An igloo known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow built when the snow is suitable. Although igloos are associated with all Inuit and Eskimo peoples, they were traditionally used only by the people of Canada's Central Arctic and Greenland's Thule area. Other Inuit tended to use snow to insulate their houses, which were constructed from whalebone and hides. Snow is used. On the outside, temperatures may be as low as −45 °C, but on the inside, the temperature may range from −7 to 16 °C when warmed by body heat alone; the Inuit language word iglu can be used for a house or home built of any material, is not restricted to snowhouses, but includes traditional tents, sod houses, homes constructed of driftwood and modern buildings. Several dialects throughout the Canadian Arctic use iglu for all buildings, including snowhouses, it is the term used by the Government of Nunavut. An exception to this is the dialect used in the Igloolik region. Iglu is used for other buildings, while igluvijaq, is used for a snowhouse.
Outside Inuit culture, igloo refers to shelters constructed from blocks of compacted snow in the form of a dome. There used for different purposes; the smallest are constructed as temporary shelters only used for one or two nights so they are easier to build. On rare occasions these are built and used during hunting trips on open sea ice. Intermediate-sized igloos were for family dwelling; this was a single room dwelling that housed one or two families. There were several of these in a small area, which formed an Inuit village; the largest igloos were built in groups of two. One of the buildings was a temporary structure built for special occasions, the other built nearby for living; these might have housed up to 20 people. A large igloo might have been constructed from several smaller igloos attached by their tunnels, giving common access to the outside; these were used to hold traditional dances. Snow igloos are not spherical, but are built in a catenary curve, a shape more resembling a paraboloid.
Using this shape, the stresses of snow as it ages and compresses are less to cause it to buckle because in an inverted paraboloid or catenoid the pressures are nearer to being compressive. If the walls are of uniform thickness and density, the maximum compressive stress at the base of a paraboloid is S α = γ d 2 24 h ⋅ 1 + cos α + cos 2 α cos 2 α, where d is the diameter at the base, h is the height, γ is the unit weight of the snow, α = arctan . Since stress is a force per unit area, if the walls are of uniform thickness the compressive stress is independent of wall thickness; the maximum compressive stress at the base of the igloo can be obtained by multiplying S,/yd times the snow unit weight y and the mean igloo base diameter. The individual snow bricks start out 4-sided and being cut out of the ground with saws and machete-like blades, but are often cut into 5 or 6-sided shapes to increase structural interlocking, similar to the stones used in the Inca Empire. Igloos become shorter with time due to the compressive creep of the snow.
The snow used to build an igloo must have enough structural strength to be cut and stacked appropriately. The best snow to use for this purpose is snow, blown by wind, which can serve to compact and interlock the ice crystals; the hole left in the snow where the blocks are cut is used as the lower half of the shelter. Snow's insulating properties enable the inside of the igloo to remain warm. In some cases, a single block of clear freshwater ice is inserted to allow light into the igloo. Igloos used as winter shelters had beds made of loose snow and caribou furs. Sometimes, a short tunnel is constructed at the entrance, to reduce wind and heat loss when the door is opened. Animal skins or a snow block can be used as a door. Architecturally, the igloo is unique in that it is a dome that can be raised out of independent blocks leaning on each other and polished to fit without an additional supporting structure during construction. An igloo, built will support the weight of a person standing on the roof.
Traditionally, an igloo might be deliberately consolidated after
Let's Talk About the Rain is a 2008 French comedy-drama film directed by Agnès Jaoui from an original screenplay by Jean-Pierre Bacri. It takes its title from a song by Georges Brassens. Agnès Jaoui said in an interview that one day she was on her way to a writing session with Jean-Pierre and had in her ears the song'L'orage' by Georges Brassens which opens with the lines'parlez-moi de la pluie, et non pas du beau temps.' The film is a comedy of middle-class French life' examining culture clashes, puncturing smugness, exposing fault lines, finding strength in romantic and familial relationships and discovering an underlying sadness that stops some way short of tragedy.'The film is set in a small town in Provence during a rainy August. Following the death of her widowed mother Agathe Villanova comes from Paris to deal with the sale of the home where she and her younger sister Florence were brought up, to announce her entry into politics, she is the author of a feminist best-seller and a divorced film-maker Michel wants to make a TV documentary about her.
