Massimiliano Antonio "Max" Cavalera is a Brazilian singer and songwriter who plays in heavy metal bands Soulfly, Cavalera Conspiracy, Killer Be Killed. In 1984, he co-founded the acclaimed thrash metal band Sepultura with his brother Igor Cavalera and was the band's lead singer and rhythm guitarist until he left in 1996. Cavalera was involved in a short-lived side project called Nailbomb. Max Cavalera's father, Graziano Cavalera, was an employee of the Italian Consulate in Belo Horizonte, he died at 41 years of age. Cavalera's family was in a state of financial crisis and family turbulence when he formed Sepultura with his younger brother Igor. In the early 1990s, he relocated to Arizona, he did not begin to make spiritual music. His earlier lyrics for Soulfly were influenced by religion and spirituality, though he is critical of religion, his albums, starting with Dark Ages, began to incorporate lyrical themes of violence, warfare and hatred. His albums have all been dedicated to God, he has been depicted by the press as a man of religion in the United States, something that Cavalera himself says he does not understand: I do hate a lot of "religion", but people like Christ – yeah they inspire me.
I mean if you look at Christ, He was hanging around with the lowlifes and the losers you know, not going around with those high society motherfuckers you see trying to sell Jesus today! When asked in an interview whether he was a Christian and whether Soulfly was a Christian band, he said: No. I mean; because Christian people are so close-minded. A priest would not accept that. So I don't like the concept of Christianity in terms of being so close-minded, it is the same with music. Sometimes I compare preachers to close-minded musicians or close-minded listeners, who only like one kind of music; some preachers are the same. And they don't tolerate Buddhists or whatever. Only them. It's bullshit. So Soulfly is not a Christian band at all. Much opposite, but we are spiritual. Spiritual has nothing to do with Christianity anyway, it has been here since the beginning of time. In another interview, he was asked about the Varg Vikernes church burnings, he quoted, "I support church burnings 100 percent. Mosques, all religious buildings."
However, he claimed his views changed about the church burnings and called them "too violent". He has stated that he does believe in God, "But it might be different than the God the preacher preaches about."Of enduring influence to his music, is the untimely death of his stepson, Dana Wells, killed after the release of Roots in 1996. The songs "Bleed", "First Commandment", "Pain", "Tree of Pain" and "Revengeance" are tributes to Wells, as well as Deftones' song "Headup", in which Cavalera featured and co-wrote, he reunited with his brother Igor, in their band Cavalera Conspiracy, wrote and performed on Soulfly's Conquer, released in 2008. In 2009, Cavalera appears in Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned as himself on radio station LCHC. In 2013, Cavalera released his autobiography, titled My Bloody Roots. Cavalera is known for playing his guitar with only 4 strings; the inspiration struck when he broke both strings one day and he did not bother to replace them. A friend commented that the guitar looked better without them, thus it became his trademark.
Since 1992, Cavalera has lived in Phoenix, Arizona with his wife Gloria and his five children: Zyon, Jason and Roxanne. The three eldest, Gloria's children, were adopted by Cavalera. Zyon and Richie have all collaborated with Cavalera in his various projects. Three of his sons are active in music, with Richie fronting Incite and Igor and Zyon performing in Lody Kong. Jason tours amongst other various duties behind the scenes. In 2012 and 2013, Zyon toured with Soulfly after David Kinkade's retirement, now he is a regular member as drummer. Igor filled in as bassist for Soulfly in 2015 after Tony Campos left the band, toured as keyboardist and co-vocalist during Soulfly's Point Blank Tour. Igor was born with type 1 diabetes, Max and Gloria set up the Iggy Fund in 1998 to help other families get necessary medicine for their children with juvenile diabetes. Cavalera has collaborated with many different artists while in Soulfly. In 2003 he joined forces with former Nirvana drummer and Foo Fighters' frontman Dave Grohl to produce "Red War" for the self-titled release of Dave Grohl's metal project, Probot.
