporti the following year; the creation of Ansaldo STS was followed by a partial IPO in March 2006. On 24 February 2015 Hitachi acquired Finmeccanica’s 51% shareholding and initiated a tender offer for the remaining shares of the company. In occasion of the Ordinary General Shareholders’ Meeting on 2 November, Hitachi Rail Italy Investment completed the acquisition of the 40% of the share capital of Ansaldo STS.

During the first meeting of the new Board of Directors, chaired by Alistair Dormer, Stefano Siragusa has been confirmed as Chief Executive Officer and General Manager of the Company, with the powers to manage the Company and the Group. In March 2015, after the Public Tender Offer launch on the society and after the purchase of other shares at 10.5 euros each, Hitachi Rail Italy Investments arrived to 50.7% of the share capital. Hitachi has a long term goal of integrating the company to provide a range of cars and signaling products and a manufacturing footprint in Europe. Stefano Siragusa, Chief Executive Officer and General Manager of the Company, resigned on 31 March 2016 and remained in charge until 13 May 2016 when, on the occasion of the Shareholders’ General Meeting the new Board of Directors were elected. On 24 May, the new Board appointed Andrew Barr as new Chief Executive Officer and General Manager of Ansaldo STS. Andrew Barr was granted the operational powers necessary for the management of the Company and the Group.

In October 2018, Hitachi agreed to buy Elliot Management's remaining 32% shareholding. Hitachi subsequently made a takeover offer for the remaining shares. Following the announcement that Hitachi had gained a 99% shareholding on 22 January 2019, Ansaldo STS was delisted from Borsa Italiana and renamed Hitachi Rail STS on 30 January 2019; the company's operations are split into two divisions: Freight Rail and Passenger Railway / Mass Transit. Major projects involving Hitachi Rail STS and its predecessor companies include the Copenhagen Metro, where it is responsible for the provision of rolling stock, Automatic Train Control, SCADA and other services; the company managed projects for signalling, train control and/or maintenance for the Metro systems of Paris, Los Angeles, Milan, Hong Kong, Shenyang and Thessaloniki. Hitachi Rail STS commissioned the first high-speed rail signaling system for the first LGV line in France, in 1981, connecting Paris and Lyon. In 2005, Hitachi Rail STS set another landmark with the first high speed line running on ERTMS Level 2 (Eur


Viikinsaari is an island located in the lake Pyhäjärvi belonging to the City of Tampere, Finland. The island is a popular nature resort and an outdoor recreation area, attracting visitors all year round. In the summertime there is a boat connection to the island from the Laukontori harbour. In winter, the island can be reached by skiing; the western part is a nature reserve, but there are swimming shores, playgrounds, a small chapel, a fireplace for roasting sausages, a restaurant, a footpath through the nature reserve and a dance pavilion on the island. Viikinsaari is administrated by the Tampere Culture Affairs, which organises happenings and events throughout summer for people in all ages, for example nature tours for children, dance lessons and events and music nights, it is possible to rent a rowing boat, fishing rods, miniature golf equipment and there’s a selection of games that can be borrowed from the Info office, including petanque, badminton, football and board games. Part of the events are organised by the private ferry company Suomen Hopealinja and the restaurant Wanha Kaidesaari.

The first mentions about Viikinsaari date back to 1596. Until the 19th century the island was known as Kaidesaari, but the name was changed when the island became property of the Viikki Manor; the confectioner Carl Gustav Tallqvist opened a restaurant on the island first in 1866 and had a boat built to start a ferry service from the land. He bought the islands from Viikki mansion, in the year 1881. After Tallqvist’s death the island was deserted for some time, it was at the most used for herding until the City of Tampere bought it in 1893. After the restaurant had burnt down twice, the city architect Lambert Petterson designed the building in 1900, still in use today. A small jail was built on the island, altered into a chapel of East and West in 1995 and is a piece of art itself, designed by Ilkka Väätti. Viikinsaari has been in use of the working class as their recreation space since the early 20th century. After some quieter years in the latter half of last century, the island is again in active use and attentively maintained.

