A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856; the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Landing at Blackman Bay and having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".
In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island and carried out charting of Bass Strait (Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians from French Canada. Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, in the same year he visited Hobart Town, on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.
The demonym for Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, the name of the island and colony was changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856. Main articles: Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of TasmaniaFrom the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land.
Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the mutineers marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts sailed the Cyprus to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields.
Complaints from Victorians about released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian: "They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed Tasmania. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island; the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877. The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce tells the true story of Alexander Pearce through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly; the film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.
U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac L
Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet
Lieutenant-General Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, KCH, PC was Lieutenant Governor of British Honduras, Van Diemen's Land. The campaign against Tasmanian Aborigines, known as the Black War, occurred during this term of office, he served as Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada and Governor of Bombay. George Arthur was born in England, he was the youngest son of John Arthur, from a Cornish family, his wife, daughter of Thomas Cornish. He entered the army in 1804 as an ensign and was promoted lieutenant in June 1805, he served during the Napoleonic Wars, including Sir James Craig's expedition to Italy in 1806. In 1807 he went to Egypt, was wounded in the attack upon Rosetta, he recuperated and was promoted to captain under Sir James Kempt in Sicily in 1808, participated in the Walcheren expedition in 1809. Major George Arthur married daughter of Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Sigismund Smith, K. C. B. in May, 1814. Lady Arthur lived in Toronto, Ontario 1838–41 with three of the couple’s sons and their five daughters.
She died in London, England, 14 January 1855. Their daughter Catherine married Sir Henry Bartle Frere after he had been her father's personal secretary for two years in Bombay, gave birth to the poet Mary Frere, their son John married the granddaughter of Lord Monteagle of Brandon. In 1814 he was appointed lieutenant governor of British Honduras, holding at the same time the rank of colonel on the staff, thus exercising the military command as well as the civil government, his dispatches about the suppression of a slave revolt in Honduras were seen by William Wilberforce and other philanthropists, contributed in no slight degree to the 1834 abolition of slavery within the British Empire. In 1823 he was appointed lieutenant governor of Van Diemen's Land and took office on 14 May 1824. At the time Van Diemen's Land was the main British penal colony and it was separated from New South Wales in 1825, it was during Arthur's time in office that Van Diemen's Land gained much of its notorious reputation as a harsh penal colony.
He selected Port Arthur as the ideal location for a prison settlement, on a peninsula connected by a narrow guarded isthmus, surrounded by shark-infested seas. Arthur's predecessors had executed no one in Tasmania. Throughout the 1820s Arthur had instituted various measures to protect settlers from Aboriginal attacks, including the stationing of garrison troops in remote farmhouses and the dispatch of combined military and police teams into the wilderness to track indigenous bands; these proved ineffective, by 1830 the conflict between Aborigines and settlers had increased. In February 1830 Arthur sought public input on alternative measures to end the fighting. Arthur himself expressed regret that a treaty was not signed with Aborigines when the colony was established. In its absence, given the increasing attacks on both side, on 27 August 1830 Arthur obtained Executive Council approval for a declaration of martial law; the centrepiece of Arthur's military efforts would be the Black Line fiasco, intended to drive the Aborigines from the colony's grazing land onto isolated peninsulas where they could be controlled.
At the beginning of the Black War in 1826 Arthur issued an official statement setting out those situations that would justify settlers using violence:'If it should be apparent that there is a determination on the part of one or more of the native tribes to attack, rob, or murder the white inhabitants any person may arm, joining themselves to the military, drive them by force to a safe distance, treating them as open enemiesHe failed in his attempts to reform the colony and the system of penal transportation with Arthur's autocratic and authoritarian rule leading to his recall in January 1836. By this time he was one of the wealthiest men in the colony, he departed Hobart for England on 30th October, 1836. In 1837 Arthur was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order, given the rank of Major General on the staff. In December 1837 he was appointed lieutenant governor of Upper Canada and took office in Toronto from 23 March 1838. From the start of his administration, he had to deal with the aftermath of the Upper Canada Rebellion and was instrumental in the execution of Peter Matthews and Samuel Lount.
