Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy, with the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the generals, Franco quickly became his factions only leader. Leaving half a million dead, the war was won by Franco in 1939. He established a dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state. Franco proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El Caudillo, under Franco, Spain became a one-party state, as the various conservative and royalist factions were merged into the fascist party and other political parties were outlawed. Although Francos Spain maintained a policy of neutrality during World War II.
Francos regime has been called a fascist one, Spain was isolated by the international community for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian, by the 1960s Spain saw incremental reforms and progressive economic development. After a 36-year rule, Franco died in 1975 and he restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. After a referendum, a new constitution was adopted, which transformed Spain into a democracy under a constitutional monarchy. Franco was born at half past noon on December 4,1892, at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol and his father was of Andalusian ancestry. His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade, Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913, to his fathers chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army.
In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, graduating in 1910 as a lieutenant, two years later, he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War with native Moroccans and their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, and provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said that officers would receive either la caja o la faja, Franco quickly gained a reputation as a good officer
The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there.
Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.
Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king.
Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarre
The Zaian War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921. Morocco had become a French protectorate in 1912, and Resident-General Louis-Hubert Lyautey sought to extend French influence eastwards through the Middle Atlas mountains towards French Algeria and this was opposed by the Zaians, led by Mouha ou Hammou Zayani. The war began well for the French, who took the key towns of Taza. The outbreak of the First World War proved significant, with the withdrawal of troops for service in France compounded by the loss of more than 600 French killed at the Battle of El Herri. After the signing of the Armistice with Germany in November 1918, the French resumed their offensive in the Khénifra area in 1920, establishing a series of blockhouses to limit the Zaians freedom of movement. They opened negotiations with Hammous sons, persuading three of them, along many of their followers, to submit to French rule. A split in the Zaian Confederation between those who supported submission and those still opposed led to infighting and the death of Hammou in Spring 1921, the French responded with a strong, three-pronged attack into the Middle Atlas that pacified the area.
Some tribesmen, led by Moha ou Said, fled to the High Atlas, the signing of the Treaty of Fez in 1912 established a French protectorate over Morocco. The treaty had been prompted by the Agadir Crisis of 1911, during which French, the new French protectorate was led by a resident-general, Louis-Hubert Lyautey, and adopted the traditional Moroccan way of governing through the tribal system. Upon taking up his post Lyautey replaced Abdelhafid with his brother, the tribes took offence at this, installing their own Sultan, Ahmed al-Hiba, in Marrakesh and taking eight Europeans captive. Lyautey acted quickly against the revolt, dispatching General Charles Mangin and 5,000 troops to retake the town, mangins men were highly successful, rescuing the captives and inflicting heavy casualties on vastly superior numbers of tribesmen for the loss of 2 men killed and 23 wounded. Al-Hiba escaped to the Atlas mountains with a number of his followers. A popular idea among the public in France was to possess a stretch of territory from Tunis to the Atlantic Ocean.
Lyautey was in favour of this and advocated French occupation of the Middle Atlas mountains near Taza, Hammou commanded between 4,000 and 4,200 tents of people and had led the Zaians since 1877, opposing the French since the start of their involvement in Morocco. Despite initially being open to negotiations with the French, pressure from pro-war chiefs, the French had attempted to persuade the Zaians to submit since 1913 with little success, most tribes in the confederation remained opposed to French rule. Lyauteys plans for taking Taza extended to capturing Khénifra, Hammous headquarters and he had been advised by his political officer, Maurice Le Glay that doing so would finish him off definitively and cut the Zaians off from support of other tribes. The French outpost at nearby Kasbah Tadla had recently attacked by Said and subsequent peace negotiations led by Lyauteys head of intelligence. Henrys captured Taza within a few days using units drawn from garrisons in Fez, Meknes and Marrakesh, Henrys took overall command, directing the forces from an armoured car within the Claudel column
Siege of Melilla (1774)
The Siege of Melilla was an attempt by the British-backed Sultanate of Morocco to capture the Spanish fortress of Melilla on the Moroccan Mediterranean coast. Mohammed ben Abdallah, Sultan of Morocco, invested Melilla in December 1774 with an army of Royal Moroccan soldiers. The city was defended by a garrison under Irish-born Governor Don Juan Sherlocke until the siege was lifted by a relief fleet in March 1775. Spanish troops resisted the attack over a period of 100 days, a small garrison under Florencio Moreno likewise resisted the Sultans army at Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera. Sherlocke began to break the siege, a situation exacerbated by the desertion of ben Abdallahs Algerians, the end of the siege is still commemorated as Nuestra Señora de la Victoria, Our Lady of Victory. With the Peace of Aranjuez in 1780, Morocco recognized Spanish rule of Melilla in exchange for territorial concessions, ceded by Spain
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as infidels who needed to be converted and pacified. Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast, the Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair, the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries. Pedro de Alvarado arrived in Guatemala from the newly conquered Mexico in early 1524, commanding a force of Spanish conquistadors and native allies. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, the Kaqchikel Maya initially allied themselves with the Spanish, but soon rebelled against excessive demands for tribute and did not finally surrender until 1530. In the meantime the other major highland Maya kingdoms had each been defeated in turn by the Spanish and allied warriors from Mexico and native tactics and technology differed greatly.
