Count Ii Naonori (井伊 直憲 was a Japanese daimyō of the late Edo period, who ruled the Hikone Domain. He was the second son of Ii Naosuke. After he was relieved of office in 1871, he studied in the United States and England, he was created count in the Meiji period. He married daughter of Prince Arisugawa Takahito divorce and married daughter of Nabeshima Naotada Father: Ii Naosuke Mother: Nishimura Sato Wives: Arisugawa no miya Yoshiko Nabeshima Tsuneko Son: Ii Naotada by Arisugawa no miya Yoshiko This article is derived from corresponding content on the Japanese Wikipedia
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Felice Beato known as Felix Beato, was an Italian–British photographer. He was one of the first people to take photographs in East Asia and one of the first war photographers, he is noted for his genre works and views and panoramas of the architecture and landscapes of Asia and the Mediterranean region. Beato's travels gave him the opportunity to create images of countries and events that were unfamiliar and remote to most people in Europe and North America, his work provides images of such events as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Second Opium War, represents the first substantial body of photojournalism. He influenced other photographers, his influence in Japan, where he taught and worked with numerous other photographers and artists, was deep and lasting. A death certificate discovered in 2009 shows that Beato was born in Venice in 1832 and died on 29 January 1909 in Florence; the death certificate indicates that he was a British subject and a bachelor. It is that early in his life Beato and his family moved to Corfu, at the time part of the British protectorate of the Ionian Islands, so Beato was a British subject.
Because of the existence of a number of photographs signed "Felice Antonio Beato" and "Felice A. Beato", it was long assumed that there was one photographer who somehow photographed at the same time in places as distant as Egypt and Japan. In 1983 it was shown by Chantal Edel that "Felice Antonio Beato" represented two brothers, Felice Beato and Antonio Beato, who sometimes worked together, sharing a signature; the confusion arising from the signatures continues to cause problems in identifying which of the two photographers was the creator of a given image. Little is certain about Felice Beato's early development as a photographer, though it is said that he bought his first and only lens in Paris in 1851, he met the British photographer James Robertson in Malta in 1850 and accompanied him to Constantinople in 1851. James Robertson, became his brother-in-law in 1855. Superintendent of the Imperial Mint, Robertson opened one of the first commercial photography studios in the capital between 1854 and 1856.
Robertson had been an engraver at the Imperial Ottoman Mint since 1843 and had taken up photography in the 1840s. In 1853 the two began photographing together and they formed a partnership called "Robertson & Beato" either in that year or in 1854, when Robertson opened a photographic studio in Pera, Constantinople. Robertson and Beato were joined by Beato's brother Antonio on photographic expeditions to Malta in 1854 or 1856 and to Greece and Jerusalem in 1857. A number of the firm's photographs produced in the 1850s are signed "Robertson, Beato and Co.", it is believed that the "and Co." refers to Antonio. In late 1854 or early 1855 James Robertson married Beato's sister, Leonilda Maria Matilda Beato, they had three daughters, Catherine Grace, Edith Marcon Vergence, Helen Beatruc. In 1855 Felice Beato and Robertson travelled to Balaklava, where they took over reportage of the Crimean War following Roger Fenton's departure. Beato was ostensibly Robertson's assistant, however the unpredictable conditions of a war-zone forced Beato to assume a more active role.
In contrast to Fenton's depiction of the dignified aspects of war and Robertson showed the destruction and death. They photographed the fall of Sevastopol in September 1855, their Crimean images changed the way that war was reported and depicted. In February 1858 Beato arrived in Calcutta and began travelling throughout Northern India to document the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. During this time he produced the first-ever photographic images of corpses, it is believed that for at least one of his photographs taken at the palace of Sikandar Bagh in Lucknow he had the skeletal remains of Indian rebels disinterred or rearranged to heighten the photograph's dramatic impact. He was in the cities of Delhi, Meerut, Amritsar, Agra and Lahore. Beato was joined in July 1858 by his brother Antonio, who left India for health reasons, in December 1859. Antonio ended up in Egypt in 1860, setting up a photographic studio in Thebes in 1862. In 1860 Beato left the partnership of Robertson & Beato, though Robertson retained use of the name until 1867.
Beato was sent from India to photograph the Anglo-French military expedition to China in the Second Opium War. He arrived in Hong Kong in March and began photographing the city and its surroundings as far as Canton. Beato's photographs are some of the earliest taken in China. While in Hong Kong, Beato met Charles Wirgman, an artist and correspondent for the Illustrated London News; the two accompanied the Anglo-French forces travelling north to Talien Bay to Pehtang and the Taku Forts at the mouth of the Peiho, on to Peking and Qingyi Yuan, the suburban Summer Palace. For places on this route and in Japan, Wirgman's illustrations for the Illustrated London News were derived from Beato's photographs. Beato's photographs of the Second Opium War are the first to document a military campaign as it unfolded, doing so through a sequence of dated and related images, his photographs of the Taku Forts represent this approach on a reduced scale, forming a narrative recreation of the battle. The sequence of images shows the approach to the forts, the effects of bombardments on the exterior walls and fortifications, the devastation within the forts, including the bodies of dead Chinese soldiers.