Michel is having an affair with Agathe's sister. His collaborator is a young Algerian hotel clerk Karim, whose elderly mother has worked for most of her life as a servant with the Villanova family. Agathe's prejudice is put under the microscope when she records a series of interviews with Karim.'The characters weave around each other for a week or so colliding...everyone comes to have a better knowledge of themselves..the dialogue rings true..the ensemble acting is perfect.. The film compares favourably with the best of Éric Rohmer.' Jean-Pierre Bacri as Michel Ronsard Jamel Debbouze as Karim Agnes Jaoui as Agathe Villanova Pascale Arbillot as Florence Guillaume De Tonquedec as Stéphane Frédéric Pierrot as Antoine Let's Talk About the Rain on IMDb
British Nigerians are British people of Nigerian descent or Nigerians of British descent. This article is about citizens of Nigerian descent living in Britain. Many Nigerians and their British-born descendants in Britain live in South London, they are one of the larger immigrant groups in the country. Nigerians have formed long-established communities in London and other industrial cities; the earliest known Nigerian presence in London took place over 200 years ago as a direct result of the transatlantic slave trade. Olaudah Equiano, born in what is now Nigeria and a former slave, lived in London and was involved in the debate that occurred in Britain over the abolition of the slave trade. Like many former British colonies, Nigeria has been a large source of immigrants to the United Kingdom. Prior to Nigeria's independence from Britain, gained in 1960, many Nigerians studied in the UK along with other countries such as France and the United States, with the majority returning to Nigeria upon completion of their studies.
In the 1960s, civil and political unrest in Nigeria contributed to many refugees migrating to Britain, along with skilled workers. Nigerians immigrated in larger numbers following the collapse of the petroleum boom; this wave of migration has been more permanent than the pre-independence wave of temporary migration. Asylum applications from Nigerians peaked in 1995, when the repression associated with the military dictatorship of Sani Abacha was at its height. In 2015, Britain's Independent Anti-slavery Commissioner expressed concerns about the extent of contemporary slavery involving Nigerians smuggled to the UK. Of more than 2,000 potential victims of human trafficking referred to the National Crime Agency in 2014, 244 were from Nigeria; this represented a 31 per cent increase on 2013's figure. According to the BBC, "Campaigners believe the real figure of potential trafficking victims from Nigeria could be much higher"; the 2001 UK Census recorded 88,378 Nigerian-born people resident in the UK.
The 2011 Census recorded 191,183 Nigerian-born residents in Wales. The censuses of Scotland and Northern Ireland recorded 9,458 and 543 Nigerian-born residents respectively. More recent estimates by the Office for National Statistics put the figure at 196,000 in 2016. A Council of Europe report gives a figure of 100,000 Nigerians in the UK but suggests that this is to be an underestimate since it does not include irregular migrants or children born outside of Nigeria. Nigerians with citizenship of another EU member state who relocated to the UK are not included in this estimate; the report suggests to multiply the figure by between 3 and 8 to reflect the size of the Nigerian community in the UK. The UK's largest concentration of Nigerians is found in London. Peckham is now home to the largest overseas Nigerian community in the UK, with 7 per cent of the population of the Peckham census tract at the time of the 2001 Census having been born in Nigeria. Many of the local establishments are Yoruba owned.
Nigerian churches and mosques can be found in the area. As immigrants have become assimilated, English has always been the predominant language of the local Nigerian British population as English is the main spoken language in Nigeria; the Yoruba language is declining in use in the Peckham area despite the growing Nigerian population. Outside London and South East England, the largest Nigerian-born communities are found in the East of England and the North West. Below is a table showing how many Nigerians were granted British citizenship and the right of abode in the period 1998 to 2008. According to the Institute for Public Policy Research, Nigerian pupils are among best performing student groups in the United Kingdom. Taking data for only England, a 2013 IPPR survey reported that the proportion of British Nigerian pupils gaining 5 A*–C grades at GCSE in 2010–2011 was 21.8 percentage points higher than the England mean of 59.6 per cent. This average was calculated using student data, where available, from various local authorities in England.
The number of Nigerian pupils at British private schools is growing. In November 2013, The Spectator noted that Nigerians, along with Russians, "are now the fastest-growing population in British private schools". In 2013, the number of entrants to private schools from Nigeria increased by 16 per cent. According to Higher Education Statistics Agency data, 17,620 students from Nigeria were studying at British public higher education institutions in the academic year 2011-12; this made them the third largest country-of-origin group behind students from India. Of the 17,620, 6,500 were undergraduates, 9,620 taught postgraduates and 1,500 research postgraduates. Research by Euromonitor International for the British Council indicates that in 2010, the majority of Nigerian foreign students attended universities in the UK; the students are drawn to these institutions' English language academic system. Their time studying in Britain is facilitated by an established and large Nigerian community and by "the relative proximity of the UK to Nigeria".
Caroline Danjuma, actress Eku Edewor, actress Lola Maja, makeup artist Nicholas Mostyn, judge SHiiKANE, girl group Remi Vaughan-Richards, filmmaker Daniel Bakpa, jewellery maker Buchi Emecheta, author Richard Ayoade and comedian of Norwegian and Nigerian descent Sara Forbes Bonetta, Yoruba princess, goddaughter to Queen Victoria John Boyega, actor who played Finn in the Star Wars sequel trilogy Lord Adebowale, peer Chris Ofili, artist Eunice Olumide, actress, supermodel Hannah John-Kamen, actor of Norwegian and Nigerian descent Adebayo Ogunlesi, investment banker Ken Olisa, investment banker and businessman David Olusoga, historian