The Spanish viewed the taking of prisoners as a hindrance to outright victory, whereas the Maya prioritised the capture of live prisoners and of booty. The Maya preferred raiding and ambush to large-scale warfare, using spears and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades, in response to the use of Spanish cavalry, the highland Maya took to digging pits and lining them with wooden stakes. These letters were despatched to Tenochtitlan, addressed to Cortés but with an audience in mind. Gonzalo wrote an account that mostly supports that of Pedro de Alvarado, Pedro de Alvarados brother Jorge wrote another account to the king of Spain that explained it was his own campaign of 1527–1529 that established the Spanish colony. His account was finished around 1568, some 40 years after the campaigns it describes, Hernán Cortés described his expedition to Honduras in the fifth letter of his Cartas de Relación, in which he details his crossing of what is now Guatemalas Petén Department. Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote a critical account of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
The Brevísima Relación de la Destrucción de las Indias was first published in 1552 in Seville, other accounts were in the form of questionnaires answered before colonial magistrates to protest and register a claim for recompense. A letter from the defeated Tzutujil Maya nobility of Santiago Atitlán to the Spanish king written in 1571 details the exploitation of the subjugated peoples, Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán was a colonial Guatemalan historian of Spanish descent who wrote La Recordación Florida, called Historia de Guatemala. The book was written in 1690 and is regarded as one of the most important works of Guatemalan history, field investigation has tended to support the estimates of indigenous population and army sizes given by Fuentes y Guzmán. Christopher Columbus discovered the New World for the Kingdom of Castile, private adventurers thereafter entered into contracts with the Spanish Crown to conquer the newly discovered lands in return for tax revenues and the power to rule.
In the first decades after the discovery of the new lands and they heard rumours of the rich empire of the Aztecs on the mainland to the west and, in 1519, Hernán Cortés set sail with eleven ships to explore the Mexican coast. By August 1521 the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had fallen to the Spanish, a single soldier arriving in Mexico in 1520 was carrying smallpox and thus initiated the devastating plagues that swept through the native populations of the Americas
The Rif War, called the Second Moroccan War, was fought in the early 1920s between the colonial power Spain and the Berbers of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd al-Karim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics, during the early 20th century, Morocco had fallen into the French and Spanish spheres of influence, becoming divided into protectorates ruled by the two European nations. The Rif region had been assigned to Spain, but given that even the Sultans of Morocco had been unable to control over the region. For centuries, the Berber tribes of the Rif had fought off any attempt to impose outside control on them, though nominally Muslim, the tribes of the Rif had continued many pagan practices such as worshipping water spirits and forest spirits that were contrary to Islam. Attempts by the Moroccan sultans to impose orthodox Islam on the Rif had been resisted by the tribesmen. For centuries Europeans had seen the Rif mountains and the outlines of people on the mountains from ships in the Mediterranean Sea, but almost no European had ever ventured into the mountains.
Walter Burton Harris, the Morocco correspondent for The Times, who covered the war wrote that as late as 1912 only one or two Europeans had been able to visit the forests that lie south of Fez. A few had traveled in the southern Atlas and pushed on into the Sus. the reason for, as Harris wrote, was the Berbers were often as inhospitable to the Arab as they were to the foreigner, and generally killed any outsiders who ventured into their territory. The Rif was rich in iron, which could be easily extracted via open pit mining. The Spanish state could collect money in the form of taxes and royalties from the iron mining. When King Alfonso XIII of Spain ascended to the throne in 1886, Spain could at least make the pretense of being a power, having colonies in the Americans, Asia. To compensate for the lost empire in the Americas and Asia, there emerged a powerful faction in Spain led by Alfonso. For all these reasons, Spain had been pushing into the Rif since 1909, the Berber tribesmen had a long tradition of fierce fighting skills, combined with high standards of fieldcraft and marksmanship.
They were capably led by Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi, commonly called Abd el-Krim, the Rifian regular army was never a very large force. The elite of the Rifian forces formed regular units which according to Abd el-Krim, other sources put it much lower, at around 2,000 to 3,000. The remaining Rifians were tribal militia selected by their Caids and not liable to serve away from their homes and farms for more than 15 consecutive days. General Goded estimated that at their peak, in June 1924, this force was largely adequate in the early stages of the war. In the final days of the war Rifian forces numbered about 12,000 men, in addition Rifian forces were not well armed, with weapons badly maintained and in poor condition
Battle of Annual
The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22,1921, at Annual in Spanish Morocco, between the Spanish Army of Africa and Berber combatants of the Rif region during the Rif War. In early 1921 the Spanish Army commenced an offensive into northeastern Morocco from the regions they already held. The advance took place without extended lines of communication being adequately established or the complete subjugation of the areas occupied, the overextended Spanish military structure in the Western Spanish Protectorate in Morocco crumbled. After the battle, the Riffian Berbers began to advance eastward, the Spanish garrisons were destroyed without mounting a coordinated response to the attacks. At the end of August 1921, Spain had lost all the territories it had gained in the area since 1909, General Silvestre disappeared and his remains were never found. A Moorish courier from Kaddur Namar claimed that, eight days after the battle, at Afrau, on the coast, Spanish warships were able to evacuate the garrison.