In the same year, Upper Canada was invaded by a band of American sympathizers, one of a series of attempts to subvert British authority in Upper and Lower Canada. He failed to address the issues of fixing colonial administration from the influence of Family Compact, was replaced by Lord Durham while the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada sat betimes; the two colonies were united in 1841. The Lord Sydenham, the first governor-general, asked Sir George Arthur to administer Upper Canada as deputy governor. Arthur agreed, on condition. In 1841 he returned to England and was created a hereditary baronet in recognition of his services in Canada. On 8 June 1842, he was appointed governor of the Indian presidency of Bombay, which he retained until 1846, he displayed great tact in the office, as well as ability, this helped in extending and strengthening British rule in India. He was appointed provisional governo
Oliver Twist. The story centres on orphan Oliver Twist, born in a workhouse and sold into apprenticeship with an undertaker. After escaping, Oliver travels to London, where he meets "The Artful Dodger", a member of a gang of juvenile pickpockets led by the elderly criminal, Fagin. Oliver Twist is notable for its unromantic portrayal by Dickens of criminals and their sordid lives, as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in London in the mid-19th century; the alternative title, The Parish Boy's Progress, alludes to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, as well as the 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, A Rake's Progress and A Harlot's Progress. In this early example of the social novel, Dickens satirises the hypocrisies of his time, including child labour, the recruitment of children as criminals, the presence of street children; the novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of working as a child labourer in a cotton mill was read in the 1830s.
It is that Dickens's own youthful experiences contributed as well. Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous adaptations for various media, including a successful musical play, Oliver!, the multiple Academy Award-winning 1968 motion picture. Disney put its spin on the novel with the animated film called Oliver & Company in 1988; the novel was published in monthly instalments in the magazine Bentley's Miscellany, from February 1837 to April 1839. It was intended to form part of Dickens's serial, The Mudfog Papers. George Cruikshank provided one steel etching per month to illustrate each instalment; the novel first appeared in book form six months before the initial serialisation was completed, in three volumes published by Richard Bentley, the owner of Bentley's Miscellany, under the author's pseudonym, "Boz". It included 24 steel-engraved plates by Cruikshank; the first edition was titled: Oliver Twist, or, The Parish Boy's Progress. Serial publication dates: I – February 1837 II – March 1837 III – April 1837 IV – May 1837 V – July 1837 VI – August 1837 VII – September 1837 VIII – November 1837 IX – December 1837 X – January 1838 XI – February 1838 XII – March 1838 XIII – April 1838 XIV – May 1838 XV – June 1838 XVI – July 1838 XVII – August 1838 XVIII – October 1838 XIX – November 1838 XX – December 1838 XXI – January 1839 XXII – February 1839 XXIII – March 1839 XXIV – April 1839 Oliver Twist is born and raised into a life of poverty and misfortune in a workhouse in the fictional town of Mudfog, located 70 miles north of London.
Orphaned by his mother's death in childbirth and his father's mysterious absence, Oliver is meagerly provided for under the terms of the Poor Law and spends the first nine years of his life living at a baby farm in the'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Oliver is brought up with few comforts. Around the time of Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking and weaving oakum at the main workhouse. Oliver, who toils with little food, remains in the workhouse for six months. One day, the hungry boys decide to draw lots; this task falls to Oliver himself, who at the next meal comes forward trembling, bowl in hand, begs Mr. Bumble for gruel with his famous request: "Please, sir, I want some more". A great uproar ensues; the board of well-fed gentlemen who administer the workhouse hypocritically offer £5 to any person wishing to take on the boy as an apprentice. Mr. Gamfield, a brutal chimney sweep claims Oliver. However, when he begs despairingly not to be sent away with "that dreadful man", a kindly magistrate refuses to sign the indentures.
Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker employed by the parish, takes Oliver into his service, he treats Oliver better and, because of the boy's sorrowful countenance, uses him as a mourner at children's funerals. Mr. Sowerberry is in an unhappy marriage, his wife looks down on Oliver and loses few opportunities to underfeed and mistreat him, he suffers torment at the hands of Noah Claypole, an oafish and bullying fellow apprentice and "charity boy", jealous of Oliver's promotion to mute, Charlotte, the Sowerberrys' maidservant, in love with Noah. Wanting to bait Oliver, Noah insults the memory of Oliver's biological mother, calling her "a regular right-down bad'un". Enraged, Oliver assaults the much bigger boy. Mrs. Sowerberry takes Noah's side, helps him to subdue and beat Oliver, compels her husband and Mr. Bumble, sent for in the aftermath of the fight, to beat Oliver again. Once Oliver is being sent to his room for the night he weeps; the next day Oliver escapes from the Sowerberrys' house and decides to run away to London to seek a better life.
