Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain. Before Tortosa, across the river, rise the massive Ports de Tortosa-Beseit mountains, the area around Mont Caro and other high summits are often covered with snow in the winter. Bítem,1.139, includes Santa Rosa Campredó,1.168, Jesús,3.755 Els Reguers,679 Tortosa,27.131 Vinallop,363, Tortosa is probably identical to the ancient Hibera, capital of Ilercavonia. This may be the ancient settlement the remains of which have found on the hill named Castillo de la Zuda. In Roman times, the town adopted the name Dertosa, after more than 400 years of Muslim rule, the city was conquered by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1148, as part of the Second Crusade. The siege of Tortosa was narrated by the Genovese chronicler and diplomat Caffaro, after its conquest, the city and its territory were divided among the victors, with multiple lands being granted to foreign crusaders and to the military and religious orders. Formerly there was a line between Tortosa and Alcañiz, opening a communication gate between this region and Aragon.
Construction work began in 1891, but it was haphazard and the first trains between Alcañiz and Tortosa began only in 1942, the last stretch between Tortosa and Sant Carles de la Ràpita was never completed before the line was terminated by RENFE in 1973. Castle of Sant Joan, or Suda, commanding the city from a 59-metre-high hill, though the Romans were the first to fortify the place, the current structure dates to Muslim Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III. After the conquest by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, in 1148, it became a residence of the Montcada and the Knights Templar, the Cathedral, begun in 1347 and consecrated in 1597. Bishop Palace Convent of Santa Clara, founded in 1283, montagut Palace Despuig Palace Oliver de Boteller Palace Tortosa is twinned with, France Tortosa has a mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification. The precipitation pattern differs from the norm for this type in that winter months have less precipitation than autumn. Felip Pedrell and musicologist, was born in Tortosa, bishop of Tortosa Disputation of Tortosa Battle of Dertosa Antoni Virgili, Angli cum multis aliis alienigenis, crusade settlers in Tortosa, Journal of Medieval History,35,3, 297-312
The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/, known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the second largest European peninsula, at that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabos Iberia was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with. According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country side of the Ἶβηρος as far north as the river Rhône in France. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, elsewhere he says that Saguntum is on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia.
Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people of the Iberian stock living in the Pyrenees, according to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political, the Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to land of the Hiberians. This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus, hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro. The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics, the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Lusitania, Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces.
Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so known it was hardly necessary to state, for example. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called the whole of Spain Hiberia because of the Hiberus River, the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus, with reference to this border, Polybius states that the native name is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
Romanization may refer to linguistics see Romanization. Ancient Roman historiography and Italian historiography until the fascist period used to call these various processes the civilizing of barbarians, the acculturation proceeded from the top down, the upper classes adopting Roman culture first and the old ways lingering longest in outlying districts among peasants. Hostages played an important part in this process, as elite children, Ancient Roman historiography and traditional Italian historiography confidently identified the different processes involved with a civilization of barbarians. Modern historians take a more nuanced view, by making their peace with Rome, local elites could make their position more secure, new themes include the study of personal and group values and the construction of identity, the personal aspect of ethnogenesis. These transitions operated differently in different provinces, as Blagg and Millett point out even a Roman province may be too broad a canvas for generalizations.
One characteristic of cultural Romanization was the creation of hundreds of Roman coloniae in the territory of the Roman Republic. Until Trajan, colonies were created using retired veteran soldiers, mainly from the Italian peninsula, about 400 towns are known to have possessed the rank of colonia. During the empire, colonies were showcases of Roman culture and examples of the Roman way of life, the native population of the provinces could see how they were expected to live. Livius All this slowly culminated in many developments, The very existence is a source of contention among modern archaeologists. One of the first approaches, which can be regarded as the traditional approach today, was taken by Francis Haverfield. These coloniae would have spoken Latin and have been citizens of Rome following their army tenure – Haverfield thus assumes this would have a Romanising effect upon the native communities. This thought process, fueled though it was by early 20th century standards of Imperialism and cultural change, recent scholarship has devoted itself to providing alternate models of how native populations adopted Roman culture, while questioning the extent to which it was accepted or resisted.