The price for a round trip by a ferry from Laukontori is 10 euros for adults, 5 euros for children, 8 euros for students and pensioners and with 25 euros it's possible to have a family ticket for 2 adults and 4 kids. Tickets can be bought from the ticket kiosk at Laukontori harbour. Information on the Viikinsaari Island on the City of Tampere webpage

Karl Stauffer-Bern

Karl Stauffer, known as Karl Stauffer-Bern was a Swiss painter and sculptor. His father was a pastor in Bern, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich under Ludwig von Löfftz. He worked in Berlin as a portrait painter, where he had many notable people as subjects, he studied etching and engraving with Peter Halm. He was a teacher at the Berlin School for Women Artists, where his students included Käthe Kollwitz, Hedwig Weiß and Clara Siewert. In 1888, under the sponsorship of his patrons, the Welti family, he went to Rome to study sculpture. While there, he began an affair with Lydia Welti-Escher, daughter of Alfred Escher and wife of Friedrich Emil Welti, whose father was Emil Welti; the affair turned to love and a divorce from Welti was proposed, but he contacted the Swiss Embassy in Rome and used his considerable influence to separate them. Lydia was placed in an insane asylum and Karl was jailed after being charged with kidnapping and rape. In May 1890, a full psychiatric report showed no sign of mental illness and she was released.

His release followed in June, due to lack of evidence. She was returned to her husband, although she soon filed for a divorce, granted. In a state of despondency over the loss of his love, he suffered a nervous breakdown and spent some time in the San Bonifazio mental hospital. After his release, he attempted suicide by gun; the shot missed his heart and left him permanently injured. In January 1891, unable to work and suffering from persecution mania, he committed suicide with an overdose of chloral hydrate. Lydia's suicide by gas followed that December; the tone poem An Alpine Symphony by Richard Strauss, was conceived as a musical portrait of Stauffer-Bern, although Strauss denied that there were any direct biographical references.. Otto Brahm: Karl Stauffer-Bern. Sein Leben, seine Briefe, seine Gedichte. Stuttgart 1892. Fritz Stöckli: Karl Stauffer-Bern. Leben – Werk – Briefe Verlag Hallwag, Bern 1942. Matthias Frehner, Brigitta Vogler-Zimmerli: «Verfluchter Kerl!» Karl Stauffer-Bern, Radierer, Plastiker.

NZZ Libro, Zürich 2007, ISBN 978-3-03823-362-6. Bernhard von Arx: Karl Stauffer und Lydia Welti-Escher, Chronik eines Skandals. Hallwag, Bern 1969, Bern/Bonn/Wien 1991, ISBN 3-7296-0408-2. Willi Wottreng: Die Millionärin und der Maler: die Tragödie Lydia Welti-Escher und Karl Stauffer-Bern. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2005, ISBN 3-280-06049-4. Arcadja Auctions: More works by Stauffer-Bern Literature by and about Karl Stauffer-Bern in the German National Library catalogue "Stauffer-Bern, Karl". SIKART dictionary and database

Arnoldo Torres

Arnoldo Torres is a journalist, partner in the Sacramento, California based public policy consulting firm Torres & Torres, the executive director for the California Hispanic Health Care Association. Torres played a significant role the debate surrounding the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, which addressed civil rights protections, temporary workers and legalization, he has since assumed a nuanced position Torres Immigration Plan which supports repatriation of a majority of the undocumented workers. He couples this with a position calling for having the United States finance Mexican infrastructure projects which would create jobs in their communities in Mexico. Articles written by Torres have appeared in the Chicago Tribune, Arizona Republic, Sacramento Bee, Albuquerque Journal and U. S. News & World Report, he has been a guest on Firing Line, Crossfire, CBS Morning News, Phil Donohue, CNN, Spanish-language networks Univision, Telemundo and TV Azteca. From 1979 to 1985, Torres served as the executive director of the League of United Latin American Citizens.

