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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis was a Hungarian physician and scientist, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. Described as the "saviour of mothers", Semmelweis discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever could be drastically cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Puerperal fever was common in mid-19th-century hospitals and fatal. Semmelweis proposed the practice of washing hands with chlorinated lime solutions in 1847 while working in Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctors' wards had three times the mortality of midwives' wards, he published a book of his findings in Etiology and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Despite various publications of results where hand washing reduced mortality to below 1%, Semmelweis's observations conflicted with the established scientific and medical opinions of the time and his ideas were rejected by the medical community. Semmelweis could offer no acceptable scientific explanation for his findings, some doctors were offended at the suggestion that they should wash their hands and mocked him for it.

In 1865, the outspoken Semmelweis suffered a nervous breakdown and was treacherously committed to an asylum by his colleague. He died a mere 14 days at the age of 47, after being beaten by the guards, from a gangrenous wound on his right hand which might have been caused by the beating. Semmelweis's practice earned widespread acceptance only years after his death, when Louis Pasteur confirmed the germ theory, Joseph Lister, acting on the French microbiologist's research and operated using hygienic methods, with great success. Ignaz Semmelweis was born on 1 July 1818 in Tabán, neighbourhood of Buda, today part of Budapest, he was the fifth child out of ten of the prosperous grocer family of József Semmelweis and Teréz Müller. Of German ancestry, his father was an ethnic German born in Kismarton part of Hungary, now Eisenstadt, Austria, he achieved permission to set up a shop in Buda in 1806 and, in the same year, opened a wholesale business for spices and general consumer goods. The company was named zum Weißen Elefanten in Meindl-Haus in Tabán.

By 1810, he was a wealthy man and married Teréz Müller, daughter of the coach builder Fülöp Müller. Ignaz Semmelweis began studying law at the University of Vienna in the autumn of 1837, but by the following year, for reasons that are no longer known, he had switched to medicine, he was awarded his doctorate degree in medicine in 1844. After failing to obtain an appointment in a clinic for internal medicine, Semmelweis decided to specialize in obstetrics, his teachers included Joseph Škoda and Ferdinand von Hebra. Semmelweis was appointed assistant to Professor Johann Klein in the First Obstetrical Clinic of the Vienna General Hospital on July 1, 1846. A comparable position today in a United States hospital would be "chief resident." His duties were to examine patients each morning in preparation for the professor's rounds, supervise difficult deliveries, teach students of obstetrics and be "clerk" of records. Maternity institutions were set up all over Europe to address problems of infanticide of illegitimate children.

They were set up as gratis institutions and offered to care for the infants, which made them attractive to underprivileged women, including prostitutes. In return for the free services, the women would be subjects for the training of doctors and midwives. Two maternity clinics were at the Viennese hospital; the First Clinic had an average maternal mortality rate of about 10% due to puerperal fever. The Second Clinic's rate was lower, averaging less than 4%; this fact was known outside the hospital. The two clinics admitted on alternate days, but women begged to be admitted to the Second Clinic, due to the bad reputation of the First Clinic. Semmelweis described desperate women begging on their knees not to be admitted to the First Clinic; some women preferred to give birth in the streets, pretending to have given sudden birth en route to the hospital, which meant they would still qualify for the child care benefits without having been admitted to the clinic. Semmelweis was puzzled. "To me, it appeared logical that patients who experienced street births would become ill at least as as those who delivered in the clinic.

What protected those who delivered outside the clinic from these destructive unknown endemic influences?"Semmelweis was troubled that his First Clinic had a much higher mortality rate due to puerperal fever than the Second Clinic. It "made me so miserable that life seemed worthless"; the two clinics used the same techniques, Semmelweis started a meticulous process of eliminating all possible differences, including religious practices. The only major difference was the individuals; the First Clinic was the teaching service for medical students, while the Second Clinic had been selected in 1841 for the instruction of midwives only. He excluded "overcrowding" as a cause, since the Second Clinic was always more crowded and yet the mortality was lower, he eliminated climate as a cause. The breakthrough occurred in 1847, following the death of his good friend Jakob Kolletschka, accidentally poked with a student's scalpel while performing a post mortem examination. Kolletschka's own autopsy showed a pathology

Savage Guns (1961 film)