Cavalera has worked with the following musicians: Cavalera appeared in The Scorpion King in an off-camera role, providing the guttural screams for Dwayne Johnson. SepulturaBestial Devastation EP Morbid Visions Schizophrenia Beneath the Remains Arise US#119 Third World Posse EP Chaos A. D. US#32 US Gold Refuse/Resist EP Roots US#27 US Gold The Roots of Sepultura Blood-Rooted US#162 Under a Pale Grey Sky NailbombPoint Blank Proud to Commit Commercial Suicide SoulflySoulfly US#79 US Gold Tribe EP Primitive US#32 3 US#46 Prophecy US#82 Dark Ages US#155 Conquer US#66 Omen US#73 Enslaved US#82 Savages US#84
Samba is a Brazilian music genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived. Although there were various forms of samba in Brazil with popular rhythms originated from drumming, samba as a music genre has its origins in Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of Brazil. Samba is recognized around the world as a symbol of the Brazilian Carnival. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity; the Bahian Samba de Roda, was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2005. It is the main root of the samba carioca, the samba, played and danced in Rio de Janeiro; the modern samba that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century is predominantly in a 2/4 time signature varied with the conscious use of a sung chorus to a batucada rhythm, with various stanzas of declaratory verses.
Traditionally, the samba is played by various percussion instruments such as tamborim. Influenced by American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, samba began to use trombones, choros and clarinets. In addition to distinct rhythms and meters, samba brings a whole historical culture of food, varied dances, clothes such as linen shirts, the Naif painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito, Heitor dos Prazeres. Anonymous community artists, including painters, sculptors and stylists, make the clothes, carnival floats, cars, opening the doors of schools of samba. There is a great tradition of ballroom samba in Brazil, with many styles. Samba de Gafieira is the style more famous in Rio de Janeiro, where common people used to go to the gafieira parties since the 1930s, where the moves and identity of this dance have emerged, getting more and more different from its African and Cuban origins and influences; the Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2.
The date was established at the initiative of Luis Monteiro da Costa, an Alderman of Salvador, in honor of Ary Barroso. He composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" though he had never been in Bahia, thus 2 December marked the first visit of Ary Barroso to Salvador. This day was celebrated only in Salvador, but it turned into a national holiday. Samba is a local style in Southeastern Brazil and Northeast Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Recife, its importance as Brazil's national music transcends region, however. The etymology of samba is uncertain. Possibilites include: The Portuguese verb sambar, to do joiner's work, it is uncertain whether the African Semba dance is related to the Brazilian Samba, whether it is older or newer, beyond the superficial similarity of name and style. In only two Bantu languages does the verb-root "semba" mean "dance", while in others it denotes unrelated things like "hunger" or "cloth". One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in Pernambuco magazine's O Carapuceiro, dated February 1838, when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called "the samba d'almocreve" – not referring to the future musical genre, but a kind of merriment popular for black people of that time.
According to Hiram Araújo da Costa, over the centuries, the festival of dances of slaves in Bahia were called samba. In the middle of the 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves when conducted by different types of Batuque, but it assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian state, not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, but the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers; some of these popular dances were known as Baião, Candombe, Catêrêtê, Caxambú, Choradinho, Côco-inchádo, Cocumbí, Córta-jáca, Cururú, Furrundú, Lundú, Maracatú, Maxíxe, Quimbête, São-Gonçalo, Saramba. In Argentina, there is a dance called "zamba", a name which seems to share etymological origins with the samba, but the dance itself is quite different. Samba-enredo or samba de enredo is a subgenre of Samba in which songs are performed by a samba school for the festivities of Brazilian Carnival. "Samba-enredo" translates in Portuguese to "samba in song", or "song samba".