The photographs were not taken in this order, as the photographs of dead Chinese had to be taken first—before the bodies were removed.
Mito was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hitachi Province in modern-day Ibaraki Prefecture. In the han system, Mito was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain's capital was the city of Mito. Beginning with the appointment of Tokugawa Yorifusa by his father, Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, in 1608, the Mito branch of the Tokugawa clan controlled the domain until the abolition of the han system in 1871. During the Edo period, Mito represented the center of nativism as a result of the Mitogaku, an influential school of Japanese thought, which advanced the political philosophy of sonnō jōi that had become a popular sentiment after 1854. Mito's sponsorship of the Dai Nihon-shi established the domain's tradition of intellectualism. Mito scholars and their ideology influenced many of the revolutionaries involved in the Meiji Restoration.
Following the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu appointed his eleventh son, Tokugawa Yorifusa, as daimyō in 1608. With his appointment, Yorifusa became the founding member of the Mito branch of the Tokugawa clan. Along with the Tokugawa branches in Kii and Owari, the Mito branch represented one of three Tokugawa houses known as the gosanke. Although the Mito branch held less land and wealth than either of the other two branches, they maintained considerable influence throughout the Edo period; the domain's promiximity to the de facto capital in Edo was a contributing factor to this power as well as the fact that many people unofficially considered the Mito daimyō to be "vice-shōgun". Tokugawa Mitsukuni, the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa, became the second daimyō of Mito in 1661. Mitsukuni further established Mito's status as a respected han by sponsoring the Dai Nihon-shi in 1657; the endeavor would launch Mito's reputation as a center for intellectual thought.
The Mito School was an influential school of Japanese thought which advocated isolationism and reverence of the emperor. The origins of this Neo-Confucianist movement date to Mitsukuni's decision to establish a historiographical organization known as the Shōkōkan in 1657. Mitsukuni recruited educated scholars to the Shōkōkan to study the philosophy of Japan. Mitsukuni initiated the creation of the Dai Nihon-shi by the scholars in order to compile a history of Japan which would focus on the imperial line; each chapter of the "Annals" in the Dai Nihon-shi concentrated on the rule of a specific emperor. The project took more than two hundred and fifty years to finish, it was published in 1906. While scholars were compiling the Dai Nihon-shi, the Mito domain experienced agricultural and economic problems. Beginning as early as 1688, financial ruin plagued discontent grew in the domain. In addition to the financial issues and natural disasters were common occurrences. In 1709, dissatisfied peasants staged the largest rebellion in the history of the domain.
An increasing number of discontent citizens in Mito embraced the works of the early Mito scholars for their reverence of the emperor and their anti-foreign ideology. These works inspired waves of nationalism and loyalty to the imperial family during the 17th century. During these disorderly years, the Mito scholarship grew into a renowned school of thought in Japan. Under Mitsukuni's leadership, the Dai Nihon-shi expanded to seventy-three chapters of the "Annals" and one hundred and seventy chapters of "Biographies" by the time of his death in 1700. In 1720, the Mito scholars offered them to the bakufu; these events signalled the end of the early Mito school. For the next seven decades, the Shōkōkan made little progress with the Dai Nihon-shi without the guidance of Mitsukuni. in 1786, Tachihara Suiken took over leadership of the Shōkōkan and resumed work on the compilation. Fujita Yūkoku became the head of the institute after Tachihara, he pushed for more focus on the history of that period.
During the late 18th century, two factions within the Shōkōkan emerged. Fujita and the other opponents of Tachihara called for the removal of Asaka Tanpaku's "Appraisals" as well as the changing of the name Dai Nihon-shito "Nihon" or "Yamato"; the struggle between the two factions led to the house arrest of Fujita in 1797. By 1807, Fujita was once again in power and Tachihara had left the institute; as Mito thought developed during the 19th century, the scholars began to emphasize anti-Western sentiment and the importance of the emperor in Japanese society. In particular, Mito scholars embraced the political slogan "sonnō jōi" which means "Revere the Emperor and Expel the Barbarians"; the scholar Aizawa Seishisai was the first advocate of this philosophy in Japan. In 1825, he wrote New Proposals, which presented his ideas about the need to protect Japan from the Western'barbarians', he promoted nativism and opposition to Western force and belief systems. He was a fierce opponent of Christianity, which in his view undermined Japanese values.