Nearing London Oliver encounters Jack Dawkins, a pickpocket more known by the nickname the "Artful Dodger", his sidekick, a boy of a humorous nature named Charley Bates, but Oliver's innocent and trusting nature fails to see any dishonesty in their actions. The Dodger provides Oliver with a free meal and tells him of a gentleman in London who will "give him lodgings for nothing, never ask for change". Grateful for the unexpected assista
Richmond is a town in Tasmania about 25 km north-east of Hobart, in the Coal River region, between the Midland Highway and Tasman Highway. At the 2006 census, Richmond had a population of 880. Richmond's most famous landmark is the Richmond Bridge, built in 1823 to 1825, around the time of the town's first settlement, it is Australia's oldest bridge still in use. St John's Catholic church was built in 1836, is considered the oldest Roman Catholic church in Australia; the town was part of the route between Hobart and Port Arthur until the Sorell Causeway was constructed in 1872. Present-day Richmond is best known as being preserved, it is a vibrant tourist town, with many of the sandstone structures still standing. Richmond Post Office opened on 1 June 1832. Richmond bridge is known as the largest stone span bridge in Australia; some notable tourist attractions in Richmond are the Richmond Bridge, the Richmond Gaol, Zoodoo Wildlife Park, a model of Old Hobart Town in the 1800s, numerous old and heritage-listed buildings and parks
A pawnbroker is an individual or business that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral. The items having been pawned to the broker are themselves called pledges or pawns, or the collateral. While many items can be pawned, pawnshops accept jewelry, musical instruments, home audio equipment, video game systems, gold, televisions, power tools and other valuable items as collateral. If an item is pawned for a loan, within a certain contractual period of time the pawner may redeem it for the amount of the loan plus some agreed-upon amount for interest; the amount of time, rate of interest, is governed by law and by the pawnbroker's policies. If the loan is not paid within the time period, the pawned item will be offered for sale to other customers by the pawnbroker. Unlike other lenders, the pawnbroker does not report the defaulted loan on the customer's credit report, since the pawnbroker has physical possession of the item and may recoup the loan value through outright sale of the item.
The pawnbroker sells items that have been sold outright to them by customers. Some pawnshops are willing to trade items in their shop for items brought to them by customers; the pawning process begins. Common items pawned by customers include jewelry, collectibles, musical instruments and firearms. Gold and platinum are popular items—which are purchased if in the form of broken jewelry of little value. Metal can still be sold in bulk to a bullion dealer or smelter for the value by weight of the component metals. Jewelry that contains genuine gemstones if broken or missing pieces, have value; the pawnbroker assumes the risk. However, laws in many jurisdictions protect both the community and broker from unknowingly handling stolen goods; these laws require that the pawnbroker establish positive identification of the seller through photo identification, as well as a holding period placed on an item purchased by a pawnbroker. In some jurisdictions, pawnshops must give a list of all newly pawned items and any associated serial number to police, so the police can determine if any of the items have been reported stolen.
Many police departments advise burglary or robbery victims to visit local pawnshops to see if they can locate stolen items. Some pawnshops set up their own screening criteria to avoid buying stolen property; the pawnbroker assesses an item for its condition and marketability by testing the item and examining it for flaws, scratches or other damage. Another aspect that affects marketability is the supply and demand for the item in the community or region. In some markets, the used goods market is so flooded with used stereos and car stereos, for example, that pawnshops will only accept the higher-quality brand names. Alternatively, a customer may offer to pawn an item, difficult to sell, such as a surfboard in an inland region, or a pair of snowshoes in warm-winter regions; the pawnshop owner either offers a low price. While some items never get outdated, such as hammers and hand saws and computer items become obsolete and unsaleable. Pawnshop owners must learn about different makes and models of computers and other electronic equipment, so they can value objects accurately.
To assess value of different items, pawnbrokers use guidebooks, Internet search engines, their own experience. Some pawnbrokers employ a specialist to assess jewelry. One of the risks of accepting secondhand goods is. If the item is counterfeit, such as a fake Rolex watch, it may have only a fraction of the value of the genuine item. Once the pawnbroker determines the item is genuine and not stolen, that it is marketable, the pawnbroker offers the customer an amount for it; the customer can either sell the item outright if the pawnbroker is a licensed secondhand dealer, or offer the item as collateral on a loan. Most pawnshops are willing to negotiate the amount of the loan with the client. To determine the amount of the loan, the pawnshop owner needs to take into account several factors. A key factor is the predicted resale value of the item; this is thought of in terms of a range, with the low point being the wholesale value of the used good, in the case that the pawnshop is unable to sell it to pawnshop customers, they decide to sell it to a wholesale merchant of used goods.