Each samba school creates a new samba-enredo in advance of the next year's Carnaval, selected by competition, to be performed in the final Carnaval parades and events leading up to Carnaval. For each samba school, choosing the following year's samba-enredo is a long process. Well in advance of the Carnaval parade, each samba school holds contests for writing the song; the song is written by samba composers from within the school itself, or sometimes from outside composers in "parcerias". Each school receives many—sometimes hundreds—songs, hoping to be the next samba-enredo for that yea
Inflikted is the debut studio album from Cavalera Conspiracy, the Cavalera brothers' first record together in 12 years - since the release of Roots by Sepultura in 1996. Max Cavalera had indicated that the music on Inflikted would be similar to Sepultura's early death/thrash-metal recordings but it would have a heavy hardcore punk influence. In addition to Max and Igor Cavalera, Cavalera Conspiracy features lead guitarist Marc Rizzo of Soulfly and Joe Duplantier on bass and backup vocals. Rex Brown from Pantera and Down cameos on bass on one track, another track features a collaboration with Max's stepson Richie Cavalera on vocals. Recording for the album took place in July 2007 at Undercity Studios in Los Angeles, with Logan Mader of the Dirty Icon Production team; the album was released on March 24, 2008. Two videos for "Sanctuary" have been made, one of, a censored version of the other. Both of these can be found on the band's websites. In 2008, speaking to Kerrang!, Max Cavalera remembered: "This was a stripped-down album that took me and Igor to our metal roots.
It's like thrash, death metal and hardcore punk all rolled up, it was easy because that's the stuff we like. It's the heart of what Igor and I are about; the passion of metal and punk will never die. It was a new start for me and Igor - our first music together for 12 years and such a positive and emotional experience. We got over those nerves, ended up having a great time making that album. Sometimes Igor would play so hard his wife wondered if he was on coke... It has a quality, pure Max and Igor, not Soulfly or Sepultura or anything else out there." Reviews of Inflikted were favorable, with Adrien Begrand of PopMatters stating "Sure, it's not a Sepultura reunion, but having Max and Igor performing on record for the first time in a dozen years is as close as we'll get, not only does Cavalera Conspiracy's Inflikted revisit the post-thrash sounds of 1993's Chaos A. D. but it manages to outshine anything Sepultura has put out in the last dozen years." Begrand stated that the band "is as solid a metal supergroup as you'll come across, the album's eleven tracks benefit hugely from the chemistry between the four musicians."
Exclaim! magazine described the album as a "whole being fast, thrash-y and intense in ways that neither Soulfly nor Sepultura have managed to be in a while." IGN gave the album a mixed review, saying that Inflikted is a respectable debut, but is "unfortunately afflicted with bad lyrics". Phoenix New Times criticized the collaboration, stating that Inflikted "sounds more like the product of a weekend spent jamming in the garage than the efforts of two vital artists making up for lost time."As Cavalera Conspiracy is a supergroup, critics dedicated their reviews to evaluate the performance of musicians individually. Chad Bowar of About.com said that Max's vocals are "very distinctive, his angry growls are as strong as ever." Eduardo Rivadavia of Allmusic praised Rizzo's contributions, saying that "his otherworldly soloing and inventive melodic lines serve as the creative catalysts responsible for the most inspired moments," while Duplantier "generally just keeps a low sonic profile and his nose out of trouble".
IGN gave similar praise to Rizzo, stating, his "agile lead guitar playing that keeps the album from sinking into metal monotony in many spots." All songs composed by Max Cavalera, except where noted. Cavalera ConspiracyMax Cavalera – lead vocals, rhythm guitar Marc Rizzo – lead guitar, backing vocals Joe Duplantier – bass guitar, rhythm guitar, co-lead vocals Igor Cavalera – drums, percussionAdditional personnelRitchie Cavalera – co-lead vocals Rex Brown – bass guitar Produced by Max Cavalera Co-produced by Logan Mader for Dirty Icon Productions Recorded and mastered by Logan Mader at Undercity Studios, North Hollywood, California A&R: Monte Conner
Roots Bloody Roots
"Roots Bloody Roots" is a song by Brazilian metal band Sepultura. It was released in February 1996; the song is the band's best known and remains a concert staple to this day being performed on encores. A music video was filmed for the single which features the band performing in an underground catacomb as well as on the streets with a tribe of percussionists; this video can be found on the VHS We Are What We Are, released on DVD as part of Chaos DVD. The song appears in live form on the band's live releases Under a Pale Grey Sky and Live in Sao Paulo. Another live version appears on the limited edition digipak version of the band's 2000 album Nation. Former Sepultura frontman Max Cavalera has played the song live numerous times with his other bands Soulfly and Cavalera Conspiracy. Recordings of their version can be found on the limited edition versions of the albums Soulfly and Prophecy and as iTunes bonus track on Conquer, as well as on the DVD The Song Remains Insane, plus on the bonus DVDs of Omen and Archangel.
