Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. It is known as Kadō; the tradition dates back to the 7th century. They were placed in the tokonoma of a home. Ikebana reached its first zenith in the 16th century under the influence of Buddhist tea masters and has grown over the centuries, with over 1,000 different schools in Japan and abroad. Kadō is counted as one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement, along with kōdō for incense appreciation and chadō for tea and the tea ceremony. "Ikebana" is from hana. Possible translations include "giving life to flowers" and "arranging flowers". Plants play an important role in the Japanese Shinto religion. Yorishiro are objects. Evergreen plants such as kadomatsu are a traditional decoration of the New Year placed in pairs in front of homes to welcome ancestral spirits or kami of the harvest; the pastime of viewing plants and appreciating flowers throughout the four seasons was established in Japan early on through the aristocracy. Waka poetry anthologies such as the Man'yōshū and Kokin Wakashū from the Heian period included many poems on the topic of flowers.
During this time, Buddhism was introduced to Japan starting in the 6th century through China and Korea. Offering flowers at Buddhist altars became common. Although the lotus is used in India where Buddhism originated, in Japan other native flowers for each season were selected for this purpose. While in China the Buddhist priests were the first instructors of flower arrangement, in Japan they only introduced its crudest elements. For a long time the art had no meaning and was the placing in vases, without system, of the flowers to be used as temple offerings and before ancestral shrines; the first flower arrangements worked out with a system were known as shin-no-hana, meaning "central flower arrangement". A huge branch of pine or cryptomeria stood in the middle, around the tree were placed three or five seasonable flowers; these branches and stems were put in vases in upright positions without attempt at artificial curves. Symmetrical in form, the arrangements appeared in Japanese religious pictures of the 14th century.
It was the first attempt to represent natural scenery. The large tree in the center represented distant scenery, plum or cherry blossoms middle distance, little flowering plants the foreground; the lines of these arrangements were known as sub-centre. On, among other types of Buddhist offering, placing mitsu-gusoku became popular in the Kamakura and Nanboku-chō periods. Various Buddhist scriptures have been named after flowers such as the Hokke-kyo; the Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga depicts lotus being offered by a monk in front of a frog mimicking the Buddha. With the development of the shoin-zukuri architectural style starting in the Muromachi period and containers could be suitable displayed as art objects in the oshiita, a precursor to the tokonoma alcove, the chigaidana, two-leveled shelves. Displayed in these spaces were flower arrangements in vases that influenced the interior decorations, which became simpler and more exquisite; this style of decoration was called zashiki kazari. The set of three ceremonial objects at the Buddhist altar called mitsugusoku consisted of candles lit in holders, a censer, flowers in a vase.
The flowers in the vase were arranged in the earliest style called tatebana or tatehana, were composed of shin and shitakusa. Recent historical research now indicates that the practice of tatebana derived from a combination of belief systems, including Buddhist, the Shinto yorishiro belief is most the origin of the Japanese practice of ikebana that we know today. Together they form the basis for the original purely Japanese derivation of the practice of ikebana; the art developed slowly, the many schools did not come into existence until the end of the 15th century following the period of the civil war. The eighth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa, was a patron of the arts and the greatest promoter of cha-no-yu, the ceremonial tea, ikebana flower arrangement. Yoshimasa abdicated the office in order to devote his time to the fine arts, it was he who said that flowers offered on all ceremonial occasions and placed as offerings before the gods should not be offered loosely, but should represent time and thought.
Rules commenced to be formulated. It is to the celebrated painter Sōami, a contemporary and friend of Yoshimasa, who conceived the idea of representing the three elements of heaven and earth, from which have grown the principles of the arrangements used today, it was at Yoshimasa's Silver Pavilion in Kyoto, where the art of cha-no-yu, the tea ceremony, ko-awase, the incense ceremony, may be said to have been evolved that the art of ikebana received its great development. Artists of the Kanō school such as Sesshū Tōyō, Kanō Masanobu, Kanō Motonobu, Shugetsu of the 16th century were lovers of nature, so that ikebana advanced in this period a step further than temple and room decoration and commenced in a rudimentary way to consider natural beauty in floral arrangement. At this time ikebana was known as rikka; this same age conceived. Rikka and nageirebana are the two branches. Popularity of the two styles vacillated between these two for centuries. In the be
Yuzo Funakoshi is a former Japanese football player. Funakoshi was born in Kobe on June 12, 1977. After graduating from high school, he joined Gamba Osaka in 1996, he moved to Eerste Divisie club Telstar on loan in 1996. Although he returned to Gamba in 1997, he could hardly play in the match and he moved to Bellmare Hiratsuka in 1999 and Oita Trinita in 2001. At Trinita, he played, he moved to Albirex Niigata in 2002. Although he played many matches until 2003, he could hardly play in the match from 2004, he moved to Tokyo Verdy in 2007 and played until 2009. He played for retired end of 2010 season. In August 1993, Funakoshi was selected Japan U-17 national team for 1993 U-17 World Championship, he scored a goal against Mexico. Yuzo Funakoshi – FIFA competition record Yuzo Funakoshi at J. League
This is a list of beaches in Ecuador. Atacames Bartolomé Island Darwin Island Española Island Fernandina Island Floreana Island Genovesa Island Isabela Island Los Frailes Manta Marchena Island Montañita Muisne Pinta Island Pinzón Island Playas Puerto López Punta Carnero Salinas San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Santa Cruz Island Santa Fé Island Santiago Island Silver Island Tortuga Bay - Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands Wolf Island List of beaches
A box joint, is a woodworking joint made by cutting a set of complementary, interlocking profiles in two pieces of wood, which are joined at right angles glued. The glued box joint has a high glued surface area resulting in a strong bond, on a similar principle to a finger joint. Box joints are used for corners of box-like constructions, hence the name; the joint does not have the same interlocking properties as a dovetail joint, but is much simpler to make, can be mass-produced easily. Box joints are created by using the same profile but displaced for both halves. In modern workshops these are made on a table saws, sometimes using dado-cutters. Custom machinery can cut the entire joint in one pass, using a suitable jig multiple pieces of opposing senses, can be cut at once, they were traditionally produced manually using a tenon saw and chisel, fine cabinet makers still use these methods. Jigs can be used, as with dovetails, to help produce a consistent result. Applications include all sorts of wooden carcasses.
While used for right angle joints it can be used for hexagonal boxes and other unusual shapes. It is used for the sides of drawers and lids, but not, in general, for joining thin panels to structural members. Dovetail joint Miter joint Finger joint
Jodis lactearia, the little emerald, is a moth of the family Geometridae. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae, it is found throughout the Palearctic ecozone from Ireland to Japan. The wingspan is 23–26 mm; when freshly emerged from the pupa the ground colour is delicate light green, but this fades to white. There are two white medial lines on hindwings; the white postmedian line is on both wings entirely parallel to the distal margin, not dentate. The hindwing is angled; the larva feeds on various trees and bushes, including Betula and Quercus species. It frequents wooded country, flies rather early in the evening, its flight is weak and vacillating, never long sustained. Kimber, Ian. "70.303 BF1674 Little Emerald Jodis lactearia". UKMoths. Retrieved 30 June 2019. Fauna Europaea Lepiforum e. V. De Vlinderstichting
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