The higher point in the range is the retail sale price in the pawnshop. For example, a five-year-old laptop may have been bought by the customer for $1000. However, as a used item in a pawnshop, it might only fetch $250 as a purchase price in the pawnshop, because the customers will be wary that it might be a "lemon" that the seller is getting rid of because it has some hard-to-detect problem, because pawnshops do not offer a warranty with goods sold. Used electronics wholesalers will buy the laptop from the pawnshop owner for $100 to $150; the wholesaler pays a lower price than the retail value because they have the added cost of hiring electronics technicians who overhaul and repair the items so that they can be sold in used electronics stores. The pawnshop owner takes into account their knowledge of supply and demand for
Ticket of leave
A ticket of leave was a document of parole issued to convicts who had shown they could now be trusted with some freedoms. The ticket was issued in Britain and adapted by the United States and Ireland; the ticket of leave system was first introduced by Governor Philip Gidley King in 1801. Its principal aim was to reduce the burden on the fledgling colonial government of providing food from the government's limited stores to the convicts who were being transported from the United Kingdom to New South Wales. Convicts who seemed able to support themselves were awarded a ticket of leave. Before too long, tickets began to be given as a reward for good behaviour, which permitted the holders to seek employment within a specified district, but not leave it without the permission of the government or the district's resident magistrate; each change of employer or district was recorded on the ticket. The ticket of leave was given without any relation to the period of the sentence a convict had served; some "gentlemen convicts" were issued with tickets on their arrival in the colony.
Starting in 1811, the need to first officiate some time in servitude was established, in 1821 Governor Brisbane introduced regulations specifying the lengths of sentences that had to be served before a convict could be considered for a ticket: four years for a seven-year sentence, six to eight years for a 14-year sentence, 10 to 12 years for those with a life sentence. Once the full original sentence had been served, a "certificate of freedom" would be issued upon application. If a life sentence had been given the convict could get a ticket to leave and/or conditional or full pardon. Ticket-of-leave holders were permitted to marry, or to bring their families from Britain, to acquire property, but they were not permitted to carry firearms or board a ship. Convicts who observed the conditions of the ticket of leave until the completion of one half of their sentence were entitled to a conditional pardon, which removed all restrictions except a ban on leaving the colony. Convicts who did not observe the conditions of their ticket could be arrested without warrant, tried without recourse to the Supreme Court, would forfeit their property.
The ticket of leave had to be renewed annually, those with one had to attend muster and church services. The ticket itself was a detailed document, listing the place and year the convict was tried, the name of the ship in which he or she was transported, the length of the sentence. There was a complete physical description of the convict, along with year of birth, former occupation and "native place". A ticket had two components: The "ticket proper" was issued to the person named, it was mandatory for the person to carry that document on their person at all times; the second component was the "butt", the official copy and was kept on file by the Government. Tickets proper are now quite rare; the butts are available for researchers. According to Alexander Maconochie, tickets of leave could be suspended in summary fashion for the most "trifling irregularities," and a "very large proportion" of ticket-of-leave holders were returned to government work as a result. In the Second World War, the "ticket of leave" was a colloquial name given to the papers allowing a soldier to take leave from active service.
On August 11, 1899, An Act to Provide for the Conditional Liberation of Convicts - the Ticket of Leave Act - was enacted by the Canadian Parliament. The Canadian Ticket of Leave Act was based word for word on the British legislation. There was no reference in the text to the purpose of conditional release, though ticket of leave was understood to be a form of pardon. In the beginning, the Governor General granted paroles on the advice of Cabinet as a whole; the act was amended so that the power to advise the Governor General was limited to the Minister of Justice. This was a significant departure from traditional practice in the use of executive clemency. So, because conditional release was still in the hands of an elected minister, public opinion would still have a strong, sometimes questionable, influence on policy. In the early 20th century, Canada was sparsely settled. Keeping track of men on tickets of leave was difficult and the authorities relied on parolees to report every month to the police.
This had its drawbacks, when the Salvation Army offered to take over parole supervision in some places, the Department of Justice was glad to accept. Salvation Army officers acted as Dominion Parole Officers until the position was abolished in 1931. On March 7, 1939, Bill C-34 was passed, revising the Penitentiary Act and creating an administrative board of three. Walter Crofton administered the Irish ticket of leave system. Certificate of Freedom The Ticket-of-Leave Man