The music video was directed by Thomas Mignone and won the Kerrang "Video Of The Year Award" in 1996, as well as a nomination for the MTV Brazil "Best Rock Video" Award. Filming was done in the catacombs underneath the city of Salvador, where the Brazilian slaves were sold; the video is distinguished from other heavy metal imagery by its atypical use of the natural beauty of Brazil, including its traditional capoeira fight, Timbalada percussionists, Afro-Brazilians people, as well as the reference to the religion of Candomblé. The video shows scenes of Catholic churches; the single was released on 7" vinyl. The first CD was presented in a card foldout digipak case, while the second was in a standard slimline jewel case. Early copies of the digipak version were embossed with a stamp of the band's thorned ‘S' logo; the vinyl was a limited edition and was red in colour. Disc 1"Roots Bloody Roots" "Procreation" "Refuse/Resist" "Territory" Disc 2"Roots Bloody Roots" "Procreation" "Propaganda" "Beneath the Remains/Escape to the Void" 7” Red Vinyl"Roots Bloody Roots" "Symptom of the Universe" Refuse/Resist, Propaganda, Beneath the Remains/Escape to the Void were recorded live in Minneapolis, MN in March 1994 Soulfly covers the song live.
A recording of this can be found on the DVD The Song Remains Insane as well as on five of their studio albums. The Cavalera brothers play the song to close a show as Cavalera Conspiracy. Dreadnaut covers the song in their 2008 album A Taste Of. JBO covers the song in their 1997 album Laut. A Punch's Pilot covered. Suicide Silence covered the song with Max Cavalera at the Mitch Lucker Memorial Show Canadian industrial band iVardensphere released a cover of the song in August 2014; the song was played by many musicians at once, at the show by Roadrunner Records, Roadrunner United, The Concert, with the following team-up: Robert Flynn - Vocals Corey Taylor - Additional Vocals Howard Jones - Additional Vocals Jesse David Leach - Vocals Tommy Vext - Additional Vocals Andreas Kisser - Lead Guitar Scott Ian - Rhythm Guitar Dino Cazares - Rhythm Guitar Paul Gray - Bass Adam Duce - Bass Joey Jordison - Drums Roy Mayorga - Percussion Max Cavalera - lead vocals, rhythm guitar Andreas Kisser - lead guitar, backing vocals Paulo Jr. - bass Igor Cavalera - drums, percussion Produced by Ross Robinson and Sepultura Recorded and engineered by Ross Robinson Mixed by Andy Wallace Assistant Engineer: Richard Kaplan Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Roots (Sepultura album)
Roots is the sixth studio album by Brazilian heavy metal band Sepultura. It was released in Europe on February 20, 1996 and in the U. S. three weeks on March 12 by Roadrunner Records. It is the band's last studio album to feature founding member and vocalist/rhythm guitarist Max Cavalera. Following the shift to slower tempos and Latin-tinged rhythms on the album Chaos A. D. Roots delves further into Brazilian musical textures and features significant contributions from iconic Brazilian musician Carlinhos Brown, who guided and arranged the sections throughout the album that feature ensemble percussion playing. Both in sound and overall aesthetic, Roots is a conscious nod to Brazil's marginalized indigenous population and cultures; the song "Itsári" features a Xavante chant that re-appears on the song "Born Stubborn" and serves as a loose thematic thread for the whole album, which on the whole showcases the band's increased affinity for experimentation and collaboration. "Lookaway" features guest appearances by Korn vocalist Jonathan Davis, then-Korn drummer David Silveria, House of Pain/Limp Bizkit turntablist DJ Lethal, Faith No More/Mr.
