Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move on foot. Running is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase; this is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion. A characteristic feature of a running body from the viewpoint of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy within a stride occur with energy storage accomplished by springy tendons and passive muscle elasticity; the term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting. It is assumed that the ancestors of humankind developed the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago in order to hunt animals. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas. Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 BCE and 1171 BCE, while the first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE.
Running has been described as the world's most accessible sport. It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs; the theory proposed considered to be the most evolution of running is of early humans' developing as endurance runners from the practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee, succumbing to "chase myopathy", that human features such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, big knee joints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of activity. The theory as first proposed used comparative physiological evidence and the natural habits of animals when running, indicating the likelihood of this activity as a successful hunting method. Further evidence from observation of modern-day hunting practice indicated this likelihood.
According to Sears scientific investigation of the Nariokotome Skeleton provided further evidence for the Carrier theory. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas such as Greece, Egypt and the East African Rift in Africa; the Tailteann Games, an Irish sporting festival in honor of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to 1829 BCE, is one of the earliest records of competitive running. The origins of the Olympics and Marathon running are shrouded by myth and legend, though the first recorded games took place in 776 BCE. Running in Ancient Greece can be traced back to these games of 776 BCE.... I suspect that the sun, earth and heaven, which are still the gods of many barbarians, were the only gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes. Seeing that they were always moving and running, from their running nature they were called gods or runners... Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: stance and swing; these can be further divided into absorption, initial swing and terminal swing.
Due to the continuous nature of running gait, no certain point is assumed to be the beginning. However, for simplicity, it will be assumed that absorption and footstrike mark the beginning of the running cycle in a body in motion. Footstrike occurs. Common footstrike types include forefoot and heel strike types; these are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the foot and heel of the foot and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be in front of the body. Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from initial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremity. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle. Midstance is defined as the time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk and hips.
It is at this point that propulsion begins to occur as the hips undergo hip extension, the knee joint undergoes extension and the ankle undergoes plantar flexion. Propulsion continues until the leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs; this involves maximal hip extension, knee extension and plantar flexion for the subject, resulting in the body being pushed forward from this motion and the ankle/foot leaves the ground as initial swing begins. Most recent research regarding the footstrike debate, has focused on the absorption phases for injury identification and prevention purposes; the propulsion phase of running involves the movement beginning at midstance until toe off. From a full stride length model however, components of the terminal swing and footstrike can aid in propulsion. Set up for propulsion begins at the end of terminal swing as the hip joint flexes, creating the maximal range of motion for the hip extensors to accelerate through and produce force; as the hip extensors change from reciporatory inhibitors to primary muscle movers, the lower extremity is brought back toward the ground, although aided by the stretch reflex and gravity.
Footstrike and absorption phases occur next with two types of outcomes. This phase can be only a continuation of momentum from the stretch reflex reaction to
Thoracic spinal nerve 12
The thoracic spinal nerve 12 is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment. It originates from the spinal column from below the thoracic vertebra 12, it may be known as the subcostal nerve
Tensor fasciae latae muscle
The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the thigh. It is related to the gluteus maximus in function and structure and is continuous with the iliotibial tract, which attaches to the tibia; the muscle assists in walking, or running. It arises from the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest, it is inserted between the two layers of the iliotibial tract of the fascia lata about the junction of the middle and upper thirds of the thigh. The tensor fasciae latae tautens the iliotibial tract and braces the knee when the opposite foot is lifted; the terminal insertion point lies on the lateral condyle of the tibia. Tensor fasciae latae is innervated by the superior gluteal nerve, L5 and S1. At its origins of the anterior rami of L4, L5, S1 nerves, the superior gluteal nerve exits the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis; the nerve courses between the gluteus medius and minimus. The superior gluteal artery supplies the tensor fasciae latae; the superior gluteal nerve arises from the sacral plexus and only has muscular innervation associated with it.
There is no cutaneous innervation for sensation. The tensor fasciae latae is a tensor of the fascia lata; the fascia lata is a fibrous sheath that encircles the thigh like a subcutaneous stocking and binds its muscles. On the lateral surface, it combines with the tendons of the gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae to form the iliotibial tract, which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia. In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; the basic functional movement of tensor fasciae latae is walking. The tensor fasciae latae is utilized in horse riding and water skiing; some problems that arise when this muscle is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as pain in the lower back and lateral area of knees. Because of its insertion point on the lateral condyle of the tibia, it aids in the lateral rotation of the tibia; this lateral rotation may be initiated in conjunction with hip abduction and medial rotation of the femur while kicking a soccer ball.
The tensor fasciae latae works in synergy with the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles to abduct and medially rotate the femur. The TFL is a hip abductor muscle. To stretch the tensor fasciae latae, the knee may be brought medially across the body. If one leans against a wall with crossed legs and pushes the pelvis away from the wall sidebending the lumbar spine should be avoided as it stretches the lumbar region rather than the tensor fasciae latae and other muscles which cross the hip rather than the spine; because it is used for so many movements and is in a shortened position when seated, the TFL becomes tight easily. TFL stretches lengthen this important muscle. A small case notes that “it seems possible that a sloped or banked surface could predispose an individual to a TFL strain.” In such a case, “treatment consists of rest and flexibility exercises”, such as lliotibial band stretching. "Tensor fasciae latae" translates from Latin to English as "stretcher of the side band". "Tensor" is an agent noun that comes from the past participle stem "tens-" of the Latin verb "tendere", meaning "to stretch".