Non-Interventionist Model – Native elites were encouraged to increase social standing through association with the powerful conqueror be it in dress, language and this provides them with associated power. The establishment of an administration system is quickly imposed to solidify the permanence of Roman rule. Discrepant Identity – No uniformity of identity which we can describe as traditional Romanization. Fundamental differences within a province are visible through economics, not all provincials were pro-Rome, nor did all elites seek to be like the Roman upper classes. Acculturation – Aspects of both Native and Roman cultures are joined together and this can be seen in the Roman acceptance, and adoption of, non-Classical religious practices. The inclusion of Isis, Epona and Dolychenus into the pantheon are evidence of this, creolization – Romanization occurs as a result of negotiation between different elements of non-egalitarian societies
They could have been an Iberian tribe, a Celtic one, or a mixed Celtic and Iberian tribe or tribal confederacy. The Roman geographer Pliny the Elder lists 14 cities, including Tuia/Tugia, Biatia, Luparia and Salica, other sources refer the towns of Libissosa, Ilorci, Helicen/Helike, Baecula/Bekor, Ilucia and Cusibi. They are believed by some to have spoken an Iberian language, by others to have been Celtic language, akin to the Celtiberians, as the northern Oretani were called Germani and Mantesani. The main archaeological sites in the area are Linares, La Carolina, Valdepeñas, Almagro and Zuqueca. The Oretani remained independent until the late 3rd Century BC, when their powerful King Orison was defeated at the Battle of Helicen in 228 BC. A
Livy and Augustuss wife, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. Livy was born as Titus Livius in Patavium in northern Italy, there is a debate about the year of Titus Livius birth,64 BC or more likely 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula. Patavium was a part of the province of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, in his works, Livy often expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, and the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics. Livy’s teen years were during the 40s BC, a time that coincided with the wars that were occurring throughout the Roman world. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, a man called Asinius Pollio, had tried to bring Patavium into the camp of Marcus Antonius, the wealthier citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, and went into hiding. Therefore and the residents of Patavium did not end up supporting Marcus Antonius in his campaign for control over Rome.
Later on, Asinius Pollio made a jibe at Livys patavinity and his jibe at Livy and his patavinity, may have been said because the city of Patavium had rejected Asinius Pollio, and he still harboured harsh feelings toward the city as a whole. Titus Livius probably went to Rome in the 30s BC, and it is likely that he spent an amount of time in the city after this. During his time in Rome, he was never a senator nor held any other governmental position and his elementary mistakes in military matters show that he was never a soldier. However, he was educated in philosophy and rhetoric and it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life. He devoted a part of his life to his writings. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation and he was familiar with the emperor Augustus, formerly Octavian, and the imperial family. Octavian was one of the three men fighting for the control of Rome during the Civil Wars in the 40s BC, Octavian gained power after defeating Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra, and was given the honorary name of Augustus.