Bungle vocalist Mike Patton. Riff-wise, Roots draws influence from the then-surging nu metal movement Korn and Deftones. After leaving the band, Max Cavalera would continue to pursue the nu metal and "world" stylings of Roots with his solo project Soulfly. Since its release, Roots has sold over 2 million copies worldwide. Roots is the product of a concerted effort on the band's part to embrace its Brazilian heritage. On many levels, the album reflects Sepultura's heightened focus on the music and politics of their native country; the overarching concept for the album was inspired by the film At Play in the Fields of the Lord. The movie inspired Max Cavalera to want to record with an indigenous Brazilian tribe. Cavalera contacted Angela Pappiani, at the time the communications coordinator for Brazil's Núcleo de Cultura Indígena. Pappiani arranged for a small party including band, herself and then-manager Gloria Cavalera to travel to Mato Grosso, Brazil to visit the Xavante tribe and record with them.
At the time, the members of Sepultura were only peripherally aware of the indigenous tribes residing in Brazil's interior. In a 2016 interview with Nashville Scene, Igor Cavalera remembered: "Every second of that trip was insane in a inspiring way, but there’s a few things that stand out. Like when they explained to us that the only way they wrote music was if someone in the tribe dreamed of the music, they couldn't just write a melody. It has to be transmitted to them in a dream. From a musician’s point of view, it was like, ‘Wow, this is a different way of approaching music.’”University of Iowa anthropology professor Laura Graham explained the role of music in Xavante culture to PopMatters in 2016: "For them, music functions as a medium for entering into other realms—whether they be other dimensions of existence or other cultures. Well before they had any contact with white people, part of their culture has always entailed that men engage the spirit world through music; this happens in their dreams.
Not all, but most of their music is inspired—you could say ‘composed’, although they say received—in their dreams through encounters with other worlds. When people come and visit the community from the outside, one of the things the Xavante ask them to do is sing them a song. Music is this medium for entering into relations with others—others meaning spiritual beings or, for example, white society or other cultures; the Xavante want to be known and they want their culture to be known. They want their music to be known because they think it’s beautiful and view it as a contribution to humanity. It’s like, ‘We have something beautiful to contribute to humanity—and, by the way, here we are suffering. We want people to know who we are and that we exist.’ And so when they got this proposal from a musical group that wanted to come jam and share music with them, they loved it.”A spokesman for the tribe looked back on the collaboration: "We had seen pictures of Sepultura and we knew that they were different, with their long hair and many tattoos.
We knew that they had been discriminated, like we were. Because of that we were curious about them."Meeting the Xavante was by several accounts a life-changing experience that has continued to resonate with the members of Sepultura since. Igor has said that the band identified a lot with the natives: "In a certain way, I think that we, as a band, had a lot of things in common with the Xavante Indians. We lived on the edge of society, our music and lifestyle is a long way from being assimilated and respected by that society."After the trip, recording resumed with Robinson at Indigo Ranch, at the time Robinson's studio of choice. According to the same 2016 Nashville Scene article, by that point the band had amassed "an overabundance of material." Igor Cavalera remembered that it was a challenge to prevent the album from becoming "a gigantic jam that didn’t turn into actual songs." He added: “It was quite a difficult record to finish. We did so much recording. We had to make sure not to let anything special slip by.
It was tricky to go through all of it, it took a lot of time to find out what would work with what we were writing.” Roots represents a significant shift in direction for Sepultura. On several levels, the album reflects a concerted effort on the band's part to embrace its Brazilian heritage, with a heightened focus on Brazilian culture, strikingly apparent in the music. Musically speaking, t