"Fasciae" is in the singular genitive case. "Latae" is the respective singular, feminine form of the Latin adjective "latus" meaning "side". This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 476 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/TensorFasciaeLatae at exrx.net Coachr
Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals. Walking is slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step; this applies regardless of the unusable number of limbs—even arthropods, with six, eight or more limbs, walk. The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll". In humans and other bipeds, walking is distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins; this distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events. For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification; the most effective method to distinguish walking from running is to measure the height of a person's centre of mass using motion capture or a force plate at midstance.
During walking, the centre of mass reaches a maximum height at midstance, while during running, it is at a minimum. This distinction, only holds true for locomotion over level or level ground. For walking up grades above 10%, this distinction no longer holds for some individuals. Definitions based on the percentage of the stride during which a foot is in contact with the ground of greater than 50% contact corresponds well with identification of'inverted pendulum' mechanics and are indicative of walking for animals with any number of limbs, although this definition is incomplete. Running humans and animals may have contact periods greater than 50% of a gait cycle when rounding corners, running uphill or carrying loads. Speed is another factor. Although walking speeds can vary depending on many factors such as height, age, surface, culture and fitness, the average human walking speed at crosswalks is about 5.0 kilometres per hour, or about 1.4 meters per second, or about 3.1 miles per hour. Specific studies have found pedestrian walking speeds at crosswalks ranging from 4.51 kilometres per hour to 4.75 kilometres per hour for older individuals and from 5.32 kilometres per hour to 5.43 kilometres per hour for younger individuals.
Champion racewalkers can average more than 14 kilometres per hour over a distance of 20 kilometres. An average human child achieves independent walking ability at around 11 months old. Regular, brisk exercise of any kind can improve confidence, energy, weight control and life expectancy and reduce stress, it can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, bowel cancer and osteoporosis. Scientific studies have shown that walking, besides its physical benefits, is beneficial for the mind, improving memory skills, learning ability and abstract reasoning, as well as ameliorating spirits. Sustained walking sessions for a minimum period of thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a week, with the correct walking posture, reduce health risks and have various overall health benefits, such as reducing the chances of cancer, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, anxiety disorder and depression. Life expectancy is increased for individuals suffering from obesity or high blood pressure.
Walking improves bone health strengthening the hip bone, lowering the harmful low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raising the useful high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Studies have found that walking may help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's fact sheet on the "Relationship of Walking to Mortality Among U. S. Adults with Diabetes" states that those with diabetes who walked for 2 or more hours a week lowered their mortality rate from all causes by 39 per cent. "Walking lengthened the life of people with diabetes regardless of age, race, body mass index, length of time since diagnosis, presence of complications or functional limitations." It has been suggested that there is a relationship between the speed of walking and health, that the best results are obtained with a speed of more than 2.5 mph. Governments now recognize the benefits of walking for mental and physical health and are encouraging it; this growing emphasis on walking has arisen.
In the UK, a Department of Transport report found that between 1995/97 and 2005 the average number of walk trips per person fell by 16%, from 292 to 245 per year. Many professionals in local authorities and the NHS are employed to halt this decline by ensuring that the built environment allows people to walk and that there are walking opportunities available to them. Professionals working to encourage walking come from six sectors: health, environment, schools and recreation, urban design. One programme to encourage walking is "The Walking the Way to Health Initiative", organized by the British walkers association The Ramblers, the largest volunteer led walking scheme in the United Kingdom. Volunteers are trained to lead free Health Walks from community venues such as libraries and doctors' surgeries; the scheme has trained over 35,000 volunteers and have over 500 schemes operating across the UK, with thousands of people walking every week. A new organization called "Walk England" launched
The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips, its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates can not sustain standing erectly; the muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Three bursae are found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle: One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter.
When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabulofemoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur, its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and adductor magnus. The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed; the lower part of the muscle acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints; the gluteus maximus is involved from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg. Hip thrusts Glute bridge Quadruped hip extensions Kettlebell swings Squats and variations like split squats, pistol squats and wide-stance lunges Deadlift Reverse hyperextension Four-way hip extensions Glute-ham raise Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles.
These tests include: 30 Second Chair to Stand testThis test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility and endurance, which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done. Passive piriformis stretch; the piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required.
Table of muscles of the human body Coccyx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0403 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/GluteusMaximus at exrx.net
The iliac fossa is a large, concave surface on the internal surface of the ileum. The fossa is bounded above by the iliac crest, below by the arcuate line; the fossa gives origin to the Iliacus muscle and is perforated at its inner part by a nutrient canal. When the "left" or "right" adjective is used, the iliac fossa means one of the nine regions of the abdomen. Right iliac fossa Anatomy photo:44:st-0710 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center aplab - BioWeb at University of Wisconsin System Anatomy image: skel/oscoxm2 at Human Anatomy Lecture, Pennsylvania State University
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. It forms the lateral portion of iliopsoas, providing flexion of the thigh and lower limb at the acetabulofemoral joint; the iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine. It joins the psoas major to form the Iliopsoas as which it proceeds across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur, its fibers are inserted in front of those of the psoas major and extend distally over the lesser trochanter. The iliopsoas is innervated by direct branches from the lumbar plexus. In open-chain exercises, as part of the iliopsoas, the iliacus is important for lifting the femur forward. In closed-chain exercises, the iliopsoas bends the trunk forward and can lift the trunk from a lying posture because the psoas major crosses several vertebral joints and the sacroiliac joint. From its origin in the lesser pelvis the iliacus acts on the hip joint.
Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. 2006. ISBN 1-58890-419-9. PTCentral Anatomy figure: 40:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall." Pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman