A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux, which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across a second coil wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between the two coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in 1831 described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil. Transformers are used for increasing or decreasing the alternating voltages in electric power applications, for coupling the stages of signal processing circuits. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission and utilization of alternating current electric power. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electric power applications. Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in volume, to units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect the power grid.
An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer, lossless and coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force. A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, encircled by the secondary winding; this varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction and the secondary current so produced creates a flux equal and opposite to that produced by the primary winding, in accordance with Lenz's law. The windings are wound around a core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so that all of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings. With a voltage source connected to the primary winding and load impedance connected to the secondary winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated directions and the core magnetomotive force cancels to zero.
According to Faraday's law, since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings in an ideal transformer, a voltage is induced in each winding proportional to its number of windings. Thus, referring to the equations shown in the sidebox at right, according to Faraday's law, we have primary and secondary winding voltages defined by eq. 1 & eq. 2, respectively. The primary EMF is sometimes termed counter EMF; this is in accordance with Lenz's law, which states that induction of EMF always opposes development of any such change in magnetic field. The transformer winding voltage ratio is thus shown to be directly proportional to the winding turns ratio according to eq. 3. However, some sources use the inverse definition. According to the law of conservation of energy, any load impedance connected to the ideal transformer's secondary winding results in conservation of apparent and reactive power consistent with eq. 4. The ideal transformer identity shown in eq. 5 is a reasonable approximation for the typical commercial transformer, with voltage ratio and winding turns ratio both being inversely proportional to the corresponding current ratio.
By Ohm's law and the ideal transformer identity: the secondary circuit load impedance can be expressed as eq. 6 the apparent load impedance referred to the primary circuit is derived in eq. 7 to be equal to the turns ratio squared times the secondary circuit load impedance. The ideal transformer model neglects the following basic linear aspects of real transformers: Core losses, collectively called magnetizing current losses, consisting of Hysteresis losses due to nonlinear magnetic effects in the transformer core, Eddy current losses due to joule heating in the core that are proportional to the square of the transformer's applied voltage. Unlike the ideal model, the windings in a real transformer have non-zero resistances and inductances associated with: Joule losses due to resistance in the primary and secondary windings Leakage flux that escapes from the core and passes through one winding only resulting in primary and secondary reactive impedance. Similar to an inductor, parasitic capacitance and self-resonance phenomenon due to the electric field distribution.
Three kinds of parasitic capacitance are considered and the closed-loop equations are provided Capacitance between adjacent turns in any one layer. However, the capacitance effect can be measured by comparing open-circuit inductance, i.e. the inductance of a primary winding when the secondary circuit is open, to a short-circuit inductance when the secondary winding is shorted. The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding, including itself. In practice, some flux traverses paths; such flux is termed leakage flux, results in leakage inductance in series with the mutually coupled transformer windings. Leakage flux results in energy being alternately stored in and discharged from the magnetic fields with each cycle of the power supply, it is not directly a power loss, but results in inferior voltage regulation, causing the secondary voltage not to be directly proportional to the primary voltage under heavy load. Transformers are therefore designed to have low
A snubber is a device used to suppress a phenomenon such as voltage transients in electrical systems, pressure transients in fluid systems or excess force or rapid movement in mechanical systems. Snubbers are used in electrical systems with an inductive load where the sudden interruption of current flow leads to a sharp rise in voltage across the current switching device, in accordance with Faraday's law; this transient can be a source of electromagnetic interference in other circuits. Additionally, if the voltage generated across the device is beyond what the device is intended to tolerate, it may damage or destroy it; the snubber provides a short-term alternative current path around the current switching device so that the inductive element may be safely discharged. Inductive elements are unintentional, but arise from the current loops implied by physical circuitry. While current switching is everywhere, snubbers will only be required where a major current path is switched, such as in power supplies.
Snubbers are often used to prevent arcing across the contacts of relays and switches, or the electrical interference, or the welding of the contacts that can occur. A simple RC snubber uses a small resistor in series with a small capacitor; this combination can be used to suppress the rapid rise in voltage across a thyristor, preventing the erroneous turn-on of the thyristor. An appropriately-designed RC snubber can be used with either AC loads; this sort of snubber is used with inductive loads such as electric motors. The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously, so a decreasing transient current will flow through it for a small fraction of a second, allowing the voltage across the switch to increase more when the switch is opened. Determination of voltage rating can be difficult owing to the nature of transient waveforms, may be defined by the power rating of the snubber components and the application. RC snubbers can be made discretely and are built as a single component; when the current flowing is DC, a simple rectifier diode is employed as a snubber.
The snubber diode is wired in parallel with an inductive load. The diode is installed; when the external driving current is interrupted, the inductor current flows instead through the diode. The stored energy of the inductor is gradually dissipated by the diode voltage drop and the resistance of the inductor itself. One disadvantage of using a simple rectifier diode as a snubber is that the diode allows current to continue flowing for some time, causing the inductor to remain active for longer than desired; when such a snubber is utilized in a relay, this effect may cause a significant delay in the drop out, or disengagement, of the actuator. The diode must enter into forward conduction mode as the driving current is interrupted. Most ordinary diodes "slow" power silicon diodes, are able to turn on quickly, in contrast to their slow reverse recovery time; these are sufficient for snubbing electromechanical devices such as motors. In high-speed cases, where the switching is faster than 10 nanoseconds, such as in certain switching power regulators, "fast", "ultrafast", or Schottky diodes may be required.
More sophisticated designs use a diode with an RC network. In some DC circuits, a varistor or two inverse-series Zener diodes may be used instead of the simple diode; because these devices dissipate significant power, the relay may drop-out faster than it would with a simple rectifier diode. An advantage to using a transorb over just one diode is that it will protect against over voltage with both polarities, if connected to ground, forcing the voltage to stay between the confines of the breakdown voltages of the Zener diodes. A Zener diode connected to ground will protect against positive transients that go over the Zener's breakdown voltage, will protect against negative transients greater than a normal forward diode drop. In AC circuits a rectifier diode snubber cannot be used. Snubbers for pipes and equipment are used to control movement during abnormal conditions such as earthquakes, turbine trips, safety valve closure, relief valve closure, or hydraulic fuse closure. Snubbers allow for free thermal movement of a component during regular conditions, but restrain the component in irregular conditions.
A hydraulic snubber allows for pipe deflection under normal operating conditions. When subjected to an impulse load, the snubber becomes activated and acts as a restraint in order to restrict pipe movement. A mechanical snubber uses mechanical means to provide the restraint force. Transient-voltage-suppression diode Shunt Ott, Henry. Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. Wiley. ISBN 978-0471850687. Horowitz, Paul; the Art Of Electronics. Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-37095-7. Designing RC snubbers - NXP app note
An aircraft engine is a component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, except for small multicopter UAVs which are always electric aircraft. In commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, CFM International. A major entrant into the market launched in 2016 when Aeroengine Corporation of China was formed by organizing smaller companies engaged in designing and manufacturing aircraft engines into a new state owned behemoth of 96,000 employees. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of turboprop engines has been Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market. 1848: John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903: Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer.
1903: Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906: Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use. 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908: Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the world's first rotary engine to be produced in quantity. In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation setting a world record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910: Coandă-1910, an unsuccessful ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon, powered by a piston engine. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust. 1914: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressor – a turbocharger – to improve high-altitude performance. VI heavy bomber becomes the earliest known supercharger-equipped aircraft to fly, with a Mercedes D. II straight-six engine in the central fuselage driving a Brown-Boveri mechanical supercharger for the R.30/16's four Mercedes D.
IVa engines. 1918: Sanford Alexander Moss picks up Rateau's idea and creates the first successful turbocharger 1926: Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV, the first series-produced supercharged engine for aircraft use. 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for a turbojet engine. June 1939: Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered by a liquid-fueled rocket engine. August 1939: Heinkel HeS 3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft. 1940: Jendrassik Cs-1, the world's first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service. 1943 Daimler-Benz DB 670, first turbofan runs 1944: Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the world's first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945: First turboprop-powered aircraft flies, a modified Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines. 1947: Bell X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. 1948: 100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use. 1949: Leduc 010, the world's first ramjet-powered aircraft flight.
1950: Rolls-Royce Conway, the world's first production turbofan, enters service. 1968: General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002: HyShot scramjet flew in dive. 2004: NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. In this entry, for clarity, the term "inline engine" refers only to engines with a single row of cylinders, as used in automotive language, but in aviation terms, the phrase "inline engine" covers V-type and opposed engines, is not limited to engines with a single row of cylinders; this is to differentiate them from radial engines. A straight engine has an number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines; the greatest advantage of an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low frontal area to minimize drag. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
The disadvantages of an inline engine include a poor power-to-weight ratio, because the crankcase and crankshaft are long and thus heavy. An in-line engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled, but liquid-cooling is more common because it is difficult to get enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinders directly. Inline engines were common in early aircraft. However, the inherent disadvantages of the design soon became apparent, the inline design was abandoned, becoming a rarity in modern aviation. For other configurations of aviation inline engine, such as U-engines, H-engines, etc.. See Inline engine. Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks tilted 60–90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft; the vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area; the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.
A horizontally opposed engine called a flat or boxer engine, ha
Karl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer and automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical automobile, he received a patent for the motorcar on 29 January 1886. Karl Benz was born Karl Friedrich Michael Vaillant, on 25 November 1844 in Mühlburg, now a borough of Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, part of modern Germany, to Josephine Vaillant and a locomotive driver, Johann Georg Benz, whom she married a few months later. According to German law, the child acquired the name "Benz" by legal marriage of his parents Benz and Vaillant; when he was two years old, his father died of pneumonia, his name was changed to Karl Friedrich Benz in remembrance of his father. Despite living in near poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. Benz was a prodigious student. In 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher. Benz had focused his studies on locksmithing, but he followed his father's steps toward locomotive engineering.
On 30 September 1860, at age 15, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, which he subsequently attended. Benz graduated 9 July 1864 aged 19. Following his formal education, Benz had seven years of professional training in several companies, but did not fit well in any of them; the training started in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in a mechanical engineering company. He moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory. In 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik, he went to Vienna for a short period to work at an iron construction company. In 1871, at the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter in launching the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim renamed Factory for Machines for Sheet-metal Working; the enterprise's first year went badly. Ritter turned out to be unreliable, the business's tools were impounded; the difficulty was overcome when Benz's fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritter's share in the company using her dowry.
On 20 July 1872, Karl Bertha Ringer married. They had five children: Eugen, Clara and Ellen. Despite the business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine. Benz finished his two-stroke engine on 31 December 1878, New Year's Eve, was granted a patent for it in 1879. Karl Benz showed his real genius, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, the water radiator. Problems arose again when the banks at Mannheim demanded that Bertha and Karl Benz's enterprise be incorporated due to the high production costs it maintained; the Benzes were forced to improvise an association with photographer Emil Bühler and his brother, in order to get additional bank support.
The company became the joint-stock company Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim in 1882. After all the necessary incorporation agreements, Benz was unhappy because he was left with five percent of the shares and a modest position as director. Worst of all, his ideas weren't considered when designing new products, so he withdrew from that corporation just one year in 1883. Benz's lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Eßlinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz & Companie Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik referred to as Benz & Cie. Growing to twenty-five employees, it soon began to produce static gas engines as well; the success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. Based on his experience with, fondness for, bicycles, he used similar technology when he created an automobile, it featured wire wheels with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator.
Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it "Benz Patent Motorwagen", it was the first automobile designed as such to generate its own power, not a motorized stage coach or horse carriage, why Karl Benz was granted his patent and is regarded as its inventor. The Motorwagen was patented on 29 January 1886 as DRP-37435: "automobile fueled by gas"; the 1885 version was difficult to control, leading to a collision with a wall during a public demonstration. The first successful tests on public roads were carried out in the early summer of 1886; the next year Benz created the Motorwagen Model 2, which had several modifications, in 1889, the definitive Model 3 with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history; the second customer of the Motorwagen was a Parisian bicycle manufacturer Emile Roger, building Benz engines under license from Karl Benz for several y
A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used in transforming rotary motion into linear motion. It is a part of a rotating wheel or shaft that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path; the cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating motion in the follower, a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders. Certain cams can be characterized by their displacement diagrams, which reflect the changing position a roller follower would make as the cam rotates about an axis; these diagrams relate angular position in degrees, to the radial displacement experienced at that position. Displacement diagrams are traditionally presented as graphs with non-negative values.