Seishisai advocated support of the emperor as a method of confronting the Western threat from abroad. In the work, Seishisai advanced the idea of kokutai which combined Confucian morals, Shinto myths, other philosophies. According to Seishisai, the Japanese imperial family were direct descendants of Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, so Japan was supposed to establish the proper standard for other nations to emulate. New Proposals served as an inspiratio
Abe Masahiro was the chief senior councillor in the Tokugawa shogunate of Bakumatsu period Japan at the time of the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry on his mission to open Japan to the outside world. Abe was instrumental in the eventual signing of the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, other unequal treaties shortly afterwards, his courtesy title was Ise-no-kami. Abe Masahiro was born in his family's residence outside Edo Castle, he was the 5th son of the 5th daimyō of Fukuyama Domain. Upon his father's death in 1826, his elder brother Masayasu became daimyō of Fukuyama. However, in 1836, Masayasu adopted his brother as heir. Abe became clan leader and daimyō of Fukuyama upon his brother's retirement in on December 25, 1836. In early 1837, he made the long journey to Fukuyama to formally enter his domain; this would be the only time that Abe set foot in his domain, as his career as a bureaucrat within the Tokugawa shogunate eclipsed his obligations to return to Fukuyama under the sankin-kōtai system.
Abe was appointed to the post of sōshaban on September 1, 1838. One of his acts was to order the destruction of the Nichiren sect temple of Kannō-ji, whose priests had become involved in a scandal with ladies of the Ōoku under Shōgun Tokugawa Ienari. In September 1843, Abe became rōjū at the young age of 25, moving his residence to the Abe family's estate at Tatsunokuchi, outside Edo Castle, he became rōjū shuza in September 1845, after Mizuno Tadakuni lost his standing over the failure of the Tenpō Reforms. Abe held this position throughout the administrations of Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyoshi and Tokugawa Iesada, working to unify shogunal politics, he supervised the reconstruction of the western enceinte of Edo Castle in 1852, was awarded an increase of 10,000 koku in income for this service. In the meantime, he kept the shogunate abreast of foreign political developments, such as the outbreak of the First Opium War, which provided an impetus to strengthen the nation’s coastal defenses to help maintain the isolationist policies of the time.
In 1852, United States Navy Commodore Matthew Perry was sent in command of a squadron of warships by American President Millard Fillmore. President Fillmore had forbidden Perry to use threats or force; as a lawyer, Fillmore believed that the Shogunate would respond reasonably to American concerns about U. S. mariners washed up on Japanese shores and the need to repatriate Japanese fishermen washed up on American shores. Perry, who hailed from a military family and himself had been hardened by combat in war, chose to use bluffing tactics in flagrant violation of Fillmore's wishes. Perry arrived with a squadron of four warships at Uraga, at the mouth of Edo Bay in the evening of July 8, 1853. After refusing Japanese demands that he proceed to Nagasaki, the designated port for foreign contact, after threatening to continue directly on to Edo, the nation’s capital and to burn it to the ground if necessary, he was allowed to land at nearby Kurihama on July 14 and to deliver his letter. Despite years of debate on the isolation policy, Perry's visit created great controversy within the highest levels of the Tokugawa shogunate.
The Shōgun, Tokugawa Ieyoshi, died days after Perry’s departure, was succeeded by his sickly young son, Tokugawa Iesada, leaving effective administration in the hands of the Council of Elders led by Abe Masahiro. Abe felt that it was impossible for Japan to resist the American demands by military force, yet was reluctant to take any action on his own authority for such an unprecedented situation. Attempting to legitimize any decision taken, Abe polled all of the daimyō for their opinions; this was the first time that the Tokugawa shogunate had allowed its decision-making to be a matter of public debate, had the unforeseen consequence of portraying the Shogunate as weak and indecisive. The results of the poll failed to provide Abe with an answer, as of the 61 known responses, 19 were in favor of accepting the American demands, 19 were opposed. Of the remainder, 14 gave vague responses expressing concern of possible war, seven suggested making temporary concessions and two advised that they would go along with whatever was decided.
Perry returned again on February 13, 1854, with an larger force of eight warships and made it clear that he would not leave until a treaty was signed. Negotiations proceeded for around one month; the Japanese side gave in to all of Perry's demands, with the exception of a commercial agreement modeled after previous American treaties with China, which Perry agreed to defer to a time. The main controversy centered on the selection of the ports to open, with Perry adamantly rejecting Nagasaki; the Convention of Kanagawa was signed at Kanagawa, adjacent to the site of the future city of Yokohama on March 31. Abe did not participate in the negotiations in person. Similar treaties were concluded with Russia, the Netherlands, Great Britain soon afterwards. Abe came under criticism from the tozama daimyō, the Imperial Court and various factions within the government for perceived appeasement to the foreign powers. In September 1855, he was forced to resign his post, was replaced by Hotta Masayoshi in October.