The Savage Guns is a 1961 Eurowestern film, an international co-production by British and Spanish producers. Based on a specially commissioned screenplay, The San Siado Killings, written by Peter R. Newman and directed by Michael Carreras, the film is credited as the first traditional Spaghetti Western; the film was noticeably set apart from previous "classic" American westerns starring an American leading cast and Spanish actors in supporting roles as well as its unique use of the deserts, palm trees and whitewashed villages of southern Spain. It was the first western to be shot on location in Almeria, Spain, an area which would be used in Spaghetti Westerns during the next two decades; the film takes place in a small valley in the Mexican state of Sonora, near the Arizona Territory, around 1870. Steve Fallon, a drifter and gun-for-hire, is exhausted when travelling through the barren landscape and is found by Mike Summers and his wife, Franchea, he is taken into their home and, while recovering, he learns that a local land baron, Ortega, is pressuring local ranchers to sell their land to him with the help of Danny Pose and his gang of outlaws.

Fallon develops feelings for Fanchea's sister, Juana. Mike Summers, a former Confederate officer, had become a pacifist following his experiences during the American Civil War. Refusing to wear a gun, he is defenseless when Danny Pose arrives at the ranch to collect "protection" money. Confronted by Fallon, Pose loses to Fallon in a brawl, he is run out of town after a gunfight with Fallon ends with three of his companions dead. Ortega responds by taking over the gang himself and leading a raid against the Summers ranch and, in one of the film's most graphic scenes, he has Fallon's hands crushed under a wagon. Danny Pose soon returns, under the belief that Fallon has been killed, turns on Ortega murdering his former employer. Riding to the Summers ranch, he sees the helpless Fallon and threatens to shoot him when Summers grabs a nearby gun and kills Pose in order to save Fallon's life. Richard Basehart as Steve Fallon — an exhausted drifter, taken in by Mike and Franchia Summers. Nursed back to health, he decides to help the Summers in their fight against Danny Pose and Ortega.

Don Taylor as Mike Summers — a former major in the Confederate Army, he lives with his wife on their ranch outside Sonora. Although he and his wife are victims of the Danny Pose, his experiences during the American Civil War have caused him to become a pacifist. Paquita Rico as Franchea — the wife of Mike Summers. José Nieto as Ortega — a local land baron who attempts to dominate the area by buying up cheap land from rival ranchers in the valley, he using a bandit gang to force ranchers to sell to him as well as to terrorize the local townspeople. Alex Nicol as Danny Pose — an outlaw and bandit leader in the pay of Ortega, his gang collects extortion money for Ortega, he is both violent and ruthless, however he displays cowardly traits when confronted alone. Maria Granada as Juana — the sister of Franchia, she becomes involved in a romantic relationship with Steve Fallon. Fernando Rey as Don Hernán Having formed an independent film company, Capricorn Productions, with writer and director Jimmy Sangster, this was Carreras first film since breaking away from Hammer Studios.

By 1960, Hollywood studios had drastically cut down on producing western films and problems with distribution left European countries in short supply. Producer José Gutiérrez Maesso writer of The Ugly Ones and The Hellbenders, had noted the advantages of the area's desert landscape after visiting Almeria during the late 1950s. Carreras had soon developed a unique idea for producing a European western using the desert location of Almeria, Spain as an alternative to the southwestern United States. Organizing a collaboration between Capricorn and the Madrid-based production companies Tecisa and CEA Studios, he gained financial backing from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer which recognized the vastly reduced cost of filming in the area. Like Carreras, the actors selected for the leading roles were all Hammer Studio regulars, his partner Jimmy Sangster was responsible for signing American actors Richard Basehart, Don Taylor and Alex Nicol. Of the three, only Nicol would appear in a second Spaghetti Western, the 1964 film Gunfighters of Casa Grande.

Savage Guns would be Taylor's last starring role in a feature film while Richard Basehart would find work as a television actor, best known as Admiral Harriman Nelson in the 1960s science fiction series Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea. Taylor's role was meant for Kerwin Mathews who pulled out of the film at the last minute, their Spanish counterparts, veteran actors José Nieto, Fernando Rey and Paquita Rico, were given prominent supporting roles in the film. She would star in two other Spaghetti Westerns, Gunfighters of Casa Grande with Alex Nicol and Son of a Gunfighter with Fernando Rey, being cast as father and daughter in the latter film. Rey would go on to star in a number of other Spaghetti Westerns, most notably Navajo Joe and Compañeros, while Nieto appeared in Outlaw of Red River and The Hellbenders. José Manuel Martín, while appearing in a minor role, proved to be one of the most visible character actors with appearances in Gunfighters of Casa Grande, Minnesota Clay, A Pistol for Ringo, A Bullet for the General, Train for Durango and Revenge of Trinity.