Considering that Augustus came to be known as the greatest Roman emperor in the eyes of the Romans and it is said that Livy was the one who encouraged the future emperor Claudius, who was born in 10 BC, to explore the writing of history during his childhood. Livy himself was married and had at least one daughter and one son, Livy’s most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he explains the history of the city of Rome. Because he was writing under the emperor Augustus, Livy’s history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome and he wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor
Gandesa is the capital of the comarca of Terra Alta, in the province of Tarragona, Spain. In the place known as Coll del Moro there is an ancient Iberian archaeological site belonging to the Ilercavones tribe that lived in area before Roman times. Gandesa has a church with unusual and interesting sculptures on the Romanesque porch, the old winery of Gandesa, known in Catalonia as one of the Wine Cathedrals, is from Modernisme and Noucentisme style and was designed by the architect Cèsar Martinell in 1919. Gandesa was at the center of fighting during the Battle of the Ebro in the Spanish Civil War, in the Summer of 1938 Republican forces crossed the Ebro in an attempt to throw back the Nationalist armies of General Franco. This is mentioned in the ballad Jamie Foyers and Si me quieres escribir, now there is a museum devoted to the Battle of the Ebro in Gandesa. On December 23,1948 an Iberia Airlines Douglas DC-3 crashed in bad weather near Gandesa killing all 27 occupants, Gandesa official site Government data pages
Coll de Balaguer
The Coll de Balaguer is a mountain pass in Catalonia, Spain. It is located at the point where the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range reaches the sea, in LAlmadrava, within the Vandellòs i lHospitalet de lInfant municipality, Baix Camp. Despite its scant altitude this pass has been an important communication line between the Terres de lEbre region and the Camp de Tarragona since ancient times, nowadays highways AP-7, N-340, as well as the RENFE Barcelona-Valencia railway line go through the Coll de Balaguer pass. There are the ruins of a 13th-century castle overlooking the pass from the time of the fight against the Saracens, the Vandellòs Nuclear Power Plant is located right south of Coll de Balaguer
The Ebro or Ebre is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the second longest river in the Iberian peninsula after the Tagus, the source of the river Ebro is in Fontibre, from the Latin words Fontes Iberis, source of the Ebro. Close by is the big artificial lake Embalse del Ebro created by the damming of the river, the upper Ebro rushes through rocky gorges in Burgos Province. Karst geological processes shaped the landscape of layers of carbonate rock of extensive limestone bedrock formed in an ancient seabed. Aragonite, a named for Aragon, attests to the fact that carbonates are abundant in the central Ebro Valley. The valley expands and the Ebros flow becomes slower as its volume increases. There, larger tributaries flowing from the Central Pyrenees and the Iberian System discharge large amounts of water, as it flows through Zaragoza the Ebro, is already a sizeable river. There, the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar stands next to the Ebro, the soils in most of the valley are primarily poor soils, pebbly and sometimes salted with saltwater endorheic lagoons.
The semi-arid interior of the Ebro Valley has either drought summers and it is covered with chaparral vegetation. Summers are hot and winters are cold, the dry summer season has temperatures of more than 35 °C, occasionally reaching over 40 °C. In winter, the temperatures drop below 0 °C. In some areas the vegetation depends heavily on moisture produced by condensation fogs and it is a continental Mediterranean climate with extreme temperatures. There are many ground frosts on clear nights, and sporadic snowfalls, the biomes are diverse in these Mediterranean climate zones, Mediterranean forests and scrub. Hinterlands are particularly distinctive on account of extensive sclerophyll shrublands known as maquis, the dominant species are Quercus coccifera and Quercus ilex. These trees form monospecific communities or communities integrated with Pinus, Mediterranean buckthorns, Chamaerops humilis, Pistacia, Thymus, etc. The mountain vegetation is mostly coniferous forests that are drought adapted and their presence is related to the marine origin of the Ebro valley and the extensive marine deposits in the same area.
After reaching Catalonia, the Ebro Valley narrows, and the river becomes constrained by mountain ranges, massive dams have been built in this area, such as the dams at Mequinenza, Riba-roja, Flix. In the final section of its course the river bends southwards, the massive calcareous cliffs of the Serra de Cardó range constrain the river during this last stretch, separating the Ebro Valley from the Mediterranean coastal area
Sagunto is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia. It is located c.30 km north of Valencia, close to the Costa del Azahar on the Mediterranean Sea. It is best known for the remains of the ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, the city traded with Greek and Phoenician coastal colonies, and under their influence, minted its own coins. During this period the city was known as Arse, after stiff resistance over the course of eight months, related by the Roman historian Livy and in more detail by Silius Italicus, Saguntum was captured in 219 BC by the armies of Hannibal. Seven years the town was retaken by the Romans, in 214 BC, it became a municipium, was rebuilt and flourished. Hispania was not easily pacified and Romanised, as the Iberian career of Quintus Sertorius makes clear, Saguntum minted coins under his protection, but continued to house a mint in Roman times. The Romans built a circus in the lower part of the city. Texts found indicate that the city had an amphitheatre and had about 50,000 inhabitants and this prosperity lasted for most of the empire, and is attested by inscriptions and ruins.