A simple displacement diagram illustrates the follower motion at a constant velocity rise followed by a similar return with a dwell in between as depicted in figure 2. The rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center. However, the most common type is in the valve actuators in internal combustion engines. Here, the cam profile is symmetric and at rotational speeds met with high acceleration forces develop. Ideally, a convex curve between the onset and maximum position of lift reduces acceleration, but this requires impractically large shaft diameters relative to lift. Thus, in practice, the points at which lift begins and ends mean that a tangent to the base circle appears on the profile; this is continuous with a tangent to the tip circle. In designing the cam, the lift and the dwell angle θ are given. If the profile is treated as a large base circle and a small tip circle, joined by a common tangent, giving lift L, the relationship can be calculated, given the angle ϕ between one tangent and the axis of symmetry, while C is the distance between the centres of the circles, R is the radius of the base and r that of the tip circle C = L / and r = R − L sin ϕ / The most used cam is the cam plate, cut out of a piece of flat metal or plate.
Here, the follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft. Several key terms are relevant in such a construction of plate cams: base circle, prime circle, pitch curve, the radial curve traced out by applying the radial displacements away from the prime circle across all angles, the lobe separation angle; the base circle is the smallest circle. A once common, but now outdated, application of this type of cam was automatic machine tool programming cams; each tool movement or operation was controlled directly by one or more cams. Instructions for producing programming cams and cam generation data for the most common makes of machine were included in engineering references well into the modern CNC era; this type of cam is used in many simple electromechanical appliance controllers, such as dishwashers and clothes washing machines, to actuate mechanical switches that control the various parts. A cylindrical cam or barrel cam is a cam. In the most common type, the follower rides in a groove cut into the surface of a cylinder.
These cams are principally used to convert rotational motion to linear motion parallel to the rotational axis of the cylinder. A cylinder may drive several followers. Cylindrical cams can provide motions that involve more than a single rotation of the cylinder and provide positive positioning, removing the need for a spring or other provision to keep the follower in contact with the control surface. Applications include machine tool drives, such as reciprocating saws, shift control barrels in sequential transmissions, such as on most modern motorcycles. A special case of this cam is constant lead, where the position of the follower is linear with rotation, as in a lead screw; the purpose and detail of implementation influence whether this application is called a cam or a screw thread, but in some cases, the nomenclature may be ambiguous. Cylindrical cams may be used to reference an output to two inputs, where one input is rotation of the cylinder, the second is position of the follower axially along the cam.
The output is radial to the cylinder. These were once comm
A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, the foundation upon which many other electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices is effective and economical; the word dynamo was another name for an electrical generator, still has some regional usage as a replacement for the word generator. The word "dynamo" was coined in 1831 by Michael Faraday, who utilized his invention toward making many discoveries in electricity and magnetism; the original "dynamo principle" of Wehrner von Siemens or Werner von Siemens referred only the direct current generators which use the self-excitation principle to generate DC power.
The earlier DC generators which used permanent magnets were not considered "dynamo electric machines". The invention of the dynamo principle was a huge technological leap over the old traditional permanent magnet based DC generators; the discovery of the dynamo principle made industrial scale electric power generation technically and economically feasible. After the invention of the alternator and that alternating current can be used as a power supply, the word dynamo became associated with the commutated direct current electric generator, while an AC electrical generator using either slip rings or rotor magnets would become known as an alternator. A small electrical generator built into the hub of a bicycle wheel to power lights is called a hub dynamo, although these are invariably AC devices, are magnetos; the electric dynamo uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through Faraday's law of induction. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, called the stator, which provides a constant magnetic field, a set of rotating windings called the armature which turn within that field.
Due to Faraday's law of induction the motion of the wire within the magnetic field creates an electromotive force which pushes on the electrons in the metal, creating an electric current in the wire. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; the commutator is needed to produce direct current. When a loop of wire rotates in a magnetic field, the magnetic flux through it, thus the potential induced in it, reverses with each half turn, generating an alternating current. However, in the early days of electric experimentation, alternating current had no known use; the few uses for electricity, such as electroplating, used direct current provided by messy liquid batteries. Dynamos were invented as a replacement for batteries; the commutator is a rotary switch. It consists of a set of contacts mounted on the machine's shaft, combined with graphite-block stationary contacts, called "brushes", because the earliest such fixed contacts were metal brushes.