Despite his resignation as rōjū shuza, Abe remained as one of the rōjū and continued to have significant influence for the rest of his life. Despite the precarious state o
Prince Tokugawa Yoshinobu was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was part of a movement which aimed to reform the aging shogunate, but was unsuccessful. After resigning in late 1867, he went into retirement, avoided the public eye for the rest of his life. Tokugawa Yoshinobu was born as the seventh son of Tokugawa Nariaki, daimyō of Mito. Mito was one of the gosanke, the three branch families of the Tokugawa clan which were eligible to be chosen as shōgun, his birthname was Matsudaira Shichirōmaro His mother, Princess Arisugawa Yoshiko, was a member of the Arisugawa-no-miya, a cadet branch of the imperial family. Shichirōmaro was brought up under spartan supervision and tutelage. While his father Nariaki respected the second Mito Tokugawa Mitsukuni who had sent off the second and younger sons from Edo to Mito to raise them, Shichirōmaro was seven months old when he arrived in Mito in 1838, he was taught in the literary and martial arts, as well as receiving a solid education in the principles of politics and government at Kōdōkan.
At the instigation of his father, Shichirōmaro was adopted by the Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family in order to have a better chance of succeeding to the shogunate and changed his first name to Akimune. He became family head in 1847, coming of age that year, receiving court rank and title, taking the name Yoshinobu. Upon the death of the 13th shōgun, Iesada, in 1858, Yoshinobu was nominated as a potential successor, his supporters touted his efficiency in managing family affairs. However, the opposing faction, led by Ii Naosuke, won out, their candidate, the young Tokugawa Yoshitomi, was chosen, became the 14th shōgun Iemochi. Soon after, during the Ansei Purge and others who supported him were placed under house arrest. Yoshinobu himself was made to retire from Hitotsubashi headship; the period of Ii's domination of the Tokugawa government was marked by mismanagement and political infighting. Upon Ii's assassination in 1860, Yoshinobu was reinstated as Hitotsubashi family head, was nominated in 1862 to be the shōgun's guardian, receiving the position soon afterwards.
At the same time, his two closest allies, Matsudaira Yoshinaga and Matsudaira Katamori, were appointed to other high positions: Yoshinaga as chief of political affairs, Katamori as Guardian of Kyoto. The three men took numerous steps to quell political unrest in the Kyoto area, gathered allies to counter the activities of the rebellious Chōshū Domain, they were instrumental figures in the kōbu gattai political party, which sought a reconciliation between the shogunate and the imperial court. In 1864, Yoshinobu, as commander of the imperial palace's defense, defeated the Chōshū forces in their attempt to capture the imperial palace's Hamaguri Gate in what is called the Kinmon Incident; this was achieved by use of the forces of the Aizu–Satsuma coalition. After the death of Tokugawa Iemochi in 1866, Yoshinobu was chosen to succeed him, became the 15th shōgun, he was the only Tokugawa shōgun to spend his entire tenure outside of Edo: he never set foot in Edo Castle as shōgun. Upon Yoshinobu's ascension as shōgun, major changes were initiated.
A massive government overhaul was undertaken to initiate reforms that would strengthen the Tokugawa government. In particular, assistance from the Second French Empire was organized, with the construction of the Yokosuka arsenal under Léonce Verny, the dispatch of a French military mission to modernize the armies of the bakufu; the national army and navy, formed under Tokugawa command, were strengthened by the assistance of the Russians, the Tracey Mission provided by the British Royal Navy. Equipment was purchased from the United States; the outlook among many was that the Tokugawa shogunate was gaining ground towards renewed strength and power. Fearing the renewed strengthening of the Tokugawa shogunate under a strong and wise ruler, samurai from Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa formed an alliance to counter it. Under the banner of sonnō jōi coupled with a fear of the new shōgun as the "Rebirth of Ieyasu" who would continue to usurp the power of the Emperor, they worked to bring about an end to the shogunate, though they varied in their approaches.
In particular, Tosa was more moderate. To this end, Yamanouchi Toyonori, the lord of Tosa, together with his advisor, Gotō Shōjirō, petitioned Yoshinobu to resign in order to make this possible. On November 9, 1867, Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor and formally stepped down ten days returning governing power to the Emperor, he withdrew from Kyoto to Osaka. However, Satsuma and Chōshū, while supportive of a governing council of daimyōs, were opposed to Yoshinobu leading it, they secretly obtained an imperial edict calling for the use of force against Yoshinobu and moved a massive number of Satsuma and Chōshū troops into Kyoto. There was a meeting called at the imperial court, where Yoshinobu was stripped of all titles and land, despite having taken no action that could be construed as aggressive or criminal. Any who would have opposed this were not included in the meeting. Yoshinobu opposed this action, composed a message of protest, to be delivered to the imperial court.