At Zoco el Telata de Metalsa in the south, Spanish troops, Spanish survivors of the battle retreated some 80 km to the encampment of Monte Arruit, where a stand was attempted under the command of General Felipe Navarro y Ceballos-Escalera. As this position was surrounded and cut off supplies, General Dámaso Berenguer Fusté, Spanish High Commissioner in the protectorate. The Rifeños reportedly did not respect the conditions of surrender and killed 3,000 Spanish soldiers, General Navarro was taken prisoner, along with 534 military personnel and 53 civilians who were ransomed some years later. Melilla was only some 40 km away, but was in no position to help, the Spanish quickly reinforced Melilla with 14,000 men from the Spanish Legion and other units. He stated that this was his biggest mistake, Spain quickly assembled elite units of the Army of Africa which had been operating south of Tetuan in the Western Zone. These mainly comprised Spanish Legion and Moroccan Regulares newly recruited in 1920, transferred to Melilla by sea, these reinforcements enabled the city to be held and Monte Arruit to be retaken by the end of November.
The Spaniards may have lost more than 20,000 soldiers at Annual, german historian Werner Brockdorff states that only 1,200 of the 20,000 Spanish troops escaped alive, though the estimated losses may be exaggerated. Abd el Krim remarked later, In just one night, Spain supplied us with all the equipment which we needed to carry on a big war. Other sources give the amount of booty seized by Rif warriors as 20,000 rifles,400 machine guns, the political crisis brought about by this disaster led Indalecio Prieto to say in the Congress of Deputies, We are at the most acute period of Spanish decadence. The campaign in Africa is a total, absolute failure of the Spanish Army, the Minister of War ordered the creation of an investigative commission, led by General Juan Picasso González, which developed the report known as Expediente Picasso. The report detailed numerous military mistakes, but owing to the action of various ministers and judges. In all, the defeat is thought of in Spain as the worst of the Spanish army in modern times
Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Salé, Agadir, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991.
Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God.
The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco
Conquest of the Canary Islands
The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496. The ties between the Canaries and the Mediterranean world which had existed since antiquity were interrupted by the decline, although these linkages were weakened, they were not totally severed, and the Canaries isolation was not total. During the Middle Ages, the first reports on the Canaries come from Arabic sources, what does seem clear is that this knowledge of the islands did not signify the end of the cultural isolation of the native inhabitants. Ideological and political motives, the monarchies of Southern Europe entered an expansive phase, in the case of the Iberian royalty, their territorial expansion was spurred by the Reconquista against the Moors in Spain. For this reason, territorial expansion represented a reinforcement of royal power, the first visit by a European to the Canary Islands since antiquity was by Genoese captain Lanceloto Malocello traditionally dated 1312. Malocellos motives were unclear - it is believed he might have been searching for traces of the Vivaldi brothers who had disappeared off Morocco, Malocello made landfall on Lanzarote island, and remained there for nearly twenty years.
Malocello may have attempted to erect himself as a ruler among the aboriginal peoples, according to some sources, shortly after his return to Europe, in 1336, Malocello led a return expedition to the Canaries, sponsored by King Dinis of Portugal. However, the existence of this expedition has been dismissed by most modern historians, although earlier maps had shown fantastical depictions of the Fortunate Islands, this is the first European map where the actual Canary islands make a solid appearance. Cruising the archipelago for five months, the expedition mapped thirteen islands and surveyed the primeval aboriginal inhabitants, European interest in the Canaries picked up quickly after the 1341 mapping expedition. The descriptions of the primeval Guanches, in particular, drew the attention of European merchants, the results of these expeditions are uncertain. The Catholic Church was drawn by the news, the Portuguese king Afonso IV immediately lodged a protest, claiming priority of discovery, but conceded to the authority of the pope.
Despite their formal concessions, preparations were stalled by the opposition of the Iberian monarchs and these expeditions were almost wholly commercial, with the primary purpose of capturing native islanders to sell as slaves in European markets. But there was some trade with the locals, particularly for orchil and dragons blood. The pope did not give up on his hope of converting the natives, whether this expedition ever set out is uncertain. More confidently is the bull issued in July 1369 by the Avignon Pope Urban V erecting the diocese of Fortuna, but whether this actually set out or just remained a paper project is uncertain. We have a reliable record of a Majorcan expedition in 1386 carried out by Pauperes Heremite, sponsored by Peter IV Aragon. Although their exact fate is unknown, there is a report that thirteen Christian friars who had been preaching in the Canaries for seven years were massacred in an uprising during 1391. At least five missionary expeditions would be sent between 1352 and 1386, geographic knowledge of the Canary islands coalesced with these expeditions