Other former cast members would made frequent cameo appearances including: Rafael Va

Postage stamps and postal history of Samoa

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Samoa. Samoa known as Western Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, it became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Savai'i; the first stamps of Samoa were issued in 1877. The Samoa Express private post was set up in 1877 and ended in 1881; the stamps were remaindered and forged. A private service was set up by J. Davis In 1886. Stamps designated "Samoa Postage" were issued between 1886 and 1899. German stamps were first used in German Samoa on September 21, 1886, in the form of vorläufer stamps that can be recognized by the "Apia" cancellation mark. In April 1900 German stamps with "Samoa" overprint became available. In December 1900, the yacht issue was introduced. After New Zealand forces occupied German Samoa in 1914, stamps of German Samoa were overprinted "G. R. I.". These were followed by stamp of New Zealand overprinted "Samoa"; the first stamps of the mandated territory of Western Samoa were issued in 1921.

Samoa issued stamps as an independent state on 2 July 1962. Postage stamps and postal history of the German colonies - Samoa List of people on stamps of Samoa Odenweller, Robert P; the Stamps and Postal History of Nineteenth Century Samoa. London: Royal Philatelic Society. ISBN 0-9597883-5-2 Fellowship of Samoa Specialists Samoa Express forgeries; the Pacific Islands Study Circle

Akhtar (magazine)

The Persian periodical Akhtar was founded in 1876, following the suggestion of the Persian ambassador in Constantinople at that time, was published until its discontinuation in 1896. Editor and director was Agha Mohammed Taher Tabrizi, the editor in chief Mirza Mehdi Tabrizi was the founder of the Khorshid Publishing House in Constantinople and the editor of Hekmat in Cairo. Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan Kashani, who founded the periodical Sorayya published in Cairo briefly worked for the journal. At the beginning, Akhtar - the first non-official press medium - was published daily twice - and once a week; the distribution of this journal extended from many cities of Iran and the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus and South East Asia. It served as a mouthpiece for Iranians in diaspora and was used by the Persian embassy and the consulate in Constantinople as a newsletter. Alongside political daily reports it contained domestic and international news, articles on scientific and literary topics as well as reports from correspondents and letters from Persia.

Though Akhtar as a journal published in exile could report more the Ottoman censors suspended it several times. After the assassination of Naser ad-Din Shah in 1896, the Ottoman government permanently banned the journal. Iran-Turkey relations Pistor-Hatam, Anja: Iran und die Reformbewegung im Osmanischen Reich. Persische Staatsmänner, Reisende und Oppositionelle unter dem Einfluss der Tanẓīmāt, Berlin 1992. Pistor-Hatam, Anja: Nachrichtenblatt, Informationsbörse und Diskussionsforum: Aḫtar-e Estānbūl – Anstöße zur frühen persischen Moderne, Münster 1999. Online-Version: Aḫtar Digital Collections: Arabische, persische und osmanisch-türkische Periodika

Mercy seat

According to the Hebrew Bible the kaporet or mercy seat was the gold lid placed on the Ark of the Covenant, with two cherubim beaten out of the ends to cover and create the space into which Yahweh was said to appear. This was connected with the rituals of the Day of Atonement; the term appears in Jewish sources, twice in the New Testament, from where it has significance in Christian theology. The etymology of mercy seat is unclear; the Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion states that "some translate ‘cover.’” According to the biblical account, the cover was made from pure gold and was the same width and breadth as the ark beneath it, 2.5 cubits long and 1.5 cubits wide. The ark and mercy seat were kept inside the Holy of Holies, the temple's innermost sanctuary, separated from the other parts of the temple by a thick curtain. Two golden cherubim were placed at each end of the cover facing one another and the mercy seat, with their wings spread to enclose the mercy seat; the cherubim formed a seat for Yahweh.