Torres is involved with Latino outreach and media activities. As a consultant for Torres & Torres, Torres assists nonprofit organizations and advocates on behalf of indigent and ethnic minority communities. Torres has developed policy initiatives that seek to bring doctors from Mexico to serve rural, Spanish-speaking communities, to expand the cultural competency of health-care professionals in California. -'Richardson Could Lead, But Panders', Arnoldo Torres, Rodrigo Torres, Carlos Olamendi, Center For Non-Partisan Public Policy Development Milken Institute: Speaker: Arnoldo Torres NBC San Diego: Torres Immigration Plan

Thyristor controlled reactor

In an electric power transmission system, a thyristor-controlled reactor is a reactance connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve. The thyristor valve is phase-controlled, which allows the value of delivered reactive power to be adjusted to meet varying system conditions. Thyristor-controlled reactors can be used for limiting voltage rises on loaded transmission lines. Another device which used to be used for this purpose is a magnetically controlled reactor, a type of magnetic amplifier otherwise known as a transductor. In parallel with series connected reactance and thyristor valve, there may be a capacitor bank, which may be permanently connected or which may use mechanical or thyristor switching; the combination is called a static VAR compensator. A thyristor controlled reactor is a three-phase assembly connected in a delta arrangement to provide partial cancellation of Harmonics; the main TCR reactor is split into two halves, with the thyristor valve connected between the two halves.

This protects the vulnerable thyristor valve from damage due to flashovers, lightning strikes etc. The current in the TCR is varied from maximum to zero by varying the "Firing Delay Angle", α. Α is defined as the delay angle from the point at which the voltage becomes positive to the point at which the thyristor valve is turned on and current starts to flow. Maximum current is obtained when α is 90°, at which point the TCR is said to be in "full conduction" and the rms current is given by: I t c r − m a x = V s v c 2 π f L t c r Where: Vsvc is the rms value of the line-to-line busbar voltage to which the SVC is connected Ltcr is the total TCR inductance per phase The current lags 90° behind the voltage in accordance with classical AC circuit theory; as α increases above 90°, up to a maximum of 180°, the current decreases and becomes discontinuous and non-sinusoidal. The TCR current, as a function of time, is given by: ω t < π − α: I = I t c r − m a x 2 α < ω t < 2 π − α: I = I t c r − m a x 2 ω t > π + α: I = I t c r − m a x 2 Otherwise, zero.

A TCR comprises two main items of equipment: the reactor itself, air-cored and the thyristor valve. Depending on the system voltage, an intermediate power transformer may be required to step up from the voltage handled by the thyristors to the transmission system voltage; the thyristor valve consists of 5-20 inverse-parallel-connected pairs of Thyristors connected in series. The inverse-parallel connection is needed because most commercially available thyristors can conduct current in only one direction; the series connection is needed because the maximum voltage rating of commercially available thyristors is insufficient for the voltage at which the TCR is connected. For some low-voltage applications, it may be possible to avoid the series-connection of thyristors. In addition to the thyristors themselves, each inverse-parallel pair of thyristors has a Resistor - Capacitor circuit connected across it, to force the voltage across the valve to divide uniformly amongst the thyristors and to damp the "commutation overshoot" which occurs when the valve turns off.

A TCR operating with α > 90° generates substantial amounts of harmonic currents at 3rd, 5th and 7th harmonics. By connecting the TCR in delta, the harmonic currents of order 3n flow only around the delta and do not escape into the connected AC system. However, the 5th and 7th harmonics must be filtered in order to prevent excessive voltage distortion on the AC network; this is accomplished by connecting Harmonic Filters in parallel with the TCR. The filters provide capacitive reactive power which offsets the inductive reactive power pro