The commutator reverses the connection of the windings to the external circuit when the potential reverses, so instead of alternating current, a pulsing direct current is produced. The earliest dynamos used permanent magnets to create the magnetic field; these were referred to as magnetos. However, researchers found that stronger magnetic fields, so more power, could be produced by using electromagnets on the stator; these dynamos. The field coils of the stator were separately excited by a separate, dynamo or magneto. An important development by Wilde and Siemens was the discovery that a dynamo could bootstrap itself to be self-excited, using current generated by the dynamo itself; this allowed the growth of a much more powerful field, thus far greater output power. Self-excited direct current dynamos have a combination of series and parallel field windings which are directly supplied power by the rotor through the commutator in a regenerative manner, they are started and operated in a manner similar to modern portable alternating current electric generators, which are not used with other generators on an electric grid.
There is a weak residual magnetic field that persists in the metal frame of the device when it is not operating, imprinted onto the metal by the field windings. The dynamo begins rotating; the residual magnetic field induces a small electrical current into the rotor windings as they begin to rotate. Without an external load attached, this small current is fully supplied to the field windings, which in combination with the residual field, cause the rotor to produce more current. In this manner the self-exciting dynamo builds up its internal magnetic fields until it reaches its normal operating voltage; when it is able to produce sufficient current to sustain both its internal fields and an external load, it is ready to be used. A self-excited dynamo with insufficient residual magnetic field in the metal frame will not be able to produce any current in the rotor, regardless of what speed the rotor spins; this situati
The Mors automobile factory was an early French car manufacturer. It was one of the first to take part in automobile racing, beginning in 1897, due to the belief of the company founder, Émile Mors, in racing's technical and promotional benefits. By the turn of the century, automobile racing had become a contest between Mors and Panhard et Levassor. Mors was one of the first automobiles to use the V engine configuration; the Mors 60 horsepower Grand Prix car was powered by a 10-litre V4 side valve engine, with magneto ignition and dry sump lubrication, which could reach 950 rpm. The car had a steel chassis and a four-speed transmission that drove the rear wheels via chain drive, rear-wheel brakes. In 1902, Mors added pneumatic shock absorbers to their cars, which represented a great leap forward given the quality of the roads and racetracks at the time. With this car, Henri Fournier was able to win the significant Paris-Berlin race, with the drive chain breaking afterwards. Mors ended racing in 1908.
Plans to return to auto racing were cancelled due to World War I. André Citroën restored the company's viability. In 1925, Citroën bought Mors outright and closed it down, using its factory for the production of his Citroën automobiles; the company produced a number of models which were sold in Europe and in the USA. In 1905 these ranged from 2.3 litres to the 8.1 litre 40/52 HP and by 1914 Minerva-built Knight sleeve valve engines replaced side-valve units in the larger cars. Post-1918 only sleeve valve engines were used. Citroën's chevron gears were used for the bevel drive rear axles from 1914 and a unique feature was the Mors patented clutch, which had a contracting band system which replaced the cone clutch used until 1903; the marque was resurrected when a few small electric cars were made during World War II by a subsidiary electrical company of Émile Mors. Central Automobile Company was the US importer of Mors automobiles in New York, New York in the early part of the 20th century; the 1904 Mors 18 HP was a touring car.
Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat 4 to 6 passengers and sold for a high US$8000. The vertically mounted water-cooled straight-4, situated at the front of the car, produced 18 HP. A 4-speed transmission was fitted; the pressed steel-framed car was quite modern, with a throttle control. The Mors 11 HP sold for US$5000; the St. Louis Car Company manufactured the American Mors. After manufacturing the St. Louis and Kobusch cars, the latter of which looked like a Mors, the St. Louis Car Company acquired an official license and plans from the Parisian factory to manufacture Mors cars in the U. S. After making the American Mors for three years, the company turned to the manufacture of a car of their own design, the Standard Six. Frank Leslie's Nick; the Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-293-1 Kimes, Beverley Rae, & Clark Jr, Henry Austin. Standard Catalog of American cars: 1805-1942. Iola, WI: Krause, 1996. ISBN 0-87341-428-4