Under the Arian Visigothic kings, Saguntum received its Catholic patron saint, a bishop named Sacerdos, the priest, the town was known as Morvedre, a name derived from Latin muri veteres ancient walls. However, as Valencia grew, Saguntum declined, in 1098, the city was conquered by El Cid but the Muslims recovered it shortly thereafter. The city had been under the Muslim Arab rule for five hundred years when James I of Aragon conquered it in 1238. During the Peninsular War a Spanish attempt to raise the French siege of the castle failed in the Battle of Saguntum on 25 October 1811, Saguntum was badly damaged in warfare, but has retained many Valencian Gothic structures. In the late 19th century a steel-making industry grew up that supported the modern city, the last steel oven closed in April 1984. It has been restored and is now a tourist attraction, the remains of Sagunto Castle may be seen on top of the hill. It preserves much of its ramparts, of Roman and Moorish origin. A Roman theater, partly restored in late 20th century and it is found on the northern slope of the citadel hill.
It was the first official National Monument declared in Spain, the Gothic Esglèsia de Santa Maria, in the Plaça Major. The Palau Municipal, or town hall, a beautiful 18th century building with a neoclassical façade, the early Gothic Esglèsia del Salvador
Ilercavonia is an ancient comarca of Spain formerly populated by the ancient Iberian tribe known as Ilercavones. It is a greater comarca made up of smaller ones, the ties between the people of the region transcend ancient kingdom and provincial borders. The name Ilercavonia to refer to the occupied by the Ilercavones Iberian tribe appears in ancient Greek. This geographical zone corresponds roughly to the present-day Maestrat/Maestrazgo, Matarraña/Matarranya, during the Middle Ages the territory of Ilercavonia found itself located at the confluence of the kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon. The bulk of the development in eastern and northeastern Spain was henceforward diverted to the cities of Barcelona, nowadays the name Ilercavonia is used mainly in academic and scientific circles, as well as in cultural events. Societat Catalana dEstudis Numismàtics, ISBN 84-7283-563-4 Teofil Pitarch i Vives, Fraternitas Saecularis, Vallibona/Pena-roja de Tastavins,2005, ISBN 978-84-96372-12-2 Historia de la línea de La Puebla de Híjar-Alcañiz-Tortosa-Sant Carles de la Ràpita Yale University Library, publications about Ilercavonia
The order was founded in 1119 and active from about 1129 to 1312. The order, which was among the wealthiest and most powerful, became a favoured charity throughout Christendom and grew rapidly in membership and they were prominent in Christian finance. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades, the Templars were closely tied to the Crusades, when the Holy Land was lost, support for the order faded. Rumours about the Templars secret initiation ceremony created distrust, and King Philip IV of France – deeply in debt to the order – took advantage of the situation to control over them. In 1307, he had many of the members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions. Pope Clement V disbanded the order in 1312 under pressure from King Philip, the abrupt reduction in power of a significant group in European society gave rise to speculation and legacy through the ages. The re-use of their name for organizations has kept the name Templar alive to the modern day, after Europeans in the First Crusade recovered Jerusalem in 1099, many Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites in the Holy Land.
Although the city of Jerusalem was under relatively secure Christian control, in 1119, the French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and proposed creating a monastic order for the protection of these pilgrims. The Temple Mount had a mystique because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al-Aqsa Mosque as Solomons Temple, and from this location the new order took the name of Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or Templar knights. The order, with about nine knights including Godfrey de Saint-Omer and André de Montbard, had few financial resources and their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse, emphasising the orders poverty. The impoverished status of the Templars did not last long, another major benefit came in 1139, when Pope Innocent IIs papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the order from obedience to local laws. This ruling meant that the Templars could pass freely through all borders, were not required to pay any taxes, with its clear mission and ample resources, the order grew rapidly.
One of their most famous victories was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, although the primary mission of the order was military, relatively few members were combatants. The others acted in support positions to assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure, the Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman who was interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away, based on this mix of donations and business dealing, the Templars established financial networks across the whole of Christendom. The Order of the Knights Templar arguably qualifies as the worlds first multinational corporation, in the mid-12th century, the tide began to turn in the Crusades. The Muslim world had become united under effective leaders such as Saladin, and dissension arose amongst Christian factions in, and concerning