The Holy of Holies could be entered only by the high priest on the Day of Atonement. The high priest sprinkled the blood of a sacrificial bull onto the mercy seat as an atonement for the sins of the people of Israel. After the destruction of the Second Temple, just as the Torah scroll was contained in a Torah Ark in synagogues so the term kaporet was applied to the valance of the parochet on this ark. In the Hellenistic Jewish Septuagint the term was rendered hilasterion, following the secondary meaning of the Hebrew root verb "cover" in Pi'el and Pu'al as "to cover sins," "to atone" found in kippurim; the term hilasterion is unknown in classical Greek texts and appears to be one of several Jewish Greek coinages found in the Septuagint translation. The Jewish Greek hilasterion was rendered into Latin as propitiatorium in the Christian Latin Vulgate. In Jewish Greek texts the concept of a hilasterion occurs in Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews 16,7,1 mnema hilasterion; the Septuagint term hilasterion appears twice in the Greek text of the New Testament: Romans 3:25 and Hebrews 9:5.

Although the term mercy seat appears as the English translation for the Greek term hilasterion in the Epistle to the Hebrews, most translations are inconsistent as they instead translate hilasterion as propitiation where it occurs in the Epistle to the Romans. The Epistle to the Hebrews recounts the description of the Ark, Holy of Holies, mercy seat, goes on to portray the role of the mercy seat during Yom Kippur as a prefiguration of the Passion of Christ, which concludes was a greater atonement, formed a New Covenant; the continual sacrifice for sin became obsolete. This is the whole thrust of Hebrews ch 10, but is clearly stated in v11-14; the Epistle to the Romans states that Jesus was sent by God as a propitiation, while in a reflection on Ezekiel's atonement ceremony, the Second Epistle to the Corinthians states that Jesus had become a sin offering. The first English Bible, translated from Latin 1382, renders the term "a propiciatory" following the Vulgate propitiatorium, in the first occurrence, Exodus 25:17 inserts an unbracketed gloss "that is a table hiling the ark" - "hiling" is Middle English for "covering": Exodus 25:17 And thou schalt make a propiciatorie of clenneste gold.

Wycliffe 1382 The term "propritiatory" was used by J. M. Powis Smith, a Protestant, in The Complete Bible: An American Translation, published in 1939; the Protestant translation "mercy seat" was not followed by Ronald Knox, but has since been adopted by Roman Catholic Bible versions, such as the New Jerusalem Bible 1985 Matthew Henry on Exodus Chapter 25 Methods of Ancient Metallurgy

Antonio Te Maioha

Antonio Te Maioha is a television and film actor from New Zealand. He came to international prominence playing a gladiator Barca, the Beast of Carthage, in the television drama Spartacus: Blood and Sand and its prequel Spartacus: Gods of the Arena. Te Maioha was born in Auckland on 1 February 1970, was raised in Hastings in the Hawke's Bay Region of the North Island of New Zealand, his father was of Maori descent through both the Ngapuhi tribe, the largest in New Zealand, the Waikato tribe known as the "Tainui" or "Waikato-Tainui." Antonio Te Maioha started his career as a street performer before gaining a place at the Toi Whakaari Drama School in 1992. He went on to work with a Maori theatre project run by actor Jim Moriarty and was in the cast of Waiora, touring New Zealand and Britain. One of Antonio Te Maioha's first significant television roles was in 1998 playing Boraxis in Hercules: The Legendary Journeys followed by guest roles in Xena: Warrior Princess and Legend of the Seeker, a weekly television series based on The Sword of Truth novels by Terry Goodkind."

He has appeared in other New Zealand-based television productions, including Shortland Street and The Lost World. Te Maioha has had roles in several films, including Te Tangata Whai Rawa O Weneti and a short film called Taua" and the 2000 film Feathers of Peace directed by Barry Barclay. Te Maioha has come to international attention through his supporting role as the gladiator Barca in the television drama Spartacus: Blood and Sand and its prequel Spartacus: Gods of the Arena. Nicknamed the "Beast of Carthage", Barca is the bodyguard and hitman of a gladiator owner named Batiatus. Several episodes into the show, he is shown to be in a homosexual relationship with a slave boy named Pietros, he is murdered when Pietros is tricked into revealing damning evidence about Barca. In 2016 he was cast in a minor role of a Maori Warrior in Zoolander 2. Antonio Te Maioha is married and lives in the town of Raglan on the west coast of New Zealand's North Island. Active in local environmentalism, he has hosted a Sustainable Futures Forum in Waikato that brought around 80 people to discuss a variety of environmental issues.

He has publicly discussed his personal involvement and Raglan's leadership in recycling, citing the accomplishments of a local organization called Xtreme Waste. Te Maioha is uncomfortable with being labeled as a "greenie," saying that he is just doing "stuff everybody could" and that being given such a label means that other people will "write you off...instead of listening to what’s being said or applying changes in their own lives." Listings of Film and TV roles